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by: Melyssa Gaylord


Melyssa Gaylord
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Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melyssa Gaylord on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 3460 at University of Georgia taught by Gill in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/202043/soci-3460-university-of-georgia in Sociology at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Exam 1 Study Guide Things in red mean they need to still be answered Please help answer all the questions Readings Political Sociology Definitions of power and how power is exercised G Weber The chance that an individual or a group of individuals can achieve their will against the resistance of others 0 Russell The ability to produce intended effects Power is exercised by o Decisionmaking o AgendaSetting set by people in power of what can and cannot be talked about 0 Opinionformation The definition of the state G Weber A group of institutions with a Central government that exercises control over the legitimate use of force over a given territory The definition of pluralism o A political theory that asserts that power lies with the peoplequot and the state is a level playing field on which grounds contend and no dominant interest group or class consistently prevails over all others De Tocqueville Perspective on power and associations and his two warnings about its future 0 we preform associations with almost everything we do 0 if men are to remain civilized or to become so the art of associating together must grow and improve in the same ratio in which the equality of conditions is increased 0 Americans make associations to give entertainment found establishments for education build inns construct churches His 2 warnings about its future 0 governments may reduce associational life and private enterprise 0 As equality of conditions improve so must associational life Citizens cannot become passive and apathetic as a result of am Comparisons between the US and Europe 0 United States there are always associations by themselves powerless associations as a means of action associated members must always be numerous to have any power 0 Europe perform singly do not need to combine associations only fot the means of acting numbers limited each brings strength How his ideas relate with the ideas of Robinson 0 amp Marx They both believe in the power not concentrated among the highest class and that this power should go to the people Although De Tocqueville believes it should be associations that leads to the end while Marx believes it is just a step Citizens alone have no power They have to unite to matter 0 amp Mills Power elite controls the decision making and oppresses the decision on the people and associations 0 Critiques of pluralism o 1 Ethnocentrism evaluating other peoples and cultures according to the standards of one39s own culture thought developed by the Western theorists o 2 Equality of Interest Groups are all groups equal to in their ability to influence the US state 0 3 Historical Forms of Oppression within Civil Society who are the people and does it include minorities and different ethnicity o 4 Depoliticized to remove from political activity Decisionmaking do the people have a say in all matters ofthe state 0 5 State Neutrality do state bureaucrats have no other allegiance than to the people And how did they become in power 0 6 The Dark Side of Civil Society Organizations are all organizations bene ting society Marx Theory of history 0 What the economic mode of production consists of The means of production The techniques knowledge tools and technology that societies use to acquire and utilize the resources food and products needed to reproduce society Relations of Production Individuals relationships with the means of productionclass and the relations between those individuals Bourgeoisie and Proletariat Role of the economic mode of production within histo The leaders of state interest are always those that control the mode of production How Marx views class and class interests the concentration of workers and objective capitalist relations of productions produce objective class interests current capitalist system based on class exploitation orthe inadequate compensation for ones labor and the value produced by it Why Marx foresees the overthrowing of the capitalist system Because the bourgeoisie are their own fall by developing modern industry they cant keep the proletariat as slaves fortoo long without having to help them by feeding them and giving them education and by that uniting them into a class The overthrow of the capitalist system and the development of a SocialistCommunist Society Aim and result Workers own the means of production class exploitation ends class system of stratification ends then the wealth is redistributed Theory of the state Marx s perspective on who ultimately dominates the state The group that dominates within the society will also dominate the state the one who manages the common affairs of the whole Bourgeoisie The Legal System and Police Force How the state relates with the economic mode of production question whether the state is in the interest of the capitalist linkto the economic mode of production Theory of capitalism expansion 0 Marx s perspective on the relationship between capitalism and expansion The nature of Capitalism requires that capitalist expand further around the globe in a quest for more profit Some state forces or individual Capitalists may expose Religious spreading Christianity Political spreading Democracy or Culture Civilization ends But at base they are only motivated by these ends so far as to facilitate Capitalism Marx s perspective on how capitalist expansion affects countries This expansion allows for access to cheap labor force and additional markets also in the process the process of expansion of Capitalism destroy s All old established National Industries as well as establishes International dominance in Intellectual Productionsquot Critiques of Marxism He reduces the role of culture and ideas for Marx History is Governed by the Materialist reproduction of society how we reproduce ourselves and our societies the determines our way of thought Marx reduces the role of Race and Gender all conflict within society is reproduced to class one relationship to the means of production Marx s prediction of where socialismcommunism would develop has not proven true Capitalist states have produced benefits for the working class welfare Unionization Medicaremedicaid Social Security World Culture Heterogeneity persists Hybrid cultures around the world The US influences other cultures as well as other National cultures influence the US Technology Music Marx is a Humanist and maintains ultimately positive view of Human nature Humans are not inherently good war competition inequality How Marxism relates with the ideas of De Tocqueville Gramsci Weber Mills and Robinson amp De Tocqueville Both believe that power should not be centralized rather owned by the people but Marx sees associations only as a stepping stone before revolution amp Gramsci both believe that there are class separations between the capitalist and the working class amp Weber There are class struggles in between people but weber thinks is more than class he also believe it is status or status groups amp Mills both believe there is a special class of people that have utter control over the state and the people amp Robinson both believe in the bourgeoisie and proletariat the only difference is that Robinson looks at it from a global more modernized perspective Gramsci Theory of traditional and organic intellectuals o Traditionallntellectuals the former intellectuals aligned with Economic Classes they engage in intellectual life as a profession People of letters Philosophers Artist Journalists Organic Intellectuals main task is not simply the production or proclamation of ideas but also MuscularNervous and Business activity they then may be workers and business persons engaged in Technical and Industrial Labor these individuals organically develop their ideas concerning their class through their active daily lives 0 Traditional intellectuals can only provide so much insight into the daily routines of class So each class needs Organic Intellectuals if they are to dominate a society Each class also requires Organic Intellectuals to articulate and convey the experiences of their classes Theory of domination and hegemony o Argues that a class maintains Coercive Dominance by occupying the State and commanding its forces Military and Police Class maintains dominance through Hegemony Hegemony Dominance a cultural dominance lnvolves dominance in terms of Ideas values and beliefs 0 ex Capitalism works best The free market provides for all Anyone can make it if you work hard Theory of the war of position Says the Revolution must involve a War of Position A war for Hegemonic Domination Its only the Organic intellectuals that can unify their class because they are the ones who speak the language of their class with the assistance of the Traditional Intellectuals they must develop their own ideas and organize their class How his theories relate with andor differ from Marx s ideas For Marx the Revolution will ensue when Capitalism fully develops The Proletariat is concentrated and the working conditions worsen Gramsci There is no Materially Right time the Revolution though will require Hegemonic Dominance first domination of one state over its allies O O Weber How Weber conceptualizes conflict 0 provides a Multidimensional portrait of Conflict o For Weber All sorts of Conflict characterize Society and conflict is never necessarily reducible to class Possible individuals act based on their class situation but not inevitable O For Weber Conflict often ensues between conflicting status groups and over issues of Culture Ethnic conflict Religious conflict conflict over production of Food School Curriculum or Celebration of Holidays or Conflict over Animal rightsect How Weber conceptualizes power as it relates with class status and party The power of class is their relation to the production the acquisition of goods and the power of property property or lack of property The power of status is their status honor or their special styles of life Party power is influencing a communal action no matter the content may be 0 Definition of the status group 0 Groups that include individuals with a similar Style of Life or Cultures a specific positive or negative social estimation of honor How his ideas relatediffer with Marx s ideas 0 Weber s ideas are similar to Marx s in the sense that they both believe that there are groups that can oppress other groups Although while Marx believes these groups to be the polarization of class Weber believes it is a combination of class status and party groups Mills The Higher Circles 0 Where the power elite is generally located and who it specifically consists of i Consists of those individuals inhabiting the Higher Circles of US Society Political the Executive Branch Military Joint chiefs of Staff and Top Military Generals Economic Institutions The Chief Executives of the most financially successful corporations 0 Theory of big decisions and democracy For Mills the Big Decisions of the day are ultimately decided by the Power Elite and allow no room for input from the rest of Society This is because the Power Elite occupies institutional positions that allow them control overthe big decision making process involving societies most important resources ii The Big Decisions include those decisions that have made a National Impactquot reformations of health care lnvade Afghanistan Fight against Gadaffi Need to tax Corporations or not and at what rate 0 Theory of history i Believes that structures don t necessarily govern History and that History does not move in any particular direction Rather argues Individuals are historv makers and can move in Any Direction depending on who or what qroup QOSSGSSGS power 0 How his ideas relatediffer from Marx Robinson and De Tocqueville i In contrast to Marx Mills believes their is no essential meaning in History and that class struggle has neither necessarily defined history nor will it ever ll iii Critiques Each part of the Power Elite may not necessarily be equal For Marx the State is subordinate to the interest of Capitalists i Each part of the Power Elite may not have Similar Interests Mills depicts the Power Elite as cohesive and largely in agreement over the Big decisionsquot 0 Sometimes Political Elites Executive Branch do push for Higher taxes on corporations and the wealthy Similarly Political Elites sometimes do push for measures that reduce the power of the Military Elites A reduced Defense Budget ii Mills focuses on the National State and he neglects andor could not foresee the rise of Global Institutions and Globalization iii Mills neglects the importance and success of Social Movements if it is the case that the Power Elite dominate society then how do social movements succeed iv Mills presumes that individuals in a Mass Society are largely unintelligent and are products of misinformation of Mass Media in some respects Mills finds himself an EIitist that views a Genuine Liberal education as the only path towards intelligence 0 However Intelligent individuals can become as doctrinaire as any one else v Mills Romanticizes small town community life as if exploitation and inequality do not exist on a smaller scale He also presumes that Communal m is nonexistent within cities local shops can exploit individuals as much as corporations Individuals can build strong social networks in cities often by choice rather than necessity The Mass Society 0 His difference between a mass society and a society of the publics Using 4 Criteria i Ratio of givers to receivers of opinion how do individuals receive their information and opinions and from how many avenues is it possible to receive information and opinions ii The possibility of answering back an opinion with out Reprisal Does the possibility exist to respond to authority and the powerful without sanctions iii Relationship between Opinion and Social Influence can an individual actualize hisher opinion in practice iv Degree to which institutional authority penetrates the Public does authority penetrate a society in a way that intimidates citizens into sheltering their opinions o In a Mass Society Mills Argues that i Far fewer people express opinions rather than recieve them ii the communications that prevail do not permit individuals to answer back immediately or with much effect iii the realization of opinion in action is controlled by authorities who organize and control the channels of such action iv the mass has no Autonomy from institutions and authorities penetrate the public in an effort to intimidate it o In a Society of Publics Mills argues that i Virtually as many people express opinion as receive them ii public communications are organized so that there is a chance to immediately and effectively answer back to any opinion expressed in public iii one can readily find an outlet of effective action based on their opinion iv Authoritative institutions DO NOT penetrate the public The Public is Autonomous from the state Globalization Definition of globalization a process involving increased Economic Political Technological and Cultural interconnections and interactions between individuals states and organizations across space and time Examples of Econo a b Political Globalization its four dimensions mic Globalization In Castell s opinion Technological Innovations has allowed for Economic Globalization Multinational Corporations have now become global in a sense that they not only sell there wares in multiple countries but now have manufacturing customer service and banking operations in many countries EX ATampT employs more customer service workers in India Hasbro has outsourced all but 1 manufacturing facility in East Meadows Massachusetts From US to China Technological Globalization Globalization is largely dependant on the rise of Informational Technology In the last 3 decades the rise of the Informational technology has allowed for Coordination and Communication that was impossible to achieve More significantly this involves the rise of Computer Technology Internet and DataBasing systems Institutions decision making powers now more than ever involve Global Institutions and Global Bodies The United Nations established to generate formal communications between all countries of the world UN establishes Treaties and Conventions The World Bank Issues Loans to countries to assist them with Economical Development International MonetaLy Fund 0 Promotes economic integration and has largely served as the Debt Collectors for World Banks as well as providing conditions and stipulations to countries that wish to receive WB Loans The World Trade Organization 0 Oversees International Trade arrangements and settles trade disputes between Countries 0 O O c Cultural Globalization Cultural objects can now be found all over the world A large part of Cultural Globalization foes involve Americanization Although English is not the most widely spoken language around the world it is the language that is most frequently spoke0 Music of US bands is found almost anywhere in the world US Bands routinely tour the world often selling more albums than the native artists US Fast food industries and food products can be found nearly anywhere within the world CokeCola has become most consumed product in the world Castells Changes he believes are characterizing contemporary society 0 Information technology characterizes a contemporary society In the last three decades the rise in information technology has allowed for coordination and communication that was hitherto impossible to achieve Most specifically this involves the rise of computer technology the Internet and databasing systems Ideas concerning the importance of information technology 0 In Castells opinion technological innovation has allowed for economic globalization that is the global dispersal of the production process itself Multinational corporations have now become global Robinson What the transnational state is a development consisting of several groups and institutions that is superseding the decisionmaking powers of National States Whowhat groups compose it Global Political Institutions International Monetary Fund World Bank United Nations and European Union a National States and their Governments those that wield the most power in Global Political Institutions US England Australia Canada Germany France Japan b Transnational Bourgeoisie that segment of the world Bourgeoisie that represents a Transnational capital It comprises the owners of leading world wide means of production as embodied principally in the Transnational Corporations and Private Financial Institutions Who it represents Those institutions and Practices in Global Society that maintain defend and advance the emergent Hegemony of a Global Bourgeoisie a in other words TNS represents the interest of the most successful Global Mobil Corporations The corporations that have spread their production process all over the world Global 500 What neoliberalism is o A set of Economic policies including i Liberalization of trade and Finances opens the economy to the World Market ii Deregulation which removes the state from Economic decision makin iii Privatization of Formally Public Spheres that could hamper Capital Accumulation The International Monetary Fund and World Bank carry this out and force National Governments to institute Neoliberal Policy39s if they want to accept loans from them Robinson argues that Now corporations can move anywhere they wish in the world without government intervention or strong labor laws


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