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by: Melyssa Gaylord


Melyssa Gaylord
GPA 3.96


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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melyssa Gaylord on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 3740 at University of Georgia taught by Parker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see /class/202035/soci-3740-university-of-georgia in Sociology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Well before 1890 youth had competed in sports but usually on teams and in games c organized by themselves or on teams composed largely of adults ag 102 XX and were the official watchwords of the Public Schools Athletic League a a a c Duty thoroughness patriotism honor obedience XX won the 2011 Daytona 500 a Trevor Bayne XX The 2010 Winter Olympics were held February 1228 in a Vancouver Canada 7 The Rise of Organized Youth Sports 18801920 0 Prior to 1880 youth had competed in sports in the following ways 7 On teams and in games they organized for themselves On teams composed of adults 0 The 18801920 era witnessed a huge movement of youth sport organizations They included YlVICA Churches Public Schools Athletic Leagues City Playground Associations Private preparatory schools Public High Schools 0 These organizations with Puritan or Methodist aversions to sports adopted sporting activities as ways of building character and advancing civilization 0 What did these organizations have in common 7 They re ected oldstock Protestant middleclass concerns 7 They allowed female participation 0 The YWCA The Camp re Girls 0 the Girl Scouts The desire for organized youth sports was an integral part of the larger movement to organize and manage the sparetime activities of youth 0 Why organize and manage sparetime activities of youth 0 Adult leaders believed sporting activities could build character and advance civilization by filling the voids left by 0 The disappearance of the household economy 0 The absence of early work experience 0 The weakened authority of religion 0 The breakdown of small communities 0 Why did the above happen 0 Urbanindustrialization Urbanindustrialized societies were very different from earlier societies 0 In pre1880s societies children devoted considerable time 0 Assisting their parents 0 Working in the elds 0 Working as apprentices Engaging in familyrelated activities 0 In post1880s societies children devoted considerable time 0 Informal educational communities 0 Doing dullroutine chores 0 Away from the supervision of their parents 0 In unmanaged spare time activities 0 Observing cityshaped andor in uenced activities behaviors and values 0 The movement from rural to urbanindustrialized communities altered relationships 0 Youthadult Studentteacher People began to express concerns about the abundance of unmanaged spare time of youth 0 Luther Halsey Gulick Jr 0 Henry W Williams 0 Thomas Hughes 0 James Naismith 0 William G Morgan 0 G Stanley Hall Luther Halsey Gulick Jr 0 American pioneer in physical education 0 Began his career with the YMCA Devised the emblem of the YMCA Founded the child hygiene department of the Russell Sage Foundation 0 Founded the Camp Fire Girls 0 Wrote several books 0 With James Naismith originated the game of basketball Henry W Williams 0 Believed sports could be employed to build character 0 Observed that the struggle for existence though becoming harder and harder is less and less a physical struggle more and more a battle of minds James Naismith 0 While working as a physical education teacher at the YMCA International Training School in Springfield MA he was asked to make a game that would not take up much room was not too rough and at the same time could be played indoors basketball Thom as Hughes 0 Wrote the book T 0m Brown s School Days that inaugurated the new genre of boys sport ction Social advocates believed team sports and sporting organizations offered unparalleled opportunities to participants to develop healthy morals and Christian manliness Other beliefs 0 The ideal man was both strong and responsible dedicated to serving others Ideally men who were strong spiritually morally and physically were necessary to carry on the rugged task of foreign missions Alliances between sports and evangelism began to appear The YMCA organized first to promote Christian conversions was the most prominent of these organizations Church camps and other organizations for boys emphasizing physical tness and the outdoors also arose for similar purposes The union of sports and Christianity was part of wider American cultural developments G Stanley Hall 0 Psychologist and educator who pioneered American psychology 0 His interests focused on childhood development and evolutionary theory 0 He was the first president of the APA and the rst president of Clark University 0 Hall and Gulick developed an evolutionary theory of play Public Schools Athletic League PSAL 0 Established in 1903 0 Financially independent of the system 0 Founded by Gulick et al 0 Focused on physical and moral growth PSAL 0 Sponsored individual competitions 0 Sponsored competitions between schools 0 Sponsored district and city championships PSAL competitions 0 First form Athletic badge must reach a minimum level of performance in several physical feats 0 Second form class athletics pitted one average class against another 0 Third form district and city championships in a dozen sports 0 Ri e shootings was very popular with high school boys and Teddy Roosevelt wrote a letter to the one with the highest marks 0 Official watchwords of the PSAL Duty 0 Thoroughness Patriotism 0 Honor 0 Obedience PSAL failed to alter the lives of twothirds of the city s adolescent boy s population How 0 To participate one had to have their teacher s certification that they were well behaved to play and two thirds of the city s youth were already in the labor force 0 Playground Movement 0 Founded by Gulick et al 0 Provided field houses for boys and girls 0 Provided yearround managers and activities 0 Generated enthusiasm for organized sports 0 Sponsored and supervised activities reduced juvenile delinquency Despite the enthusiasm of municipal governments for organized recreation the playgrounds usually failed to extend their control over sparetime activities to those who needed it the most7the ethnic youth in the s ums 0 Why did the playground movement fail to extend their control over sparetime activities to those who needed it the most 7 Con ict over 0 Values 0 Attitudes Comportment of supervisors and youths 0 How do you we get the most needy involved in activities 0 Like PSAL and the playground movement public high schools and private academies became major centers of adultsupervised sports Why 7 To nd ways to attract youths into sponsored and managed sporting activities Theodore Roosevelt wrote whatever other faults the son of rich parents may tend to develop in the academies he is forced by the opinion of all his associates of his own age to bear himself well in the manly exercise and to develop his body7and therefore to a certain extent his character7in the rough sports which call for pluck endurance and physical address 0 Public high schools v private academies 7 Students in public high schools 0 Scheduled their rst games 0 Formed their rst athletic organizations 0 Managed their finances Hired seasonal coaches 7 The private schools 0 Promised to instill in spoiled and pampered boys highbred manliness 0 Education v athletics Athletic contests 7 Caused a reduction in school standing 7 Pitted educators against coaches 7 Subverted the ideals of the comprehensive school 7 Tended to glorify athletic success at the expense of other forms of achievement 7 The pressures to win resulted in varsity athletics developing a code of ethics independent of the social educators values teams participate in the 2011 post season of Major League Baseball MLB 21 Eight AL Wild Card 0 Tampa Bay 9171 NL Wild Card 0 St Louis 90 72 8 The Setting for Organized Sports 1890 1950 0 Participation in organized sports has social bene ts for society How 7 Providing an outlet for physical activity 7 Allowing for development of motor skills 7 Allowing for social interaction 7 Allowing for creativity 7 Allowing for enjoyment for participants Organized sports have potential bene ts of coaching supervision entertainment safety rules and proper equipment However this was not always the case In the early 20th century sporting activity was a more regular part of life for the average person Sports and games provided an additional outlet for physical activity and were characterized by play that was usually spontaneous unstructured and without adult involvement During the latter part of the 20th century free play or unstructured sports and games gave way to organized sports Organized sports furnished a rationale for play pageantry and unparalleled opportunity for players and fans to 7 On Thanksgiving Day of 1893 Princeton and Yale played a football game Princeton defeated Yale 60 The jubilation that followed 7 Revealed the growing importance of sports 7 Suggested ball matches had become part of our national life 7 Ball elds had become special training grounds for the building of personal character Interest in organized sports gained national and international appeal 7 Why 7 How Advancements in new technologies 7 Newspapers 7 Radio 7 Television 7 Telecommunication Improvements in transportation 7 Boats 7 Vehicles 7 Trains Growth of the middle class 7 Old middle class v new middle class 0 Shopkeepers middle managers 0 Skilled craftsmen salespeople 0 Professional men secretaries Owneroperators of small factories Consumerism 7 shifted from a culture of production to a culture of mass consumption and leisure Pleasure 7 Vacuum machines electric lamps cars refrigerators radios toasters washing machines 7 Quest for excitement 7 Vacations Amusement parks 7 Theaters Entertainment 0 In the 18901950 era millions of Americans found in the media coverage of sports 7 an escape from the humdrum of everyday life 7 an entry into the wonderland of the imagination Selective 18901950 era events 7 William McKinley s assassination 7 World War II 7 SpanishAmerican War 7 Industrial Revolution 7 World War I 0 Notions of physical beauty affected the sporting experiences of males and females 0 Male ideals encouraged strenuous play 7 Eugen Sandow a pioneer in the history of bodybuilding and the GrecoRoman muscular form personi ed the emerging ideal of male beauty 7 Johnny Weismuller an Olympic swimming medalist displayed his muscular body dozens of times as Tarzan in the movies 7 Charles Atlas a selfmade man trained himself to develop his body from that of a scrawny weakling eventually becoming the most popular muscleman of his day 0 Female notions of physical beauty escaped some of the physical con nements of the Victorian era and encouraged limited components of strenuous play 7 The Gibson Girl was the personi cation of the feminine ideal during the twenty year period spanning the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries 7 The Gibson Girl was tall slender yet with ample bosom hips and bottom in the Scurve torso shape 7 The images of the Gibson Girl epitomized the late nineteenth and early 20thcentury Western preoccupation with statuesque youthful features 0 ephemeral beauty 7 Her neck was thin and her hair piled high upon her head in the contemporary bouffant pompadour and chignon fashions 7 Gertrude Ederle was the rst woman to swim the English Channel 7 Helen Willis was known as the queen of women s tennis 0 Sports and segregation 7 Segregation 7 Jim crow 7 15 11 Amendment to the Constitution 7 Plessy v Ferguson 7 Racism 7 Birth of a Nation 7 14 h Amendment to the Constitution 7 Marshall W lVIajor Taylor 7 Jack Johnson XX a pioneer in the history of bodybuilding and the GrecoRoman muscular form personi ed the emerging ideal of male beauty d Eugen Sandow XX President was assassinated in 1901 b William McKinley XX In the Plessy v Ferg11son case 1896 the Supreme Court c ruled that state laws requiring separate but equal accommodations for Blacks were a reasonable use of state government power XX Place the following events in chronological order from oldest to most recent Civil War Great Depression Industrial Revolution Reconstruction Spanish American War World War I World War II d Civil War Reconstruction Industrial Revolution Spanish American War World War I Great Depression World War II XX President was assassinated in 1901 b William McKinley XX In the 18901950 era millions of Americans found in the media coverage of sports a an escape from the humdrum of everyday life b an entry into the wonderland ofthe imagination d a and b xx Discrimination refers to an while prejudice refers to an d act attitude xx was nicknamed The Galloping Ghost b Harold E Red Grange xx Knute Kenneth Rockne c is regarded by many as the greatest coach in college football history xx refers to the doctrine that one race is superior to another is synonymous with segregation a Racism Jim Crow 9The Age of Sports Heroes 0 The roaring 20s produced sports heroes in many fields 7 Baseball George Herman Babe Ruth 7 Football Harold Red Grange 7 Boxing William H Jack Dempsey 7 Tennis William T Big Bill Tilden 7 Golf Robert T Bobby Jones What do these legends have in common Public idolization of athletes 7 Athletes as public heroes served a compensatory cultural function Athletes assisted the public in compensating for 0 The passing of the traditional formula of success 0 The erosion of Victorian values 0 The feelings of individual powerlessness 7 Popularity of and interests in athletes also increased because of 0 Marketing of athletes Journalistic hyperbole George Herman Ruth Ir Februa 6 1895 7 Aug11st 16 19481 7 Also popularly known as quotBabequot quotThe Bambinoquot and quotThe Sultan of Swatquot 7 An American Major Leag11e baseball player from 19141935 7 He spent most of his career as an out elder with the NY Yankees 7 Ruth began his career as a successful starting pitcher for the Boston Red Sox He compiled an 8946 loi record during his time with the Red Sox and set several World Series pitching records 7 In 1918 Ruth started to play in the outfield and at rst base so he could help the team on a daytoday basis as ahitter 7 In E he appeared in 111 games as an outfielder 7 He also hit 29 home runs to break Ned Williamson39s record for most home runs in a single season 7 In w Red Sox owner Harm Frazee sold Ruth to the Yankees 7 In his next 15 seasons in NY Ruth led the league or placed in the top ten in batting average slugging percentage m total bases home runs RBI and walks several times 7 Ruth s 60 home runs in 1927 was the single season home run record for 34 years until it was broken by Roger Maris b 7 Ruth s lifetime total of 714 home runs was once 39 39 39 one of lVIaior League Baseball39s quot records Hank Aaron broke it in 1974 Barry Bonds broke Aaron s record in 2007 7 Ruth completely changed baseball itself and the popularity of the game exploded in the 1920s largely due to him 7 He became the first true American sports celebrity superstar whose fame transcended baseball 7 He ushered in the quotliveball eraquot as his big swing led to gargantuan home run totals that not only excited fans but helped change baseball from a lowscoring speed dominated game to a high scoring power game I IIIH Off the hedonis famous He is w eld he was famous for his charity but also was noted for his often reckless lifestyle that epitomized the tic 1920s Ruth became an American icon and even though he died nearly 60 years ago his name is still one of the most names in all of American sports idely regarded as one of the greatest baseball players in history Many polls place him as the number one player of all time Harold the pla In E Ruth became one of the first five players elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame In 1969 he was named baseball s Greatest Player Ever in a ballot commemorating the 100th anniversary of professional baseball In 1998 The SgortingNews ranked Ruth Number 1 on the list of quotBaseball s 100 Greatest Playersquot The next year baseball fans named Ruth to the Major League Baseball AllCenturv Team Edward Red Grange In high school he earned varsity letters in four sports Football Baseball Basketball rac He was nicknamed quotThe Galloping Ghost He earned AllAmerican recognition three consecutive years He appeared on the October 5 1925 cover of Time His number 77 was retired at the U Illinois in 1925 His number 77 was retired at the University of Illinois in 1925 He was a charter member of both the College and Pro Football Hall of Fame In 1999 he was ranked number 80 on The Sgorting News39 list of the 100 Greatest Football Players On January 15 1978 at Super Bowl XII he became the first person other than the game referee to toss the coin at a Super Bowl Roger Eugene Maris A right elder in Major League American Baseball Remembered for breaking Babe Ruth s singleseason home run record in 1961 Participated in many sports in high school Made his major league debut in 1957 with the Cleveland Indians John Arthur Johnson Better known as Jack Johnson Nicknamed the quotGalveston Giantquot A boxer and arguably the best heavyweight of his generation He was the first black Heavyweight Champion of the World 19081915 Inducted into the Boxing Hall of Fame in 1954 In 2005 the United States National Film Preservation Board deemed the lm of the 1910 Johnson J effries ght quothistorically signi cantquot and put it in the National Film Registg Johnson39s story is the basis of the play and subsequent 1970 movie The Great White Huge y and lm versions of The Great White Hope tell the ctionalized and perhaps idealized life story of boxing champion Acting as a lens focused on a racist society The Great White Hope explores how segregation and prejudice created the demand for a quot great white hopequot who would defeat Johnson and how this in turn affected the boxer s life and 0 Golden career Age of Boxing The years between 1920 and 1927 were called the Golden Age of Boxing The man who personi ed the sport was American heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey Jack Dempsey s ghts with Frenchman Georges Carpentier Luis Firpo of Argentina and Gene Tunney of the U S received frontpage newspaper coverage But after Dempsey s second loss to Tunney in 1927 the heavyweight division fell on hard times Subsequent champions such as Max Baer lacked intensity while Primo Camera of Italy James Braddock and Jack Sharkey lacked polished boxing skills Max Schmeling of Germany perhaps the best ghter during this period ended up winning the title from Sharkey on a foul William Harrison quotJackquot Dempsey held the world heavyweight title between 1919 and 1926 7 Known as quotThe Manassa Mauler 7 Dempsey was a tremendous puncher famous for his exciting ghts many of which set record nancial and attendance 7 His exact fight record is not known because sometimes he boxed under the pseudonym quotKid Blackie 7 In September 1926 Dempsey fought IrishAmerican former US Marine Gene Tunney in Philadelphia 7 In a big upset Dempsey lost his title on points in ten rounds 7 The Tunney rematch took place in Chicago Illinois on September 22 364 days after losing his title to Tunney in their rst bout 7 Tunney dropped Dempsey for a count of one in round eight easily won the nal two rounds of the ght and retained the title on a unanimous decision 7 Because of the controversial nature of the ght it remains known in history as the ght of quotThe Long Coun quot Sports Heroes 0 Knute Kenneth Rockne 7 An American football player 7 Regarded by many as the greatest coach in college football history 7 His biography at the College Football Hall of Fame calls him quotAmerican football39s mostrenowned coach 7 He was only 43 when he died in a plane crash in Kansas on March 31 1931 while en route to participate in the production of the lm The Spirit of Notre Dame As head coach of the University of Notre Dame from 1918 to 1930 7 He set the greatest alltime winning percentage of 881 since eclipsed but still the best percentage in Division LA 7 During 13 years as head coach 0 He oversaw 105 victories 12 losses 5 ties and 6 national championships including 5 undefeated seasons without a tie 0 His players included George Gipper39 Gipp The quotFour Horsemenquot Ham Stuhldreher Don Miller Jim Crowley and Elmer Layden and Frank Leahy 0 In 88 the United States Postal Service honored him with a postage stamp 0 President Ronald Reagan who played George Gipp in the movie quotKnute Rockne All Americanquot gave an address at the Athletic amp Convocation Center at the University of Notre Dame on March 9 88 and officially unveiled the Rockne stamp 0 James Joseph quotGenequot Tunney 7 Was the hea eight boxing champion from 1926E 7 Defeated Jack Dempsey twice first in 1926 and then in E 7 In addition to beating Dempsey he defeated 0 Tommy Loughran 0 Tommy Gibbons Georges Carpentier and many other ne boxers 7 Tunney retired as a heavyweight after his victory over Tom Heeney in 1928 7 Tunney39s successful title defense against Dempsey is one of the most famous bouts in boxing history and is known as The Long Count Fight 7 He had a brief acting career starring in the movie The F ightingMarine in 1926 7 He was elected as Ring Magazine39s rstever Fighter of the Year in 7 He was elected to the 0 World Boxing Hall of Fame in 1980 0 International Boxing Hall of Fame in w 0 Marine Copps Sports Hall of Fame in M 0 Michael Vick 7 Is serving a 23month sentence at the federal penitentiary in Leavenworth Kan after pleading guilty to bankrolling a dog ghting operation at a home he owned in eastern Virginia s Surry County 7 He also admitted to participating in the killing of several underperforming dogs 7 Will be allowed to serve the last two months of his sentence under home con nement because there is no room at a halfway house for him a government official told The Associated Press Thursday Fredi Gonz alez Less than 48 hours after Bobby CoX wrapped up his managing career the Atlanta Braves introduced former Florida manager Fredi Gonzalez as his replacement Gonzalez served as the Braves39 thirdbase coach from 200306 He then took over as Florida s manager a post he held for 3 12 years 10 Baseball s Golden Age William Howard Taft 7 The twentyseventh President of the United States 7 The tenth Chief Justice of the United States 7 Established the precedent of the president opening each baseball season by throwing out the first ball Abner Doubleday 7 Folklore credits him with inventing the game of baseball supposedly in Elihu Phinney s cow pasture in Cooperstown NY in 1839 0 DoubledayCooperstown myth It is doubtful that Abner Doubleday invented the game of baseball in Elihu Phinney39s pasture in Cooperstown NY in 1839 Among other things 7 Doubleday39s diaries make no mention of baseball 7 Robert W Henderson sports historian contends Doubleday never set foot in Cooperstown in 1839 7 Doubleday spent the year restricted to West Point as a rstyear Cadet Baseball became entrenched as a national pastime during the first two decades of the twentieth century No other sport seriously challenged baseball s supremacy This era witnessed the beginning of the modern World Series 1903 7 Matched the Boston Americans against the Pittsburgh Pirates in a bestofnine series 7 Boston prevailed ve games to three Albert Goodwill Spalding 7 A professional baseball player 7 Famous sporting goods manufacturer founder Following the formation of the National Association NA baseball39s rst professional league in 1871 Spalding joined the Boston Red Stockings precursor club to the Atlanta Braves where he was highly successful 7 As a pitcher he won 205 games losing only 53 7 As a hitter he batted 323 He published the rst 0 tciul rules guide for baseball In 18881889 he took a group of Major League players around the world to promote 7 Baseball 7 Spalding sporting goods He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Old Timer s Committee in 1939 Spalding a sporting goods company started in Chicago in 1876 manufactures goods for many sports including baseball soccer softball volleyball football golf and most well known basketball Spalding is the leader in basketball and their basketballs sell much better than their other goods Their premium ball is the official ball of the NBA which has contributed to their immense success Spalding also provides the of cial ball of the Arena Football League Spalding became a division of Russell Corporation in 2003 Baseball s coming of age was highlighted by the annual World Series beginning in 1903 Baseball was allegedly a vehicle for promoting 7 Social integration 7 For building social solidarity through support of local teams 7 For the assimilation of new immigrants Baseball introduced 7 The special physical traits of the players 7 The idiosyncratic behavior of the players 7 The colorful nicknames of players The first two decades of twentieth century baseball continued one of the most shameful chapters in American history 7 The baseball color line sometimes called the quotGentlem an39s Agreementquot was the policy unwritten for nearly its entire duration which excluded African American players from organized baseball in the United States before 1946 7 The baseball color line began in 1868 when the National Association of Base Ball Players decided to ban quotany club including one or more colored persons 7 As a result various Negro Leagues were formed which featured players not allowed to participate in the major or minor leagues The rst two decades of twentieth century baseball is labeled the dead ball era The deadbull em 7 Refers to a period in baseball characterized by extremely lowscoring games 7 It started in about 1903 and continued to 1918 in fact this was the lowestscoring period in major league baseball history 7 The alltime low of the dead ballera was around 1907 and 1908 with a leaguewide Batting average of 239 Slugging average of 306 ERA under Tyrus Raymond quotTyquot Cobb 7 Nicknamed The Georgia Peach 7 A Hall of Fame baseball player 7 Regarded by historians and journalists as the best player of the deadball era 7 Regarded as one of the greatest players of all time 7 He received the most votes of any player on the 1936 inaugural Hall of Fame Ballot 7 Born in Narrows GA Walter Perry Johnson 7 Nicknamed quotThe Big Trainquot 7 Was an American righthanded pitcher in Major League Baseball between 1907 and 1927 7 One of the most celebrated players in baseball history 7 Established several records some of which remained unbroken for more than a halfcentury 0 417 career wins 2nd alltime 110 career shutouts 1st alltime 3509 career strikeouts 9th alltime Won MVP award in 1913 amp 1924 Played in two World Series 1924 and 1925 0 An inaugural member of Baseball Hall of Fame Pitched 56 consecutive scoreless innings a record that stood until 1968 Christopher quotChristyquot Mathewson 7 Nicknamed quotBig Sixquot quotThe Christian Gentlemanquot or quotMattyquot 7 was a righthanded pitcher in Major League Baseball 7 Played in what is known as the dead ball era 7 Elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame as one of its inaugural members 7 373 career wins 3rd alltime 7 213 career ERA 8th alltime 7 Won 20 games or more 13 times won 30 games or more 4 times 7 Pitched 79 shutouts 3rd all time 7 Won NL Pitcher39s Triple Crown in 1905 and 1908 7 Fivetime ERA champion 1905 1908 1909 1911 1913 7 Fivetime strikeout champion 1903 1904 1905 1907 1908 National Agreement of 1903 The two league champions of 1903 arranged to meet in the World Series National League founded in February 1876 and the American League founded in 19001901 7 After the 1904 champions failed to play the two leagues have arranged for the annual culmination of the American baseball season missing only in 1994 Kenesaw Mountain Landis 7 The rst Commissioner of Baseball 7 Alleged to have been particularly determined to maintain segregation 7 He played an important role in helping to restore the integrity of the game after the 1919 World Series scandal The Black Sox Scandal 0 The 1919 World Series matched the American League champion Chicago White SoX against the National League champion Cincinnati Reds Several members of the Chicago franchise conspired with gamblers to throw World Series games He banned eight players suspected of involvement in the x for life including Buck Weaver and superstar Shoeless Joe Jackson He was instrumental in getting heavyweight champion Jack Johnson banned from the sport by charging him with transporting a white woman over state lines He prevented club owner Bill Veeck from purchasing the Phillies when Landis learned of Veeck39s plan to integrate the team 0 Team Dynasties The Negro National League NNL 7 Was one of the several Negro Leagues 7 Was established during the period in the United States in which organized baseball was segregated 7 Was led by Rube Foster owner and manager of the Chicago American Giants 7 Was established in February by a coalition of team owners at a meeting in a Kansas City YMCA 7 Operated mainly in midwestem cities ranging from Kansas City in the west to Pittsburgh in the east 7 in 1924 the NNL expanded into the south adding franchises in Birmingham and Memphis 7 The NNL fell apart in 1931 under the economic stress of the Great Depression 7 A new Negro National League the second started in 1933 became concentrated on the east coast 7 The Negro American League founded in 1937 carried on as the western circuit 0 Beginning in 1933 7 The major leagues scheduled an annual AllStar game between the best players of each league 0 Professional baseball suffered heavily from the Great Depression and World War II H H The Intercollegiate Football Spectacle 0 Between 1890 and 1913 7 Football emerged as a great public spectacle 7 Bitter and heated con icts threatened football s existence Con icts ared up over 0 The eligibility of players 0 The recruitment of players 0 The subsidization of players 7 Other con ictscontroversies revolved around 0 Amateurism 0 Play for pay 0 Use of nonstudents 0 Employment of professional coaches Deaths and injuries suffered on the gridiron alarmed both critics and defenders of the games Football was a brutal sport In 1897 after the death of a player Georgia s legislature abolished football 7 a measure vetoed by the governor Harvard eleven Concerns about brutality resulted in the establishment of a governing body The Intercollegiate Athletic Association IAA The IAA appointed a rules committee which in 1906 formulated standards of conduct for member colleges The rules 0 Provided incentives for teams to abandon the massmomentum play 0 Approved the forward pass 0 Implemented 10 yardstogaina rstdown Became known as the Revolution of 1906 0 The Revolution of 1906 was designed to reduce brutality and give offenses more freedom of action However the rules Neither opened the game up offensively nor ended football injuries 0 In 1910 the Intercollegiate Athletic Association was renamed the National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA Did the NCAA solve the major issues of the time 0 What were the issues of the time 7 Eligibility of players 7 Recruitment of players 7 Subsidization of players 0 The Big Ten Conference established inl896 7 Is the United States oldest DivisionI college athletic conference 7 Member institutions are located primarily in the Midwestern United States 7 Is the only DivisionI conference to have all of its member institutions affiliated with the Association of American Universities 0 The Big Ten Conference pioneered in 7 The establishment of rules of eligibility 7 The prohibition of subsidies to student athletes 7 The faculty supervision of athletes Founding members of the Big Ten 7 University of Chicago 7 University of Illinois 7 University of Minnesota 7 Northwestern University 7 Purdue University 7 University of Wisconsin 7 University of lVIichigan 7 University of Iowa 7 Indiana University 7 Ohio State University 0 The decade of the 1920s has been hailed as the golden age of American sports During this time 7 Attendance at collegiate games doubled 7 Gate receipt tripled 0 College football weathered the Great Depression more successfully than professional baseball 0 While heroes sprang from the rank of the players the golden age of American sports produced renowned coaches Renown coaches 7 Amos Alonzo Stagg 7 Glenn Pop Warner 7 Knute Rockne 7 Dana X Bible 0 Football coaches were believed to have played a far more important role in determining the outcome of games than their counterparts Good coaching spelled the difference between victory and defeat Amos Alonzo Stagg 0 A renowned American collegiate coach in multiple sports primarily football and an overall athletic pioneer 0 Played at Yale where he was a divinity student and a member of the secret Skull and Bones society 0 He was an end on the first AllAmerican team selected in 1889 0 He was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame as both a player and a coach in the charter class of 1951 0 He was known as the quotgrand old manquot of college football 0 Glenn quotPopquot Warner 7 He attended Cornell University where he graduated in 1894 with a law degree 7 He also played football at Cornell 7 He was captain of the football team 7 He got the nickname quotPopquot because he was older than most of his teammates 7 In 1895 UGA hired him as its new football coach at a salary of 340 for ten weeks 7 In 1895 UGA s entire student body consisted of just 248 students 7 Only 13 of those showed up to play football 7 His rst team the 1895 squad was 3 and 4 7 He was rehired for the 1896 season at a salary of 40 per week 7 His last Georgia team went 40 giving UGA its rst undefeated season 0 He brought many innovative playing mechanics to college football 7 The screen play 7 The spiral punt 7 The single and doublewing formations 7 The numbering players jerseys 7 The use of shoulder and thigh pads He coached one of the most famous American athletes Jim Thorpe Jacobus Franciscus quotJimquot Thorpe 7 Considered one of the most versatile athletes in modern sports 7 he won Olympic gold medals in the pentathlon and decathlon 7 He played American football collegiately and professionally 7 He played professional baseball and basketball 7 In 1978 Thorpe was given his own national holiday which is still celebrated on May 28 7 Thorpe was of mixed Native American and white ancestry Dana Xenophon Bible 7 A highly successful college football head coach 7 Most well known for his excellent coaching at Texas AampM Nebraska and Texas 7 Throughout his career he compiled a 1987223 715 record 7 Thirty out of his 33 seasons were winning seasons 7 He twice won 10 games in a season 7 He is a member of the College Football Hall of Fame Football coaches received higher salaries than professors UGA football coach s salary 3813 89 7 UGA president s salary 601 494 Footballrelated Issues during the interwar years 0 Stadium size 0 WWII Nazism Communism 0 Immigration Act of 1924 Immigration Act of 1924 a U S federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2 of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890 the 11 11 census taken The United States Census of 1790 was the rst Census conducted in the United States Ethnicities in football during the interwar years 7 Catholic universities 7 Jacobus Franciscus quotJimquot Thorpe 7 Haskell Institute 7 Jack Trice 7 Jesse Owens Haskell Indian Nations University 7 Was formed as the United States Indian Industrial Training School in Lawrence Kansas in 1884 7 Was originally an Indian boarding school for 15 students and provided agricultural education for grades one through ve 7 Emphasized assimilation 7 teaching the students to become members of the dominant society 7 Began offering college level classes in 1927 7 Graduated its last high school level class in 1965 7 In 1970 the college was accredited as Haskell Indian Junior College and offered only collegelevel classes 7 In 1993 the Board of Regents changed the name to Haskell Indian Nations University 7 Haskell offers majors in American Indian studies tribal archives and tribal museum management environmental science business administration and elementary teacher education 7 Haskell is the home of the American Indian Athletic Hall of Fame which recognizes many of the Native American athletes who attended Haskell and later became famous 0 Jim Thorpe 0 George Levi 0 John Levi 0 Billy Mills 0 Jack Trice 7 Iowa State University s first AfricanAmerican athlete 7 Participated in track and football primarily as a tackle 7 ISU s rst athletic related fatality in 1923 7 Many suspected the injuries in icted were racially motivated 12The Club Sports Go Public 0 Tennis 7 Game played between 0 two players singles 0 two teams of two players doubles 7 Originated in Europe in the late 19th century 7 It spread rst throughout the Englishspeaking world particularly among the upper classes 7 It is an Olympic sport 7 It is played at all levels of society by all ages and in many countries around the world 7 Along with its millions of players millions of people follow tennis as a spectator sport especially the four Grand Slam tournaments 0 Australian Open 0 French Open 0 Wimbledon 0 US Open On May 21 1881 the United States National Lawn Tennis Association now the United States Tennis Association was formed to standardize the rules and organize competitions The US National Men39s Singles Championship now the US Open was rst held in 1881 at Newport Rhode Island The US National Women39s Singles Championships were first held in 1887 In 195 4 Jam es Van Alen founded the Intemational Tennis Hall of Fame The building contains a large collection of tennis memorabilia as well as a hall of fame honoring prominent members and tennis players from all over the world Each year a grasscourt tournament is hosted on its grounds as well as an induction ceremony honoring new Hall of Fame members 0 In the United States39 sportsmad decade of the Roaring Twenties William Tilden was one of the ve dominant gures of the quotGolden Era of Sport The others include 0 Babe Ruth 0 Red Grange 0 Bobby Jones 0 Jack Dempsey William T Tilden II 0 known as quotBig Billquot and quotGentleman Billquot 0 From 1920 to 1926 he dominated world tennis 0 He attended the University of Pennsylvania 0 He began to play tennis at the age of 5 and won his 1st tournament at 8 0 Was the first American tennis player to compete at Wimbledon 0 Was the first American tennis player to win Wimbledon In 1930 he took Wimbledon for the 3rd time 0 He turned pro in 1931 and thrilled spectators for many more years 0 He died in 1953 at the age of 60 Wimbledon is the oldest and most prestigious major championship in tennis The Championships were rst played under the control of the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club in 1877 Golf 0 Is a sport in which individual players or teams of players strike a ball into a hole using several types of clubs Is one of the few ball games that does not use a xed standardized playing field or area The rst game of golffor which records survive was played at Bruntsfield Links in Edinburgh Scotland in AD 1456 In 2005 Golf Digest calculated that there were nearly 32000 golf courses in the world Approximately half of the world s golf courses are in the United States The major championships are 0 The Masters 0 US Open 0 The Open Championship referred to in North America as the British Open 0 PGA Championship Walter Charles Hagen Amajor gure in golf in the first half of the 20th century His tally of eleven majors is third behind Jack Nicklaus 18 and Tiger Woods 13 He won the US Open twice In 1922 he became the first American to win the British Open which he went on to win four times He won the PGA Championship a recordtying ve times 1921 39243927 He won the Western Open ve times He totaled 44 PGA wins in his career He was a six time Ryder Cup captain He was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame He died in Traverse City lVIichigan at the age of 76 Robert Tyre quotBobbyquot Jones Jr 0 Born in Atlanta Georgia 0 He was one of the greatest golfers to compete on a national and international level 0 He participated only as an amateur primarily on a parttime basis and chose to retire from competition at age 28 He was a child prodigy who won his rst children39s tournament at the age of six and made the third round of the US Amateur Championship at 14 He graduated from Georgia Tech with a degree in mechanical engineering in 1922 Jones added an AB in English from Harvard in 1924 While at Harvard he played the Franklin Park Golf Course and beat the club pro Tom Mortimer at the 12th hole which is now called the Bobby Jones hole From 1923 to 1930 he was the emperor of world golfers He won 13 Major Championships He was the first player to win The Double both the US Open and the British Open in the same year 1926 He was the rst recipient of the Amateur Athletic Union s James E Sullivan Award as the top amateur athlete in the United States 0 He received two tickertape parades in New York City 0 the first in 1926 0 the second in 1930 0 He is memorialized in Augusta Georgia at the Golf Gardens 0 He has the Bobby Jones Expressway also known as Interstate 520 named in his honor 0 He died in Atlanta Georgia in December of 1971 Track and eld or track and eld athletics 0 Is a collection of sports events that involve running throwing and jumping 0 Was the original event at the first Olympics in 776 BC where the only event held was the stadiumlength foot race 0 Was included in the rst modern Olympic Games in 1896 and has formed their backbone since First allowed women to participate in events in the Olympics in 1928 0 Modern athletic events are usually organized around a 400m running track on which most of the running events take place 0 Events one 0 Events two 0 Events Jacobus Franciscus quotJimquot Thorpe James Cleveland quotJessequot Owens The 1936 Summer Olympics of cially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad were held in 1936 in Berlin Germany Games were awarded before the Nazi Party came to power in Germany however the government saw the Olympics as a golden opportunity to promote their Nizi ideology In 1950 the Associated Press chose as the Woman Athlete of the HalfCentury a Mildred Babe Didrikson Which term is used to describe unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account a Stereotypes Feminism is b an ideology focusing on equality ofthe sexes The most famous and enduring women s professional basketball the d Red Heads 1936 was organized in Match the terms given to the following de nitions in the order presented refers to the practice of prohibiting or restricting the entry or participation of groups in society refers to acts based on prejudiced beliefs against a specific individual or group 3 refers to the physical and social separation of ethnic or racial groups c Exclusion discrimination Segregation 13The Rise and Decline of Organized Women s Sports 1890 1960 Mildred quotBabequot Didrikson 7 As a kid she played baseball and got the nickname quotBabequot because she hit as well as Babe Ruth 7 Considered one of the greatest allaround female athlete of all time 7 She achieved outstanding success in 0 Golf 0 Basketball 0 track and eld 7 Voted quotbest woman athlete for the millennium 7 Was the leading women s track and eld star of her day 7 Won two gold medals in the 1932 Olympics 7 The Associated Press chose her as Female Athlete of the Year six times for track and golfing 7 The Associated Press also voted her the Greatest Female Athlete of the first half of the century in 1950 7 She was inducted into the Hall of Fame of Women39s Golf in 1951 Eleanora Sears 7 Blazed the trail for women in sports 7 Was gifted in many sports including tennis and squash 7 Won four national women s doubles championships in tennis 7 She won the National Women39s Squash Champion 7 Best known example of the athletic girl Mary Ewing Outerbridge 7 Imported the lawn game tennis to the United States from Bermuda 7 Inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame 1981 In the late 1800s Issues arose about 7 The advancement of women in PE 7 The appropriate training of teachers 7 Professionalization of the eld The Sargent School 1881 and the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics 1889 were instrumental in addressing the aforementioned issues and perhaps addressed most thoroughly the training of teachers The Sargent School and the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics were instrumental in The development of many philosophies and basic pedagogical concepts such as combining theory and practice teaching with progressions and using experts to train future teachers Important dates and pedagogical issues and concepts of the time 7 7 women in Staten Island NY formed their own athletic club 1887 7 the first women s national tennis championship took place at the Philadelphia Cricket club 1909 the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics BNSG became part of Wellesley College 1921 7 Alice lVIilliant founded the Federative Sportive Feminine Internationale FSFI 1922 7 the F SFI sponsored the rst Women s Olympic Games in Paris Sex 7 fixed physiological differences between males and females Sexism prejudice or discrimination based solely on someone s sex Gender an individual39s selfconception as being male or female Gender roles 7 society s expectations of the proper behavior attitudes and activities of males and females Stereotypes 7 unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account 0 Traditional gender role stereotypes are reinforced through 0 Family 0 School 0 Peers 0 the media Dominant stereotypes 0 Intellectual activity depleted women of vital energy 0 Sporting activities hurt females reproductive system 0 Others Discrimination acts based on prejudiced beliefs against a speci c individual or group Feminism an ideology focusing on equality of the sexes Feminist movement Women39s Movement or Women39s Liberation is a series of campaigns focusing on issues such as 0 reproductive rights 0 domestic violence 0 maternity leave 0 equal pay 0 sexual harassment 0 sexual violence The feminist movement in the US began at the rst women s rights convention in 1848 In the late 19th century women were seldom welcomed in professional positions or and physical education was not viewed as a profession However circles of sporting heroines and sporting teams emerged Women Sports Heroines include 0 Sylbil Bauer competed at the 1924 Summer Olympics where she won a gold medal in the 100 meter backstroke Gertrude Ederle sixth person to swim the English channel Helen Willis Little miss poker face 31 grand slam titles Senda Berenson an instructor at Smith College was the first to bring basketball to women Alice Milliat founded the Federative Sportive Feminine Internationale which sponsored the rst Women s Olympic Games in Paris Mary Hemenway in 1889 also she established the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics which twenty years later became the Department of Hygiene and Physical Education of Wellesley College 0 Amy Morris Humans helped sponsor a landmark 1889 conference in Boston for educators and the leading proponents of various systems of gymnastic training 0 Others Women sporting teams included 0 Basketball 0 Cheerleading Softball 0 Baseball 0 AAU Amateur athletic Union What others issuespressures arose as a result of the extraordinary growth of women s athletics Class 0 Max Weber discussed class issues in terms of social class He did so relative to 0 Income the money earned for one s work Wealth the value of one s personal assets such as savings and property 0 Prestige the amount of social respect or standing given to an individual based on occupation 0 Power Weber defined power as the ability to achieve one s goals in spite of the opposition of others 0 Power 0 C Wright 1Iills argued that the United States was ruled by power elite composed of business political and military leaders 0 The power elite have true power because of their ability to withhold resources and prevent others from realizing their interests 0 Exclusion the practice of prohibiting or restricting the entry or participation of groups in society Solutions 7 Require social action 7 social policy advocacy and innovation 0 Social policy the enactment of a course of action through a formal law or program 0 Social advocates 7 people who use their resources to support educate and empower victims and their communities 0 Social innovation may take the form of a policy a program or advocacy but features an untested or unique approach 7 Basketball 7 De ned the special character of women s sport in schools 7 Became the most popular sport among college women after 1891 7 Players loved the freedom of movement and the vigorous competition offered Women 0 Could assert themselves physically 0 Could indulge in emotions 7 that they normally kept under tight control 7 Criticsopponents of women s basketball 7 Said the sport encouraged the growth of large muscles and thereby reduced the differences in body shapes between women an men 7 Charged that the sport frequently unleashed uncontrollable passions to which they were especially prone 7 In 1896 the rst women s intercollegiate basketball game was played between the University of California Berkley and Stanford in San Francisco 7 Stanford won with a score of two to one 7 As a result of the continued growth of community based sports and the participation of women in national and international competition the AAU organized the following events 7 National swim meet in 1916 7 A track and field championship in 1924 7 A basketball tournament in 1926 7 Other AAU actions 7 Women Division 7 The Red Heads pro basketball teams 7 Formed in 1936 7 Sported dyed or natural red hair 7 Thrilled audiences all over the U S with behindtheback shooting backhand passing and athletic ability on the court 7 Played men s teams using men s rules and won seventy percent of their games 7 Is the only women s basketball team that is copyrighted and registered in the U S Patent Office 7 Played in every state in the union as well as Canada Mexico and the Philippines 7 Was featured in Life Sporting News Sports Life Look and Colliers magazines 7 Appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show I ve GotA Secret Art Linkletter s House Party and What39s My Line 7 On July 26 1996 the Red Heads played their last game 7 Cheerleading 7 a sport that uses organized routines made from elements of tumbling dance and stunting to encourage spectators to cheer on sports teams at games and matches 7 Female cheerleading began to take stake in the athletic world in the 20s and 30s 7 A few female cheerleaders joined male squads in the 20 7 Female cheerleaders became recognized as sex symbols after World War II 7 In the 196039s NFL began to organize professional cheerleading teams TEST 3 SP0 RTS NOTES 14 The Setting of Organized Sports Since 1950 Leisure in America prior to WWII was exclusively for the upper class However due to the economic boom and a subsequent increase in consumption leisure activities became available to the working class Prior to the war the major sporting event was Baseball Reasons for going to a game included 7 to get away from home 7 to enjoy the game 7 to get the sunshine Baseball allowed many people to get away from a hectic and uncertain world to a place where they could peacefully enjoy the game Prior to WWII the work force was mainly hard labor Workers usually men put in 1620 hour per day on the jobs jobs that required every ounce of their energy During the 195039s America began to mechanize the work force People no longer ran factories instead machines and computers ran them because it was cheaper and more efficient Tasks were simplified and work was routine Many people began to participate rather than watch sports during their leisure time In summary 7 Before WWII work was intense because of the lack of technology and leisure was not 7 After WWII work became very mundane and in a sense relaxing because it did not offer enough stimulation WWII When did the Dodgers leave Brooklyn 7 1958 Why did the Dodgers leave Brooklyn 7 Dissatisfaction with Ebbets Fields 0 It seated only 35000 fans 0 It had parking places for only 700 cars 0 It was located in a decaying neighborhood Walter O Malley The Dodger s owner Future of baseball in Brooklyn depended upon the construction of a larger sports facility one that included ample parking and could be reached easily by motorists The relocation of the Dodgers from the East Coast to the West Coast was very significant and two factors shaped sports in the post1950 era They were 7 Rapid growth of new metropolises 7 Television 0 The first regularly scheduled television service in the United States began on July 2 1928 Station W3XK in Wheaton Maryland 0 First became commercially available in the late 1930s 0 First commercially licensed television stations in GA 1948 Prior to 1950 most of the 42 professional franchises were located mostly in industrial states extending from the Northeast to the upper Midwest By 1990 the 100 franchises were located in major metropolitan areas with some communities having two or more teams 0 Teams in ATL 7 How did this happen 7 Why did this happen 0 Relocation 0 Expansion To attract franchises cities provided generous assistanceoffers to owners Such as 7 Stadia 7 Tax breaks 7 Public assistance 1965 first stadium with a roof for allseason play opened 7 The Houston Astrodome cost 45 million 7 Wembley opened in October l07 cost 157 Billion 7 Closest dome to Athens GA The Georgia Dome 1950 1990 witnessed major changes and shifts in quality of life quantity of life demographics workforce participation and lifestyles 7 1950s 0 President s Council on Physical Fitness organized in 1956 by President Eisenhower 0 Interstate Highway System created 0 Korean War 0 Eisenhower warned us that quotwe must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence whether sought or unsought by the militaryindustrial complex 1960s 7 Assassination of sitting president 7 Who John F Kennedy 7 When November 22 1963 7 War on Poverty declared by Lyndon B Johnson in his State of the Union Address on January 8 1964 7 Major civil rights legislation passed 7 Vietnam War 7 First man stepped on the moon in 1969 0 Neil Armstrong 1970s 7 Disillusionment over the Vietnam War 7 Poor performance of the economy 7 Resignation of a president Nixon 7 Growth of commercial health clubs 7 Barbie syndrome quest for fitness 7 First New York marathon 1970 7 September 18 1970 death ofJimi Hendrix 7 Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 7 August 16 1977 death of quotThe King of Rock 39n39 Rollquot Elvis Television 7 Television first became commercially available from the late 1930s 7 The television set has become a common household communications device in homes and institutions particularly in the first world 7 It serves as a source of entertainment and news 7 The first regularly scheduled television service in the United States began on July 2 1928 7 Georgia established its first commercially licensed television station in 1948 7 Television usage in the United States skyrocketed after World War II warrelated technological advances 0 the gradual expansion of the television networks westward 0 the drop in set prices caused by mass production 0 increased leisure time 0 additional disposable income 5 of US households had a television set in 1946 557 in 1954 90 by 1962 Since the 1970s video recordings on VCR tapes and digital playback systems such as M have enabled the television to be used to view recorded movies and other programs Televised Sports 7 The history of sports on US television is the history of sports on network television 0 The first televised sporting event was a college baseball game between Columbia and Princeton in 1939 covered by one camera providing a point of view along the third base line The first network sports broadcast was NBC39s Gillette Cavalcade ofSports which premiered in 1944 with the Willie Pep vs Chalky White Featherweight Championship bout 7 Sports soon became a fixture on primetime network programming often accounting for one third of the networks39 total evening fare 7 In the 1950s sports began to disappear from network primetime settling into a very profitable and successful niche on weekends 7 By the mid1960s televised sports had become so expensive that individual advertisers found it increasingly difficult to pay for sponsorship of major events by themselves 7 What did the networks do ABC under the leadership of Roone Arledge created major innovations in sports telecasting 7 They broke their usual streak of Westerns dramas and comedies to air sports 7 Wide World of Sports 7 Monday Night Football 0 Aired on the ABC network in 1970 0 Second longest running prime time show on broadcast network television 7 Aired a total of 555 Monday night games CBS39 60 Minutes began in 1968 Monday Night Football first aired on ABC on September 21 1970 7 New York Jets and the Browns in Cleveland 7 Advertisers were charged 65000 per minute 7 The Browns defeated the Jets 3121 The other major networks entered into sports programming in the 70s and 80 Two sports networks were launched in the 1970s 7 USA Network in 1975 7 ESPN in 1979 The Federal Communications Commission FCC 7 Was established in 1934 7 Is charged with regulating all nonFederal Government use of the radio spectrum including radio and television broadcasting and all interstate telecommunications wire satellite and cable as well as all international communications that originate or terminate in the United States 7 It is an important factor in US telecommunication policy 7 Has jurisdiction covers the 50 states the District of Columbia and US possessions Longing Running 0 Seasons Series 7 55 Hall of Fame 7 52 The Wonderful World of Disney 7 41 Washington Weekly 7 39 60 Minutes 7 37 Monday Night Football The first stadium with a roof for allseason play was the a Houston Astrodome issued the order for the US to invade Cambodia in 1970 b President Richard M Nixon The President s Council on Youth Physical Fitness was organized in c 1956 While women live than men the three leading causes of death are identical for males and females d ve years longer heart disease cancer and stroke The Super Bowl uses to identify each game rather than the year it was held a Roman numerals During the 1980s the and won three NBA titles and the and won five NBA titles d Boston Celtics Larry Bird Magic Johnson Los Angeles Lakers 15Professional Team Sports and the Age of Television Professional teams in North America are different from teams outside North America in that there is no promotion and relegation system The same teams compete in the leagues each year The worst teams are not relegated to a second tier league to be replaced by the best teams from the second tier league In fact the worst teams are rewarded for their futility as the worst teams receive a higher position in the following year39s draft for new players The top four major leagues in North America are and 0 Major League Baseball 30 teams constituent leagues began cooperation in 1903 MLB is divided into the American League founded in 1901 and the National League founded in 1876 The two leagues merged on an organizational level and have shared a single Commissioner since 1920 7 The National Football League 32 teams as of 2007 founded in 1920 7 The National Basketball Association 30 teams as of 2007 founded in 1946 7 The National Hockey League 30 teams as of 2007 founded in 1917 Super Bowls Appearances Team Dallas Cowboys Denver Broncos U103me Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots San Francisco 49ers Baseball is Major League Baseball is under the direction of its Commissioner Allan H quotBudquot Selig The newest teams are the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays who joined the NL and AL Wins U39INUJOHU39I Professional Baseball 30 teams 29 in US and one in Canada quot quot by an O that has 39 many changes since 1876 respectively in 1998 Baseball teams names often bear resemblance to other sports teams especially football teams San Francisco Giants and the New York Giants Chicago Cubs and the Chicago Bears New York Mets and New York Jets Atlanta Braves and the Washington Redskins Baltimore Orioles and the Baltimore Ravens Reigning World Series Champions The San Francisco Giants In past decades baseball Experienced ups and downs in terms of popularity Experienced declining fan interests Shift in urban leisure patterns Ambience of bigleague parks Concerns about personal safety Suburbanites devoted spare time to things other than baseball Length of season Television Experienced three distinct eras 1946 Twodivisional era 1969 Threedivisional era Sports Broadcasting Act of 1961 Was passed in response to a court decision which ruled that the NFL39s method of negotiating television broadcasting rights violated antitrust laws The court ruled that the quotpoolingquot of rights by all the teams to conclude an exclusive contract between the league and CBS was illegal Professional Football 32 teams as of 2007 It is an unincorporated association controlled by its members It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association and adopted the name National Football League in 1922 The league currently consists of thirtytwo teams from American cities and regions divided evenly into two conferences the AFC and NFC of four fourteam divisions 7 Each club is allowed a maximum of 53 players on their roster but they may only dress 45 to play each week during the regular season 7 There are no teams in Canada largely because of the historical existence of the Canadian Football League 7 The Dallas Cowboys are the highest valued sports franchise in the world valued at approximately 15 billion 7 It is arguably the most popular sports league in the United States 7 Has the highest pergame attendance of any domestic professional sports league in the world drawing over 67000 spectators per game for its most recently completed season in 2006 The early history of football was ethnic Catholic and working class Professional teams did not earn a profit until the mid1950s Football heroes 7 Jim Thorpe 7 Red Grange 7 Ernie Nevers 7 Johnny Unitas 7 Jim Brown First and last NFL drafts 0 1936 Jay Berwanger Philadelphia Eagles 0 2009 Matthew Stafford Detroit Lions An annual championship game was instituted in 1933 The American Professional Football Association was founded in 1920 at a Hupmobile dealership in Canton Ohio By the end of World War II pro football began to rival the college game for fans39 attention Rules changes and innovations led to a fasterpaced higherscoring game The league also expanded out of its eastern and Midwestern cradle in 1945 the Cleveland Rams moved to Los Angeles becoming the second bigleague sports franchise on the West Coast second to the Seattle Metropolitans In 1950 the NFL accepted three teams from the defunct AllAmerican Football Conference expanding to thirteen clubs In the 1950s with the league broadcast on national television pro football finally earned its place as a major sport Rivalry between two successful professional leagues AFL and NFL became damaging for the sport in the mid 1960s as the two leagues escalated player payments With both leagues conducting college drafts for the same players the bidding war was out of control On 8 June 1966 the two leagues announced their merger deal The leagues would henceforth hold a combined draft and an endof season title game later known as the Super Bowl would be played between the two league champions In 1970 the leagues became fully merged under the name National Football League divided into two conferences of an equal number of teams each In the 1970s and 1980s the NFL solidified its dominance as America39s top spectator sport and its important role in American culture The American Professional Football Association was founded in 1920 at a Hupmobile dealership in Canton Ohio The eleven founding teams initially struck an agreement over player poaching and the declaration of an endof season champion and became the first American Football league in the United States in which the players were paid Super Bowl champions Green Bay Packers vs Kansas City Chiefs 3510 January 15 1967 XLIV New Orleans Saints vs Indianapolis Colts 31 17 February 7 2010 0 The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game rather than the year it was held the NFL season extends beyond New Year39s Eve 0 The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy 0 Roger Goodell is the Commissioner 0 Professional Basketball 30 teams as of 2007 0 The league was founded in New York City on June 6 1946 as the Basketball Association of America BAA The league adopted the name National Basketball Association in the autumn 1949 after merging with the rival National Basketball League 0 On November 1 1946 in Toronto Canada the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers which the NBA now regards as the first game played in the league39s history 0 During its early years the quality of play in the BAA was not significantly better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters 0 1950s and 1960s Celtics dynasty 0 In 1956 rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics who already featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach and went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons 0 Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league in 1959 and became the dominant individual star of the 1960s setting new records in scoring 100 and rebounding 55 Russell39s rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the great individual rivalries in the history of team sports 0 1970s The NBA vs the ABA The ABA succeeded in signing a number of major stars including Julius Erving in part because it allowed teams to sign college undergraduates The NBA expanded rapidly during this period one purpose being to tie up the most viable cities From 1966 to 1974 the NBA grew from 8 franchises to 18 Then following the 1976 season the leagues reached a settlement that provided for the addition of four ABA franchises to the NBA raising the number of franchises in the league at that time to 22 0 1980s Magic vs Bird 0 The league added the ABA39s innovative threepoint field goal beginning in 1979 to open up the game 0 In 1979 rookies Larry Bird and Magic Johnson joined the Boston Celtics and Los Angeles Lakers respectively initiating a period of significant growth in fan interest in the NBA throughout the country and the world 0 Bird went on to lead the Celtics to three titles and Johnson went on to lead the Lakers to five 0 1990s The Jordan Era and Globalization 0 Michael Jordan entered the league in 1984 with the Chicago Bulls providing an even more popular star to support growing interest in the league In 1995 the NBA expanded to Canada and to 29 teams with the Toronto Raptors and the Vancouver Grizzlies In 2001 the Vancouver Grizzlies relocated to Memphis leaving the Raptors as the only Canadian team 0 Globalization also occurred in the 1990s A growing number of NBA star players began coming from other countries Hakeem Olajuwon of Nigeria 2011 Masters 2000s PostJordan and Globalization Today the NBA has 30 franchises and continues to evolve as one of the premier sports leagues in the world Leandro Barbosa Brazil 0 Andrea Bargnani Italy 0 Pau Gasol Spain 0 Manu Ginobili Argentina 0 Andrei Kirilenko Russia 0 Dirk Nowitzki Germany 0 Tony Parker France 0 Ronny Turiaf France Peja Stojakovic Serbia Yao Ming China Most recent champion Lakers National Hockey League 30 teams as of 2007 0 It is the premier professional ice hockey league in the world and one of the North American major professional sports leagues The league was founded in 1917 in Montreal Quebec Canada with four teams 24 teams are based in the United States and six in Canada Most recent champion Boston Bruins Other major leagues Major League Soccer 0 Canadian Football League Arena Football League Major League Lacrosse and the National Lacrosse League 0 Dates April 7 10 0 Location Augusta Georgia Courses Augusta National Golf Club Rest of the 11 majors 1 0quot Tournament M Course Location U Open June Pebble Beach CA 0 British Open July Scotland PGA C ship August Kohler WI Col lege Sports in the Age of Television Scholarship an award of access to an institution or a financial aid award for an individual student scholar for the purpose of furthering their education Scholarships are awarded based on a range of criteria which usually reflect the values and purposes of the donor or founder of the award Scholarships may be classified into the following primary groups Meritbased financial aid for which financial need is not used to determine the recipient The recipient may be determined by students athletic academic artistic or other abilities The actual monetary value of the scholarship may be Athletic In the US and other countries athletes who perform well in various athletic endeavors are offered athletic scholarships Ethnicitybased financial aid where applicants must initially qualify by race religion or national origin 0 Needbased financial aid for which the student and family s financial situation is a primary factor in determining the recipient Usually such scholarship will cover all or part of the tuition and may even cover livingcosts Institutionalbased scholarships awarded by a specific institution to a student planning to attend that institution 0 General Other scholarships which are awarded for a variety of reasons which do not fall into one of the above categories These may be for reasons of the student39s association with the objectives of the sponsoring organization 0 Some scholarships have a bond requirement Recipients may be required 0 To work for a particular employer for a specified period of time ie uniformed services of the United States To work in rural or remote areas To repay the value of the support they received from the scholarship ie teacher training scholarships and health and medical education scholarships Fullride scholarships cover 0 Costs and tuition 0 Room 0 Board 0 Incidental expenses The coming of television in the 1950s marked a new era in the development of intercollegiate sports The 1950s 0 Was a boom time for professional football 0 A bad time for the colleges yet some intercollegiate sports emerged from the decade not only intact but on the verge of unprecedented prosperity College football experienced a surge in popularity Many colleges and universities dropped the game as too expensive The colleges and universities that clung to the bigtime game faced a double crisis 0 The impact of television on gate receipts The final throes of the ongoing controversy over professionalism 0 What were colleges and universities to do to deal with this double crisis They turned to the National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA The NCAA named its first executive director Walter Byers in 1951 he continued in that role until 1987 Took on regulatory and enforcement powers for the first time The NCAA in 1951 took control of broadcasting rights and established severe restrictions on the number of times any team could appear on TV The NCAA became the managing cartel of intercollegiate athletics The NCAA s r 39 the 39 quot g39 Athletic of the United States AAUS was established on March 31 1906 to set rules for amateur sports in the United States The AAUS became the National Collegiate Athletic Association in 1910 The NCAA is not the only collegiate athletic organization in the United States The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics NAIA is another collegiate athletic organization The NCAA often pronounced NC DoubleA or NCTwoA 0 Is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions conferences organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States o Is headquarters in Indianapolis Indiana s currently under the leadership of Mark Emmert 0 Is the largest collegiate athletic organization in the world 0 Is comprised of Division I Division II and Division III 0 Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport 0 Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships 0 Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III Division IA or quotDIquot schools are the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets more elaborate facilities and higher numbers of athletic scholarships There are thirtythree DI conferences Schools in Division IA compete in postseason bowl games The Rose Bowl was the only major college bowl game in 1930 By 1940 there were 5 major college bowl games 0 The Rose Bowl the oldest The Cotton Bowl 0 The Orange Bowl 0 The Sugar Bowl 0 The Sun Bowl The number of games increased to 32 in 2006 Currently bowl games are played from midDecember to midJanuary As the number of bowl games has increased the number of games a team would need to win to be invited to a bowl game has decreased Teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games or by having a winning record The Bowl Championship Series BCS is a selection system designed to pair the top two teams in college football against each other in the BCS National Championship Game In the current BCS format four bowl games and the National Championship Game are considered BCS bowl games The four bowl games are 0 The Rose Bowl Game in Pasadena 0 The Sugar Bowl in New Orleans 0 The Fiesta Bowl in Glendale Arizona 0 The Orange Bowl in Miami Point shaving a type of match fixing where the perpetrators try to prevent a team from covering a published point spread 0 Tim Donaghy is a former professional basketball referee who worked in the NBA from 1994 to 2007 0 He officiated in 772 regularseason games and 20 playoff games 0 He resigned from the league on July 9 2007 prior to reports ofan investigation by the FBI for allegations that he bet on games that he officiated during his last two seasons and that he made calls affecting the point spread in those games 0 On August 15 2007 he pleaded guilty to two federal charges related to the investigation Heisman Memorial Trophy Award aka the Heisman Trophy or The Heisman Named after former college football player and coach John Heisman Awarded annually to the most outstanding collegiate football player in the US 0 1935 Jay Berwanger 0 1942 Frank Sinkwich 0 1982 Herschel Walker 0 2010 Mark Ingram Death penalty 0 The NCAA s power to force United States academic institutions not to compete in certain sports 0 It is the most severe punishment in athletics that a school can receive 0 It has only been implemented twice 0 Against the University of Kentucky basketball program for the 195253 season 0 Against the Southern Methodist University football program for the 1987 season Proposition 48 0 Passed in 1983 by the NCAA Mandated studentathletes to reach certain academic eligibility requirements in order to compete for Division colleges 0 Required student athletes to have a minimum SAT score of 700 or an ACT score of 17 and a minimum GPA of 20 in at least 11 courses in core classes How much time do athletes spent in practice during season 0 nseason Outof season How much time do athletes devote to academics nseason Outof season Sanity Code Adopted in 1948 to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid available to student athletes Title IX A 37 word United States law enacted on June 23 1972 that states quot No person in the United States shall on the basis of gender be excluded from participation in be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistancequot 7 Ethnicity and basketball 7 30s and 40s 7 50s and 60s National Invitation Tournament NIT 7 Men39s college basketball tournament operated by the NCAA 7 Plays two tournaments each season The first is played in November and is known as the MT Season TipOff and was founded in 1985 The second is a postseason tournament played in March with its final rounds in Madison Square Garden in New York City and was founded in 1938 NCAA Basketball Championship Is a single elimination tournament held each spring featuring college basketball teams in the United States Known as March Madness as the tournament takes place mainly during the month of March and April or the Big Dance The tournament takes place over 3 weeks at sites across the United States and the national semifinals the Final Four have become one of the nation39s most prominent sporting events A total of 65 teams qualify for the men s tournament played in March A total of 64 teams qualify for the women s tournament played in March and April The women s final championship game is played on the Tuesday following the Monday men39s championship game The women39s championship game is now the final overall game of the college basketball season NCAA Women39s Division Basketball most recent Champions 2011 Texas AampM NCAA Men39s Division Basketball most recent Champions 2011 Connecticut 0 UCLA won 10 NCAA Championships between 1964 and 1975 7 Lew Acindor 196769 7 Bill Walton 197174 0 Multiple championship teams 7 Women 0 Tennessee 0 UConn 7 Men 0 UCLA 0 Kentucky 0 Tar Heels 0 Crises in college athletics in the 80s 7 Integrity of college athletic programs 7 Academic performance of athletes Exploding costs of college sports 0 During the 19505 the llBig Three Networks included d NBC CBS and ABC 0 The llWar on Poverty was declared in the by President Lyndon Johnson b 1960s 0 The llSanity Code of 1948 c permitted the extension of scholarships and jobs to athletes The parent of college bowls the Rose Bowl can trace its origins back to b 1902 17 American Sports in a Global Arena 0 Robert Bruce quotBobquot Mathias 7 A decathlete 7 Twotime Olympic gold medalist 0 the 1948 Summer Olympics held in London 0 the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki 7 United States Congressman Represented the northern San Joaquin Valley of California from 1967 and 1975 0 From June through August of 1975 he served as Deputy Director of the Selective Service 0 William Bruce Jenner 7 A US track athlete 7 Won the decathlon in the 1976 Summer Olympics 7 Was the 1976 recipient of the James E Sullivan Award as the top amateur athlete in the United States 7 Named the Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year in 1976 7 Inducted into the Olympic Hall of Fame in 1986 0 Differences between years of participation training athletes pursuit of medals 7 Robert Bruce quotBobquot Mathias 7 William Bruce Jenner The International Olympic Committee IOC 7 An organization based in Lausanne Switzerland 7 Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23 1894 7 Its membership is 205 National Olympic Committees 7 Organizes Olympic Games held in Summer and Winter every four years 7 Did not allow women or active athletes to sit on the IOC until the 1990s Olympic athletes compete as representatives of nations rather than as individuals Olympic Games and Cold War 7 Cold War tensions first intruded in the Olympics in 1952 when a Soviet team attended for the first time 7 The games took on political overtones that only increased as the Cold War heated up 7 The games became an almost symbolic struggle between the socialist and capitalist systems 0 Red Menace of 1952 Persecution of Communists anticommunist period in the USA Fearing Communism39s spread from overseas 7 The federal government waged a periodic war against domestic Communism and those suspected of sympathizing with it Many alleged Communists were arrested deported or called before Congress and effectively prevented from working 0 Some Americans felt these were legitimate tactics in the face of a dire threat 0 Some Americans considered them witch hunts that ruined innocent lives Athletic rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union dominated the 1952 Helsinki 1948 Olympics vs 1952 Olympics 7 More pressure on American athletes in 1952 than 1948 because of Russia s participation in the Games 7 Intensity of the Cold War IOC and South Africa 7 The IOC barred South Africa from the 1964 Games Why South Africa was barred from participating in Olympics following SA refusal to condemn apartheid Politics and the Olympics 7 1952 7 1964 7 1968 7 1972 7 1976 7 1980 7 1984 The 1996 Olympics were held in Atlanta 0 Commercialism and the Olympics 7 Corporate sponsorships 7 Multinational corporations 7 Exploding costs 0 Amateur Sports Act of 1978 7 Established a United States Olympic Committee 7 Provided for national governing bodies for each Olympic sport 7 The Act provides important legal protection for individual athletes 7 The Act charters the US Olympic Committee USOC which in turn can charter a national governing body for each sport


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