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Date Created: 09/12/15
SOCI 3810 Exam 2 Study Guide 6 Social Structural Theories Shift from focus on individual to society as responsible for crime Emile Durkheim crime as natural part of society in uenced social disorganization and strain theory Altruistic Criminal offended by society s rules and wants to change them for the better Common Criminal rejects all laws purposely violate them Humans are by nature sel sh and greedy Society controls behavior with strong norms Anomie the weakening of a society s norms so it can no longer control behavior Norms weaken when emphasis placed on industrial prosperity Mechanic Solidarity Organic Solidarity Chicago School of Crime Social Ecology and Social Disorganization Concentric Zone Theory Park and Burgess Zone of Transition active constantly changing area patterns of growth create social disorganization Social Disorganization Theory weakening of social ties that causes social problems crime Shawt and McKay determined that cause of crime resided in community structure not cultural characteristics of a personal group Crime rate highest in zone of transition Social Controls rewardspunishments for breakingconforming to the law Intemal In icted by self EXtemal In icted by others Direct purposeful efforts to deter deviance Indirect byproduct of role relationships Criticisms ethnocentric relied on arrest statistics which re ect police practices not delinquency Policy Implications neighborhood watch programs moving to opportunity programs urban renewal projects community policing weed and seed however displacement The Underclass poor not often able to relocate from innercity cycle of poverty and crime JD39 J J39 J dueto quot Racism issues cause disadvantage lncarceration rate future disadvantages Highcrime location in uences youth leads to crime Film Patterns of segregation and loss of factory jobs result in underclass Deviant Places Theory Stark combines social disorganization and routine activities approach Hot Spots some neighborhoods more prone to crime than other based on poverty race family etc Social Ecology Policy Implications Focus on ecological factors social cohesion informal social controls Chicago Area Projects overcome in uence of delinquent peers mixed results StrawAnomie Theories Robert Merton Two contradictions in US culture 1 Overemphasis on goals and not on means 2 Many in society lack means Adaptions to Anomie 1 Innovation accepts goals pursues through unacceptable means most likely to lead to crime 2 Ritualism abandons nancial success goals and plays it safe 3 Retreatism will not resort to unacceptable means social dropout 4 Rebellion rejects goals and means wants new social order terrorists hippies gangs etc 5 Conformity no gap between goals and means normative behavior Criticism narrow scope lower class crime fails to explain why people react differently to strain Policy Implications reduce poverty increase legitimate opportunities means for lower class General Strain Theory GST micro Agnew Individual strain failure stimuli leads to negative emotions lack of coping skills delinquency Policy implications focus on coping skills cognitivebehavioral rehabilitation programs Institutional Anomie Theory IAT macro Messner and Rosenfeld Culture pushes monetary goals economic dominance in social structure weakens other institutions in uencing youth family education delinquency Policy Implications push focus away from money increase strength of other instituions Subculture Theory Status Frustration Subculture a group that holds different norms and values than mainstream society Cohen Delinquency in lower class strain caused by inability to move to middle classilow selfesteem At schoolage social status is realized in comparison to middle class Creates subculture that rejects middle class values because they cannot reach it new norms are delinquency Differential Opportunity Theory Cloward and Ohlin Strain caused by lack of opportunities for success leads to poor selfimage frustration leads to delinquency Criminal Subculture seek economic gain crime as career Con ict Subculture focus on violence no criminal structure Retreatist Subculture drugs as escape Policy implications provide opportunities for success Focal Concerns of Lower Class Miller entire lower class as subculture values foster delinquency trouble toughness smartness excitement fate autonomy femaleheaded households contribute to this malebehavior learned in streets Criticism middle class shares these values Policy implications change values of lower class reduce femaleheaded households Subculture Criticisms narrowscope does not allow for individual deviance 7 Social Process Theories Di erential Association anal Social Learning Theories Laws of Imitation Tarde not born criminal learn behavior from those close to you Differential Association Edwin Sutherland become criminal when exposure to delinquent attitudes is greater than exposure to lawabiding att Macro cultural con ict lawbreaking with favorable att lawabiding with unfavorable att Micro learning through pattern of associations Sutherland focused on micro Criticism vague Social Learning added to Differential Ass with concept of operant conditions and imitation Ronald Akers and Robert Burgess Differential Association who one is exposed to definition attitudes attached to behavior differential reinforcement rewardspunishments for behavior reinforcements Delinquency due to role models and attitudesbehaviors continuation of delinquency due to Studies Techniques of Neutralization rationalization for delinquents denial of responsibility denial of injury denial of victim condemnation of the condemners appeal to higher loyalties Criticism only occur after crime do not cause it if neutralize guilt then reinforce behavior Sykes and Matza Delinquent Peer Association measures delinquency with proportion of delinquent friends most common measure of social learning theory Role of Reinforcement if rewards outweigh benefits behavior will continue Criticisms unclear the role that peers and attitudes play in behavior Policy Implications change attitudes access to delinquent peers balance of reinforcement behavioral co gnitive restructuring programs Informal Social Control Theory Social Controls Indirect something valuable tied to conformity Direct formal punishmentrewards for behavior Internal selfcontrol over delinquent impulses Containmen1 Theory Certain individuals who are exposed to crime do not turn to it because they are insulated Inner Containment favorable selfconcept Outer Containment direct control parental and school supervision Pulls and Pushes toward delinquency poverty delinquent subcultures angerfrustration Policy Implications Improve selfconcept Social Bond Theory Hirschi Human nature is deviant Individuals bonded to society less likely to become delinquent Emphasizes indirect control Elements of Social Bond Attachment ties to schools friends sensitivity to others emotional Commitment personal investment in society rational most important element Involvement participation of activities in society Belief respect for moral validity or rules and norms Criticism delinquency may cause weakening of social bonds than other way around direct controls prove better indicators than indirect Policy Implications increase social attachment Low Selfcontrol Theory Hirschi and Gottfredson Emphasizes internal self control Low self control impulsive insensitive shortsighted risktaking Nature of crime and nature of low selfcontrol are related Selfcontrol gained through effective parenting operant conditioning in early childhood Low selfcontrol one of the strongest predictors of crime Criticism not sole predictor multiple sources of low selfcontrol Policy Implications parent training AgeGraded Theory of Informal Social Control extension of social bond theory Sampson and Laub direct control important in early childhood indirect important as one grows older social bonds Policy Implications increase informal social controls Social Support and Altruism Cullen Critiques social control theory view of human nature is simplistic humans engage in selfless behavior Social support preconditions for social control Parents who are more supportive are less likely to have delinquent children Labeling Theory Tannenbaum Lamert Becker Focus on interactions between individuals and formal control institutions Crime and deviance is relative Categorization depends on whowherewhenconsequences of crime Powerful groups shape context SelfConcept determined by symbolic interactionism Formal intervention arrests prison etc can increase behavior because it labels the offenders Most youth engage in delinquent behavior 9 delinquent behavior labeled as serious or not by societies powerful and by official response arrest sentencing 9 labeled delinquent can a renegotiate label difficult to do or b accept status and continue to act on it Criticisms inaccurate assumptions racial bias Policy Implications nonintervention diversion programs programs run by other entities Reintegrated Shaming shaming punishments reduces more crime than traditional form Policy Implications CJ system to repair damage done by offender focus on victimoffender mediations Criticism limited ndings 8 Critical Criminology Why are some acts illegal and others are not Crimes as political concept powerful groups in uence content and enforcement of law Race class and gender create power gaps History Labeling Theory Con ict Theory Those in power define laws to promote own self interest Austin Turk criminalization of people depends less on their behavior and more on relationship with authority Chambliss and Seidman dominance of middle class values biased legal system Do extralegal factors make a difference Minority rate higher in every category male dominance lower class more likely of conviction Legal factors best predictor Reiss s 1966 Study race not issue in arrest other studies produced varying results Furman v Georgia Gregg v Georgia US GAO Criticisms fails to explain core of legal code that benefits society vast amount of delinquent behavior is political Radical Criminology Karl Marx Socioeconomic classes unequal distribution of wealth 9 class con ict 9 crime Laws enforce ideology of capitalist ruling class Structural Marxism gov t has some autonomy law as tool to control lower class Instrumental Marxism no autonomy from capitalist class some laws against capitalists capitalists not homogenous group Peacemaking criminology leftrealism Reiman Engles crime as revolt against society as offender Bonger Rusche and Kirchheimer Quinney law enforcement exists to control lower class Two types of crime domination and accomodation Chambliss Platt Critique of Jquot 39 cu39 39 39 J cr39 39 39 39 are agents of state fails by concentrating on offender ignore white collar crimes ignore that crime is created by politics Criticisms has not de ned ruling class can t explain failures of communism can t explain low crime in Japan not socialistcommunist polarizing and narrow idealized view of deviant as a rebel Extensions of Radical Criminology British realism left realism want limited policing street crime as working class problem Elliot Currie Criminology as Peacemaking draws on religious traditions crim is form of suffering implicates mediation reconciliation Femz39m39st Criminology Liberal Feminism gender discrimination stereotypes affirmative action equal opportunity ignores race class differences white male capitalist privilege Societal Feminism gender discrimination as capitalist ideal Radical Criminology origins of patriarchy male aggression control of female sexuality Daly and ChesneyLind Gender Ratio males account for majority of delinquency liberation hypoth gender gap shrinking more opportunities for women Social learning sexroles school performance Generalizability issue mainstream theories don t apply to women Ifthere is a gender effect it benefit females Heimer and Coster Chivalry Hypothesis females treated more leniently in malesystem Patemalism could produce leniency to reinforce submission roles Helped redefine domestic violence rape marital rape Crime and Criminal Careers Developmental Criminology development depends on life events and when they occur peaks in adolescence desists with age as re ection of life and greater life events start marriage job Three approaches explain 1 SelfControl Theory 2 Developmental Approach 3 LifeCourse Theory LifeCourse Theory Sampson and Laub saw personality differences in delinquents and non Social Bonds social control theory and Social Variables alcohol employment divorce Sutherland The Professional Thief idea of career criminal honorary title Professional Fence acquired staus reputable dealer etc Cohort Studies l945 Study age race income education rate of offending juvenile delinquency status best predictor of adult delinquency l958 Study violent crime females too of total offences by chronic offenders Policy Implications close supervision severe penalties Cambridge study child hood predictors Policy behavioral parent training The Violent Juvenile Offender policy 9reintegration early childhood socialization Rand Cooperation Habitual Offender Research Criminal Careers of Women
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