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by: Melyssa Gaylord


Melyssa Gaylord
GPA 3.96


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melyssa Gaylord on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Dowd in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/202037/soci-1101-university-of-georgia in Sociology at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Tuesday April 3 Education and Social Inequality 0 Key Political Events affecting American Education 0 The G Bill I Passed by Congress in 1944 Increased the size of the American middle class Significantly contributed to the expansion of colleges and universities o The 1954 Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka Kansas Supreme Court Decision 0 This movement also led to the formation of Women s Studies programs in almost every college and university in the country as well as the 1972 passage MM which requires a proportional number of women s sports teams and scholarship athletes as there are women in the school 0 The Coleman Report o The Coleman Report refers to the g r 39 research 39 39 by the sociologist James Coleman in 1966 I The title of the study is Equality of Educational Opportunity 0 This research remains today the largest research project ever undertaken I Coleman sampled over 4000 schools 60000 teachers and 500000 students 0 Coleman found unsurprisingly that in 1966 schools were still segregated by race I Almost 80 of schools attended by white students had 10 or fewer African American students o What was surprising however was the finding that the schools themselves that is the quality of the buildings the size of classes and so on had far lei effect on achievement than did the background of the students 0 Concerning his findings Coleman wrote that I llInequalities imposed on children by their home neighborhood and peer environment are carried along to become the inequalities with which they confront adult life at the end of schoolquot 0 The main conclusions of the study I Educational reforms although necessary and important will never completely solve the problem of functional illiteracy I lliteracy like many school problems has its roots outside the school in the social class backgrounds of the students 0 Test Scores and Social Factors o In the years after World War II and especially after the gains of the civil rights movement of the 1960s black Americans standardizedtest scores improved steadily and significantly compared with those of whites 0 But at some point in the late 1980s after decades of progress the narrowing of the gap stalled and between 1988 and 1994 black reading scores actually fell by a sizable amount on the national assessment 0 Reading proficiency scores for eighthgrade students in 2005 I 12 black students I 39 white students 0 Why does the gap exist o The divisions between black and white rich and poor begin at birth and are reinforced every day of a child s life 0 But specifically what might be some of the causes I Do rich parents have better genes I Did they value education more I Was it that rich parents bought more books and educational toys for their children I Was it because they were more likely to stay married than poor parents Or was it that rich children ate more nutritious food and moved less often watched less TV got more sleep and so on o The Research 0 Betty Hart and Todd R Risley child psychologists at the University of Kansas Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children 1995 I Beginning in 1985 Hart and Risley recruited 42 families with newborn children in Kansas City and for the next three years they visited each family once a month recording absolutely everything that occurred between the child and the parents I They then transcribed each encounter and analyzed each child s language development and each parent s communication style 0 The Findings I Main finding Vocabulary growth differed sharply by social class and that the gap between the classes opened early 0 By age 3 children whose parents were professionals had vocabularies of about 1100 words and children whose parents were on welfare had vocabularies of about 525 words 0 The Explanation Hart and Risley concluded that the size of each child s vocabulary correlated most closely to one simple factor 0 The number of words the parents spoke to the child This varied significantly by social class The kinds of words and statements that children heard varied by class The most basic difference was in the number of quotdiscouragementsquot a child heard prohibitions and words of disapproval compared with the number of encouragements or words of praise and approval 0 By age 3 the average child of a professional heard about 500000 encouragements and 80000 discouragements o For the welfare children the situation was reversed they heard on average about 75000 encouragements and 200000 discouragements 0 Conclusion I Language exposure in early childhood correlated strongly with Q and academic success later on in the child s life I Hearing fewer words and a lot of prohibitions and discouragements had a negative effect on Q hearing lots of words and more affirmations and complex sentences had a positive effect on Q The professional parents were giving their children an advantage with every word they spoke and the advantage just kept building up 0 Unequal Childhoods 0 Annette Lareau a sociologist studied a variety of families from different class backgrounds and found that childrearing strategies varied by social class 0 The middleclass families all followed a similar strategy in raising their children o This strategy which she labeled concerted cultivation means that these parents engaged their children in conversations as equals I They treated their children like apprentice adults I They encouraged them to ask questions challenge assumptions and negotiate rules 0 A Second Strategy 0 The working class and poor parents adopted a different strategy which Lareau labels accomplishment of natural growth 0 These parents allow their children much more freedom to fill in their afternoons and weekends as they choose playing outside riding bikes playing 0 However these poorer parents allowed much less freedom to talk back question authority or haggle over rules and consequences I Children were taught to defer to adults and treat them with respect Thursday April 5 No notes today Tuesday April 10 American Presidential Elections from 1960s 0 1960 John F Kennedy Democratic from Massachusetts defeats Richard M Nixon Republican from California 0 Kennedy way and remains the only Catholic ever to win the presidency o The election ofJFK was greatly aided by the fact that his runningmate Lyndon B Johnson was a Texan 1964 Lyndon B Johnson Democratic from Texas defeats Barry Goldwater Republican from Arizona 1968 Richard M Nixon Republican from California defeats Hubert H Humphrey Democratic from Minnesota 0 339dParty Candidate George Wallace Alabama Thursday April 12 1972 Richard M Nixon Republican from California defeats George McGovern Democratic from South Dakota 0 Nixon s victory was almost total McGovern won only a single state Massachusetts 0 The Watergate scandal soon emerged leading to Nixon s resignation on August 9 1974 1976 James E Carter Democratic from Georgia defeats Gerald M Ford Republican from Michigan 0 Carter s presidency was beset with high inflation and unemployment leading economists to invent a new word quotstagflationquot 0 Carter announced the quotCarter Doctrine in his State of the Union address in January 1980 1980 Ronald Reagan Republican from California defeats James E Carter Democratic from Georgia 0 339dparty candidate John Anderson Illinois 1984 Ronald Reagan Republican from California defeats Walter F Mondale Democratic from Minnesota 0 Mondale s running mate Geraldine Ferraro was the first woman ever to run for VP 1988 George HW Bush Republican from Texas defeats Michael Dukakis Democratic from Massachusetts 0 The Berlin Wall fell on November 9 1989 o The Gulf War lasted from JanuaryFebruary 1990 o The Soviet Union broke apart December 25 1991 1992 William J Clinton Democratic from Arkansas defeats George HW Bush Republican from Texas 0 339dparty candidate H Ross Perot Texas I Perot won almost 20 of the popular vote many of which probably would have voted for President Bush 1996 William J Clinton Democratic from Arkansas defeats Robert F Dole Republican form Kansas 0 339dparty candidate H Ross Perot 0 Clinton would later become embroiled in Monica Lewinski scandal which led to the attempt of Republicans in Congress to impeach him 0 TANF is passed in 1996 o The economy prospered in the 1990s 2000 George W Bush Republican from Texas defeats Albert Gore Democratic from Tennessee 0 339dparty candidate Ralph Nader o The Supreme Court in the case of Bush vs Gore decided that contested election in favor of Bush despite the fact that Gore won the popular vote


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