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by: Melyssa Gaylord


Melyssa Gaylord
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melyssa Gaylord on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 4610 at University of Georgia taught by Modzelewski in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/202044/soci-4610-university-of-georgia in Sociology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Cohabitation Article In 2002 over 60 percent of women ages twentyfive to thirtynine had cohabited at least onceJust seven years earlier this percentage was roughly 48 percent Who cohabitates over 5 million households in the United States headed by a cohabiting couple increasingly common in all demographic groups the percentage of marriages begun without first living together has dropped from 43 percent to 38 percent between 1990 and 2001 That is marrying quotdirectly39I without livingtogetherfirst has become the rarer phenomenon The most highly educated are somewhat less likely to cohabit Recent national data show that 45 percent of nineteento fortyfouryearold women h r a Graduate quot quot Lquot quot quot with 64 percent of women who have not completed high school cohabiting couples tend to have lower incomes than married couples cohabitors39 levels of unemployment are more than twice as high as those of married men and women and cohabiting families with children also experience higher poverty rates than married families with children being welloff financially and having high levels of education increase the chances of marriage both for people who are living together and those who are not quotselectionquotthat is marriage tends to be quotselective39I of those with better economic prospects and more financial security quottraditional39I versus quotliberaL39I Cohabitation tends to be less common among those who hold strong religious n i H n 39 who are tive and who are less supportive of equality between men and women there are few racialethnic differences in terms of quotwho cohabits I Blacks nonHispanic whites foreignborn and USborn Hispanics have similar chances of cohabiting Why move in together One motive is a combination of wanting to spend more time together and more pragmatic considerations such as logistics It is a gradual process as couples spend more and more nights together and jllst quotend up having moved in39 they o en cannot even state the date their cohabitation began We term this phenomenon a quotslidequot into cohabitation A second motive for cohabitation concerns nances Third young adults perceive cohabitation as an important way to evaluate compatibility for marriage this theme was highly dominant in our interviews Fear of divorce is very much intertwined with the motive of checking compatibility For them moving in together just makes sense and reduces the risk of eventual divorce they think that not living together rst would be foolish WHAT ARE COHABITING RELATIONSHIPS Like theyvaryin terms ofrelationship quality and stability the presence ofchildren and the division of unpaid household labor They experience slightly lower relationship quality and levels of commitment than do married couples Especially those with plans to marry are just as satis ed and committed to their relationships as married couples about onehalf got married Within ve years of the start of a cohabiting relationship 49 percent headed to the altar 37 percent broke up and about 14 percent continued to cohabit marriages begun by cohabitation may be slightly more prone to divorce than those that begin without living together but this is not the case for all couples because couples who marry without living together rst may have traditional values that also make it less likely for them to divorce Children and cohabiting families about 40 percent of the relationships contain kids About half of these children are born to the cohabiting couple while the rest of the children find themselves in cohabiting families because their biological parent enters a cohabiting relationship it is estimated that twofifths to onehalf of children born in the early 1990s will spend time in a cohabitingparent family 50 percent among nonHispanic white and Hispanic women and 25 percent among AfricanAmerican women are born to couples that live together Roughly 20 percent of births after marital separation or divorce are occurring in cohabiting unions It is also noteworthy that children born to cohabiting couples 24 are less likely to be reported as quotunplannedquot than those born to single women Overall the percenlage of women stating their child was planned was 54 percent for cohabiting women compared with 39 percent for single women Approximately onehalf of all stepfamilies in the United States are now formed through cohabitation rather than through marriage Division of household labor most marriages are still characterized by gender inequality in the amount of household labor performed cohabiting men do the same amount of household labor per week as married men nineteen and eighteen hours respectively while cohabiting women perform thirtyone hours of household labor per week compared to thirtyseven hours for married women Men substantially reduce their houseworktime both when they enter either marriage or cohabitation whereas women increase theirs under the same circumstances For most adults marrying for the first time cohabitation comes first for divorced adults cohabitation before remarriage is even more commonplace Work amp Family Article The average male works 435 hrweek in 1970 and 431 hrweek in 2000 While the average female worked 371 hrweek in 1970 and 370 hrweek in 2000 The 2 trends facing Americans is the growing split of the labor force and the transformation of family life These changes have divided Americans into those who feel squeezed between their work and the rest of their life and those who have more time away from work than they need or would like More workers are also putting in shorter weeks Employed women spending 30 or fewer hours on the job also increased from 1620 in total 13 million Americans in 2000 worked either shorter or longer work weeks than they would have if the 70s pattern continued Managers and professionals put in the longest work week Working relatively few hours is now more likely to be concentrated among those with less education and less elite jobs Most workers both men and women aspire to work between 30 and 40 hoursweek Men want to work about 38 hrweek while women want to work about 32 hrwk time squeezes are typically experienced by families not isolated individuals For all married couples the work week has increased from an average of about 53 hr in 1970 to 63 hrs in 2000 Married women are now far more likely to work now only one quarter of married families have only male breadwinner 35 of all married couple families had 2 wageearners in 2000 Twoearner families are more common today than malebreadwinner families Twoearner families put in close to 82 working hours in 2000 Male breadwinner couples worked 45 hrs in 2000 Women headed 15 ofall families in 2000 Single fathers remaina much small group but have also grown rapidly single dads work almost as much as single moms 37hrweek in 2000 American families growing reliance on a woman s earnings Dualearner parents cut back on their combined joint working time when they have children at home Parents in twoincome families worked 33 fewer hours per week than spouses in towincome families without children Couples with one child under 18 jointly averaged 81 hrweek in 2000 while couples with three or more children averaged 78hr it is the mothers who are cutting back on working Fathers are working more hours when they have children at home and their working hours increase with the number of kids Mothers worked almost 4 fewer hrweek than married women without kids The future of family wellbeing and gender equality will depend on developing policies to help workers resolve the time pressures created by the widespread and deeply rooted social changes The first step toward developing effective policy responses requires accepting the social transformations that sent women into the workplace and left Americans wishing for a balance between work and family that is difficult to achieve Competitive workplaces appear to be creating rising pressures for some workers especially professionals and managers to devote an excessive amount of time to theirjobs while not offering enough work to others Ways to help would be to revise regulations on hours of work and providing benefit protections to more workers moving toward the norm ofa shorter work week creating more familysupportive workplaces that offer both job flexibility and protections for employed parents and developing a wider array of highquality affordable childcare options If professionals and managers were given overtime pay for overtime work which wage workers are now guaranteed under the Fair Labor Standards Act the pressures on these employees to put in endless workdays might lesson Reducing the average work week to 35 hours would also reduce the pressures on workers and help them find a better workfamily balance Other countries most notably France have adopted this standard without sacrificing economic wellbeing They have found that workers with access to such familyfriendly options as flexible work schedules are likely to use them while workers without such benefits would like to have them We also need to join the ranks ofvirtually all other industrialized nations by creating widely available highquality and affordable childcare Mate Preferences Article The evolutionary models target 4 different types of partner attributes that could have affected reproductive success among early humans emotional fitness physical or genetic fitness relational fitness and social fitness Parental investmentbased models hypothesize that women who invest more direct physiological resources in their offspring than do men will be more sensitive to resource limitations and thus will be particularly attentive to a reproductive partner s social fitness Men on the other hand are assumed to be constrained by access to women who can produce viable offspring and thus should be relatively more sensitive than women to characteristics that reflect physical fitness including health and reproductive capacity Methods used to examine mate preferences rating procedure percentile ranking procedure content analyses experimentally Empirical Evidence the 2 most important attributes according to both samples of participants were quotdependable character and quotemotional stability Characteristics in order of importance prosocial personality attributes characteristics related to intellect and mental drive physically appealing attributes similarity characteristics related to social status Social allergens negative qualities of potential mates Individual and Group Differences there are only 2 attribute categories on which men and women demonstrate consistent differences physical appearance and social status menappearance women social status Culture is very important in mate selection The issue of Compromise we cannot always obtain the kind ofpartner we ideally desire And so we must compromise When we think we are running out of time to select a mate the available alternatives become more attractive Researchers have also found evidence that people moderate their mate preferences to take into account their own desirability or mate value There is a strong and positive correlation between ideal preferences and mate value People also appear willing to moderate their preferences by making quottrade offsquot among various sets of features In sum research indicates that men and women are willing to compromise their ideal mate standards by paying attention to external factors eg selection time that affect mate choice by taking into account their own mate value and by selectively choosing one characteristic or combination of characteristics over others The Issue of SelfReport Sex differences are greater in selfreport paradigms than they are in behavioral research paradigms This is the first of the two major sex differences ie men value physical attractiveness in potential romantic partners more than do women However the experimental data revealed that men and women were equally affected by the manipulation That is the physically attractive target was overwhelmingly preferred as a dating partner by both men and women This is the second major sex difference ie women value social status and resource attributes in potential mates more than do men Gay amp Lesbian Marriage Article Over the past 25 years increasing numbers of lesbians and gay men have had public ceremonies rituals in which families and friends are invited to witness the event Out of 90 people interviewed 32 had or were planning to have a samesex ceremony Of the remaining 58 28 commented that they might have a ceremony sometime in the future 30 stated that they did not want to have a ceremony either with their current partner or in a future relationship Samesex ceremonies fell into 2 distinct categories of recent 39 and of existing commitments 2 main reasons to have a ceremony to show their commitment and love to each other and to receive public validation of their commitments from friends and family l 39 and Gay marriages differ in 5 ways gay unions do not necessarily begin the process of separating individuals from their families of origin they marry in order to gain support rather than public recognition how their ceremonies made an important statement to other gay couples creation of recognition for a relationship within the gay community and ceremonies often are not celebrations of quotnewquot commitments and can take place at any time throughout the relationship Juggling Work and Family Film Questions 1 N 4 V39 Why is work and family con ict a structural issue according to Williams societg has created definitions of what an ideaL worker and what an ideaL parent are and often times theg do not work weLL together particuLa rLg because of time restraints Like not enough hours in a dag to deaL with both work and famiLg Why could the malefemale roles of work work before World War 11 What changed the roles ofmen and women in the 70 s and 80 s societg created a sgstem of work that had a cLearer division ofiabor if women did not have to work out of necessitg then theg didn t Two changes that occurred throughout 21St centurg or whg working women increased was the rise ofwomen39s education LeveL and the shift in views of what women couLd do because of their participation in Labor during WorLd War H in the 705 39part timeJ39obs in particuLar increased and then hours continued to increase in the 20s which Led to more fuLL time workers in generaL 3 What happened to the hours of work by married couples with children Who is working now Who is staying home with children Hours increased dra maticaLLg or both men and women The amount of hours peopLe worked increased bg 500 hours in 2 decades Mixture of both Parents working moms staging at home some dads even staging at home No Longer necessitg of uLL time wife at home because can use Nannies dag care etc How do organizations make it difficult for parents to raise their kids and still be good workers in exibiiitg excessive work hours expectations of overtime do not have adequate famiLg friendig work FoLicies Like paid maternitgpaternitg Leave sometimes a stigma for Part time workers How do organizations make it easier for parents to raise kids and still be good workers How does parttime work fit Having famiLg friendig PoLioies incorporating different tgpes o ob stgLesob sharing spiitting ajob bw two peopLe teLecommuting having abiLitg to work from home or outside of office contractuaLJ39obs 6 What has technology done to increase the problems of work and family con ict Teclmotogg has sped up the wag we alo basilless amt increased expectations beca age of that it39s created a sttaattow where peopie saw be 0m eaLL evew whew wot at work created 24 hour ava LLa butt5 Chapter 7 Union a stable intimate relationship between two people who live in the same household but may or may not be married By the 1800s most young adults in the US at least shared with their parents the responsibility for choosing a spouse young adults from the lower economic classes probably had substantial autonomy because there was little property for parents to worry about Courtship a publicly visible process with rules and restrictions through which young men and women find a partner to marry In early modern Britain the first stage of courtship occurred mainly outdoors in plain view of peers and kin Publicly visible emphasize the important role of the community Only ok for the couple to be together at public events and then only in groups this system ended after 1900 The decline in the US was linked to social and economic changes migration from rural areas to cities the rise of industrial capitalism higher standards of living and the lengthening of adolescence The possibility to meet people grew because now people could meet people where they worked Technology changed this era with young people having control over spending money and the automobile The teenage years arose and was given the term quotadolescencequot Not until the early twentieth century did a majority of teens enroll in high school and college enrollment also increased especially after WW 2 After the turn of the twentieth century was a new system of courtship based on dating A rule of dating was the young man paid the expenses Dating shifted the balance of power in courtship from women to men 19451965 the dating system had its heyday In the early 60s and 70s the age at marriage began to rise and the dating system became less closely connected to marriage Hooking up a sexual encounter with no expectation of further involvement this began in the 80s and became common in the 2000s 40 of college women said they had experienced a hookup 9 out of 10 whites and 2 out of3 African Americans are projected to eventually marry Institutional marriage a marriage in which the emphasis is on male authority duty and conformity to social norms This had clear rules and roles the husband was expected to be the head of the household and the wife was to be dutiful and submissive and the children obedient Romantic love wasn t necessary or even desirable rather spouses were expected to work other under the husband s authority to manage the farm raise children and keep food on the table But in the twentieth century companionship and sexual fulfillment became more important to a successful marriage Companionate marriage a marriage in which the emphasis is on affection friendship and sexual gratification a husband and wife in this type of marriage ideally adhered to a sharp division of labor This marriage reached its peak at midcentury by the mid60s the breadwinnerhomemaker companionate marriage was declining Individualized marriage a marriage in which the emphasis is on selfdevelopment flexible roles and open communication This was a shift quotfrom role to selfquot The influence of economic change the transitions from institution to companionship and from companionship to individualization had economic roots related to changes in the nature of work amp to increases in families standards of living Cohabitation the sharing of a household by unmarried person who have a sexual relationship Before the 60s cohabitation was common mainly among the poor and near poor In the 70s cohabitation increased sharply By the 2000s about 60 of women in their thirties had cohabited and 62 of marriages were preceded by a period of cohabitation Cohabitation continues to be more common among the less affluent and less welleducated Half of the births listed in official statistics as occurring outside of marriage are in reality births to cohabiting couples rather than to single mothers living without partners There are 3 categories of cohabitation an alternative way of being single a testing ground for marriage and an alternative to marriage Pure relationship an intimate relationship entered into for its own sake and which lasts only as long as both partners are satisfied with it Rewards refer mostly to the emotional rewards from love and intimacy Freefloating is independent of social institutions or economic life The median length of cohabitation in the US was less than in any other Western country just a little more than a year before either separation or marriage both are about half For high earning women cohabitation is seen as a way to evaluate a potential spouse and they are more likely to cohabitate than marry On the other hand highearning men are more likely to marry than cohabitate Hispanic and black cohabiting couples are more likely to conceive a child together and to remain cohabiting rather than marrying after the child is born Having a child with a cohabiting partner but not marrying afterward seems to be especially common among Puerto Rican couples whose culture has a tradition of consensual unions Cohabitation is becoming indistinguishable from marriage in Sweden and Quebec Multiplepartner fertility having children with more than one partner during one s lifetime this is more common among mothers who had their first children at an early age who were African American and who attended religious services less often Lesbians cohabitate more than gay men But not much difference partnered lesbians were more likely to have children present in their household Marriage market an analogy to the labor market in which single individuals for their parents search for others who will marry them or their children There are 3 components to this market model of marriage a group of people who are actively looking for a spouse at the same place at the same time the supply of men and women who are in the marriage market preferences and resources Specialization model a model of the marriage market in which women specialize in housework and childcare and men specialize in paid work outside the home Incomepooling model a model of the marriage market in which both spouses work for pay and pool their incomes Union formation the process of beginning to live with a partner through cohabitation or marriage Didn t read 220226 in PPF Chapter 8 From singleearner to dualearner marriage 0 Labor force all people who are either working outside the home or looking for work 0 1948 about of married women were in the labor force 0 Rose through the 905 o Leveled off in 2000 and has declined slightly since 0 Majority were working parttime 0 Behind the rise 0 Service sector workers who provide personal services education health care communication restaurant meals legal representation entertainment etc I Stereotyped as women s work paid less than men s work I Demand for these jobs increased wages increased and more married women were drawn into the work force 0 Populations shifted from farm to cities I Each generation had fewer kids I No longer a need for lots of child labor to help around the farm I Reduced the number of children being born reduced the number of years in which young children would be present in the home I Freed married women sooner from child care 0 Decline in the wages of men without college education 0 High divorce rate A profound change 0 Women working affected the balance of power between men and women 0 Instrumental in the shift from companionship marriage to independent marriage The division of labor in marriages 0 Movement of women into the labor force has created a llcrisis in carequot 0 Care work activity in which one person meets the needs of spouses children parents or others who cannot fully care for themselves 0 Carereceiver person who gets the care I Ex Children frail elderly ill or disabled 0 Caregiver person giving the care o Husbands and wives perform care work by providing emotional support and household goods and services to each other 0 Breaking the family and work boundary 0 Four principles I Separation btw what goes on in families and what goes on in the world of work is artificial and should be abolished I Care work as a public and private responsibility Valuing care labor caring labor is often underpaid undervalued and demeaned I Toward an ethic of care seek balance temper autonomy with interdependence augment personal responsibly with care of other Sharing the housework o Wives still do more of the care work 0 1965 women spent about 5x as many minutes on domestic work as the average man 0 2003 the gap narrowed to about 2 to 1 o The gap between childcare has narrowed 0 Couples have replaced some of the housework by purchasing services 0 Ex Restaurant meals cleaning services 0 Become accustomed to slightly less clean homes and wrinkled clothing Wives earnings and domestic work 0 When women entered the paid workforce they tend to quickly reduce the amount of domestic work they do husband increase the amount they do 0 Household were women work are consistent with social exchange theory 0 When women earn more than husbands gendered norms about how and men are supposed to behave take over 0 ldoing gender to counterbalance their atypical gender roles and show that they are still doing what people expect 0 Husbands income is not spent of substitutes income goes for housing utilities and other daytoday expenses 0 Couples still do not see women s and men s earning as fully equivalent Overload and spillover between paid work and family life 0 Role overload state of having too many roles with conflicting demands 0 Roles include worker spouse parent caregiver to other relatives 0 Research has not found a clear relationship between the number or roles a person must manage and the degree ofdistress she or he experiences 0 People with multiple roles may be able to compensate for stress in one by success in another 0 Multiple roles can increase one s social network 0 Provide more opportunities for social support 0 Can increase a person s sense of meaning and purpose in life which improves mental health Overworked and underworked Americans 0 People with professional and managerial jobs were working longer hours in 2000 than in 1970 0 Received weekly salaries that remained the same no matter how many hours they worked 0 Employers had an incentive to pressure them to work longer hours 0 People in other occupations were working fewer hours in 2000 than 1970 0 Received hourly wages 0 Instead ofencouraging workers to work longer hours they tend to hire parttime workers Spillover 0 Transfer mood or behavior between work and home 0 Spillover can be positive when the workday leaves you in a great mood and you hug your kids 0 Negative spillover argument with your spouse leaves you in a bad mood at work 0 Spillover flows from work to home more than from home to work 0 The workplace is less flexible and it gives workers little control over factors such as where and when to work 0 Workers can adjust their family life more easily Shift work and child care 0 Common way dualearner couples manage child care is to work different shifts o Couple may have little time for each other marriages may suffer o In a national sample divorce was 6x more likely among husbands who worked a night shift 0 Nevermarried or divorced mothers are even more likely to work nonday weekend or rotating shifts than married mothers 0 Often rely on own mother or other relatives for child care during the evening night or weekend Toward a responsive workplace 0 Work setting in which job conditions are designed to allow employees to meet their family responsibilities more easily 0 Beneficial to employees and employers I Fewer workers will quit saves employers the cost of recruiting and training replacements I Workers will be less stressed increase in productivity 0 Larger firms offer extensive policies like child care assistance and some form of paid maternity leave Flextime policy that allows employees to choose within limits when they will begin and end their working hours 0 Ex Work can begin between 79am and end between 35pm as long as they employee worked 8 hours 0 Collegeeducated employees benefit more than high school educated employees 0 Flextime doesn t necessarily mean increase in the amount of time parents can spend with their children it does allow them to avoid stressful conflicts between childcare and job responsibilities Parental leave time off from work to care for a child 0 Guarantee that the employee can have their job back when she returns 0 Family and Medical leave act requires companies with 50 or more employees to provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave for birth adoption foster care or personal or family illness Telecommuting doing work from home using electronic communication 0 New way to allow workers to combine work and care giving 0 Parents report difficulty in actually caring for a child while attempting to focus on work 0 Makes it difficult for employees to leave work behind anxieties of the workplace are more likely to invade the home People are caught between trying to fulfill the cultural ideals of what it means to be a good worker and a good parent 0 Can be solved with a llculture of flexibility I An atmosphere in which supervisors who are knowledgeable about family friendly benefits encourage employees to use the benefits and do not penalize them for doing so I Requires a culture in which being a good parent and a good worker aren t defined as mutually exclusive Sociology Exam 1 Review Chapter 1 TYPES of FAMILIES Nuclear Family consists of a mother father and their children 50 s idea Blended Family stepfamilies remarriage Family of Procreation the family one creates you spouse create kids Family of Orientation family in which you were bornraised Social Family people you refer to as family social bonds quotstrong enough to be family 2 ROLES OF FAMILIES Public family one adult or two adults who are related by marriage partnership or shared parenthood who isare taking care of 39 I 39 and the 39 39 39 39 focuses on the care that family members proved for dependents Ex married couples cohabiting couples or single parent with children single person caring for ailing parent gay person caring for partner with AIDS Private Family two or more individuals who maintain an intimate relationship that they expect will last indefinitely Or in the case of a parent and child until the child reaches adulthood and who usually live in the same household and pool their incomes and household labor focuses on the love and emotional satisfaction family members provide for each other Ex married or cohabiting couples without children gay or lesbian couples without children Boundary ambiguity a state in which family members are uncertain about who in or out of the family Created kinship kinship ties that people have to construct actively Assigned kinship kinship ties that ppl more or less automatically acquire when they are born or when they marry Reflexivity the process through which individuals take in knowledge reflect on it and alter their behavior as a result Gender the social and cultural characteristics that distinguish women and men in society Selfidentity a person s sense of who he or she is and of where he or she fits in the social structure Social institution a set of roles and rules that define a social unit of importance to society Individualism Utilitarian individualism Expressive individualism in book THEORIES Social Exchange theory sociological theory that views people as rational beings who decide whether to exchange goods or services by considering the benefits they will receive the costs they will incur and the benefits they might receive if they were to choose an alternative course of action costs vs benefits 0 Individuals with greater resources and more alternatives can drive better bargains Symbolic interaction theory sociological theory that focuses on people s interpretations of symbolic behavior 0 Individuals interpret the actions of others and act in ways consistent with their interpretations Feminist theory sociological theory that focuses on the domination of women by men 0 Society is organized in ways that privilege men over women Functionalist theory sociological theory that attempts to determine the functions or uses of the main ways in which a society is organized 0 Family life is organized in ways that are usefulfunctional for society Conflict theory sociological theory that focuses on inequality power and social change 0 Political and economic systems serve the interest of the wealthy and powerful Evolutionary psychology uses principles of natural selection to understand human personality cognition and behavior 0 Refers to Darwin s 4 ideas survival of the fittest variations are heritable reproduce natural selection Family stress theory how families react to stressful events suggests factors that promote adaptation to stress 0 Normal stressors marriage babies unemployment adjusting to new lifestyle 0 Abnormal stressors war famine economic collapse natural disaster Attachment theory emotional bond formed between infant and caregiver describes the dynamic of longterm relationships 0 Securely attached explores environment may cry when caregiver leaves seeks comfort when they return 0 Avoidant doesn t explore unresponsive to caregiver reacts to stranger in same way as parent slow to greet parent failure to cling o Resistant doesn t explore distressed when parent leavesangry when they return not easily comforted o Disorienteddisorganized insecure show confused contradictory behavior show combination of avoidant and resistant behaviors Biosocial theory suggests the attribution of disorders of personality and conditions of mind to the reaction of biologically determined personality traits to environmental stimuli nature vs nurture o Biosocial variables do not determine human conduct but pose limitations and constraints as well as possibilities and opportunities for families Family development theory tries to explain patterned change dynamic nature of the family and how change occurs in the family life cycle 0 8 stages of the family marriage birth of first child preschoolage elementaryage teenage launching adult children empty nest aging family Family systems theory to understand the family one must understand the individuals in it and their interactions with each other families are systems of interconnected and interdependent individuals 0 8 interlocking concepts triangle differentiation of self nuclear family emotional system family projection process multigenerational transmission process emotional cutoff sibling position societal emotional process 0 Questions for Interracial Families in PostCivil Rights America 0 What is the most recent estimate of of all marriages in US that are interracial How does that number compare to in the 1970s o In 1970 less than 1 of marriages were interracial and by 2005 that number increased to 75 of marriages that are interracial marriages between blacks and whites remain the least likely combination 0 What are the two beliefs that have made black marriage subject to legal cultural and political regulation throughout US history Where did these beliefs come from 0 Black sexuality and marriage has been the subject of legal cultural and political regulation bc of the flawed beliefs that 1 black people are fundamentally and biologically different from whites and 2 blacks are intellectually culturally and genetically inferior to whites Blacks and whites were required to create families within their own racial groups social norms and laws prohibiting interracial marriage emerged to continue this pattern 0 What is the onedrop rule 0 This was used to determine who was quotblackquot Bc of this rule the mixedrace children were considered black became part of the slave population and were counted as the property of their biological fathers This rule mandated that mixedrace children be categorized as black and develop a black identity What does the term border patrolling mean Border patrolling is racial hostility for both black and white partners even though it manifests differently by race and gender What did Erica Childs find in terms of differences related to interracial marriages for whites and blacks in general attitudes vs specific family members Blacks tend to disapprove of interracial relationships generally but they are tolerant and make exceptions for their family and friends By contrast whites tend to express approval of interracial relationships generally but they disapprove of those relationships for their immediate family or friends How did border patrolling differ by race and gender Interracially married white women particularly those with mixedrace children experience more intense and consistent forms of border patrolling Blacks report receiving responses from other blacks as attacks to their racial identity group loyalty and selfworth as a black person What is racial literacy Is a set of everyday analytical practices that include 1 a recognition of the symbolic and material value of whiteness 2 the definition of racism as a current social problem rather than a historical legacy 3 an understanding that racial identities are learned and an outcome of social practices 4 the possession of racial grammar and a vocabulary that facilitates a discussion of race racism and antiracism 5 the ability to translate racial codes and racialized practices 6 an analysis of the ways that racism is mediates by class inequalities gender hierarchies and heteronormativity What does research find on the effects of being mixed race for children Chapter 2 Conjugal family a kinship group comprising husband wife and children Extended family a kinship group comprising the conjugal family plus any other relatives present in the household such as a grandparent or uncle Lifecourse perspective the study of changes in individuals lives over time and how those changes are related to historical events Chapter 3 Sex the biological characteristics that distinguish men and women Gender the social and cultural characteristics that distinguish women and men in a society Intersexual a person who is born with ambiguous sexual organs Approaches to Gender Differences Biosocial page 85 Socialization p 86 Interactionist p90 Patriarchy p93 Chapter 4 Upperclass families families that have amassed wealth and privilege and that often have substantial prestige as well Middleclass families families whose connection to the economy provides them with a secure comfortable income and allows them to live well above subsistence level Workingclass families families whose income can reliably provide only for the minimum needs of what other people see as a decent life


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