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Europe from 18711914 The Age of Mass Politics Main idea The national state created a common framework in European politics Political politics dominated the politics of Europe from 18711914 Increased suffrage amp literacy in Western amp Central European countries during the late 19th century resulted in higher expectations amp demands among the people for the government to be more responsive to their needs Mass politics the ideological competition among the following conservatism liberalism I II socialism amp nationalism which directed the European culture from 18711914 0 More amp more people demanded the right to vote 0 Con icts between those who wanted to vote and those who did not want them to vote dominated the time period The Age of Mass Politics A B C D F1 Ordinary people increased loyalty to their government By 1914 universal made suffrage was the rule in Europe women did not get to vote until after WWI Politicians amp political parties in national parliaments represented people more responsibly as increased suffrage spread The welfare state emerged in Europe first in Germany then GB then France then the rest of Europe Increased literacy caused government to believe public education was important to provide society with wellinformed amp responsible citizens Governments of Europe often led by conservatives who manipulated nationalism to create a sense of unity amp divert attention away from underlying class con icts 1 Frequently government channeled nationalism sentiment into an antiliberal amp pro militaristic direction after 1871 2 World s 1 arms race German empire between 1871 amp 1914 A Government structure 1 German empire consisted of a federal union of Prussia amp 24 smaller German states Kaiser Wilhelm I ruled German empire beginning in 1872 to his death in 1888 Wilhelm I had ultimate power in Germany Otto von Bismarck served as the chancellor of German empire during Wilhelm I s reign amp was mastermind behind govt 5 Bismarck created bicameral legislation called Reichstag a Bundestag lower house represented the people of Germany aka the Volk b Bundesrat upper house conservative represented Ger upper classes the lander 6 German political system was made up of many political parties multiparty a Conservative Party represented Junkers of Prussia b Center Party Catholic Party Center Catholic Party gave approval to Bismarck policy of centralizing but promoted political concept called particularism advanced regional priorities Catholic issues c Social Democratic Party SPD Marxists advocated sweeping social amp political changes P 93 7 8 Europe from 18711914 The Age of Mass Politics German middle class largely left out of politics during this time period a German middle class scared of growing in uence of SPD so gave support to Conservative Party Kaiser amp Bismarck Bismarck saw Catholic Party amp SPD as major threats to government s power determined to destroy them but unsuccessful B Germany under Chancellor Bismarck 1 U 39gt 18711890 Bismarck established an integrated political amp economic structure for Germany while Germany dominated European diplomacy Bismarck unified German monetary system Established an imperial bank amp strengthened existing banks Bismarck developed universal German civil amp criminal codes Bismarck established compulsory military service for all males Bismarck very conservative hates political parties very uppercall promilitary nationalistic Tried to implement Kulturkampf struggle for civilization a Wanted to limit the in uence of the Catholic Party Center Party in light of Pious IX declaration in 1870 of papal infallibility 1 Most of North German states were Protestant 2 Most South German states Catholic 3 Bismarck wanted to destroy political parties fails in regard to Catholic Party because too strong b Social Democratic Party SPD also opposed to Bismarck 1 Marxist Party advocated sweeping social legislation 2 Sought universal suffrage amp genuine democracy 3 Wanted to demilitarize Germany 4 Bismarck unsuccessfully in Kulturkampf failed to destroy SPD However Bismarck showed political astuteness of realpolitik by instituting a number of sweeping reforms in order to minimize the threat from the left socialists a Put protective tariff to protect German industry German working class amp socialists approved Bismarck established social security in Germany Bismarck passed national health insurance Passed accident insurance hurt on the job would get paid Makes pensions amp retirement benefits available to German workers f Regulated child labor amp improved working conditions Despite a better standard of living for Germans workers did not leave the SPD stayed members which upset Bismarck a Bismarck still able to bypass middle class 9999 10 1888 Wilhelm I dies son Kaiser Wilhelm II takes over r 18881918 a Wilhelm II amp Bismarck do not get along b Wilhelm II opposed Bismarck in his efforts to outlaw political parties c Forced Bismarck to resign 11 By 1912 SPD became largest party in Reichstag Europe from 18711914 The Age of Mass Politics III Third French Republic A Establishment of Third Republic 1 6 LouisNapoleon defeated by German in FrancoPrussian war 2 Immediately a revolt in Paris called the Paris Commune 3 4 More moderates established a new National Assembly found in Paris of moderates amp Paris Commune Communist revolt only Paris conservatives legislative body from 18711875 a Chief executive Adolf Theirs Civil war in Paris between Paris Commune amp National Assembly from MarchMay 1871 a Fought in streets of Paris between Paris Commune amp National Assembly b Thousands died in war Ultimate winner National Assembly a Executed 20000 French Communists end of Paris Commune B 1875 National Assembly gives way to National French Republic 1 2 3 Dominated by middle class bourgeoisie French enjoyed economic prosperity Constitution for Third French Republic provided by legislative body called Chamber of Deputies takes place of National Assembly a Had most power in government b Members elected by universal male suffrage c Constitution for a weak president d Senate in Chamber of Deputies indirectly elected Leon Gambetta led during early years of Third French Republic established parliamentary superiority Reforms established by Third French Republic a Fully legalized trade unions b Jules Ferry member of Chamber of Representatives established secular education in France 1 Expanded taxsupported public schools amp compulsory education During 3rd Republic French govt fell dozens of times caused by the multiparty system resulting in evershifting political coalitions Challenges to the Third French Republic came from political rightwing conservatism a Major group that opposed them Action Francaise b Action Francaise led by Charles Maurras 1 Advocated authoritarian government with strengthened military C Boulanger Crisis 18871889 1 U 39gt George Boulanger French military officer conservative had support of military also conservative Boulanger planned a coup to overthrow Third Republic However govt discovered plan amp went to arrest him amp bring him to trial Boulanger escaped Fr to Belgium amp committed suicide Bou1anger s failed coup resulted in increased public con dence in the Third Fr Republic a Public does not more conservative military leaders Europe from 18711914 The Age of Mass Politics D Panama Canal Scandal 1892 1 France decided to build Panama Canal 2 Head engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps 3 Failed in attempt to build canal in Panama cost Fr taxpayers millions of dollars 4 Result French public perceived govt as corrupt thus reversing the popular gains the govt made after Boulanger crisis E Dreyfus affair 18941906 1 More serious threat to Third Republic 2 Involved French military falsely charging Captain Alfred Dreyfus a Jew with giving Germany secret military documents 3 Accusation totally false was actually a Catholic officer 4 Strong sense of antiSemitism in this affair Because of the Affair monarchists amp Catholic Church conservatives used incidents to try to discredit the Third Republic 6 Famous author Emile Zola took up Dreyfus s case amp condemned the military a Zola published J accuse newspaper article defending Dreyfus in 1898 7 Politically leftists supported the govt amp finally in 1906 the late was closed amp Dreyfus declared innocent released amp given commission back in army which he refused 8 Pure antiSemitism amp conservatives trying to take over govt 9 Led to alliance between Third Republic amp Socialists F 1905 Govt launched an anticlerical campaign antiRoman Catholic Church 1 Wanted to have more of separation of Church amp state in France G At this time Socialist Party gaining power quickly under Jean J uares 1 Won many seats in Chamber of Deputies from 19051914 2 Very similar to Germany amp its Reichstag H By 1914 Third French Republic enjoyed vast support of French people 9 IV Great Britain Politics in mid19th century A Period between 1850 1865 saw the realignment of political parties 1 Lord Palmerstone Whig Prime Minister amp dominant political figure in GB between 1 850 1 865 2 Old Tory Party transforms into Conservative Party led by Benjamin Disraeli a Jew 3 Whig Party becomes Liberal Party led by William Gladstone 4 After 1865 GB saw expanded democracy under both Disraeli amp Gladstone who were political opponents from different political parties B Benj amin Disraeli Conservative Party leader 1 Policies Disraeli argued for aggressive foreign policy expansion of British Empire amp supported democratic reforms not very conservative 2 In uence of Disraeli a Wrote a novel Sybil b Novel expressed sympathy for British working class 3 In uenced by John Stewart Mill who wrote On Liberty which called for absolute necessity of increasing democracy in GB 4 Internal policies not conservative foreign policy conservative 5 6 7 Europe from 18711914 The Age of Mass Politics Reform Bill of 1867 Written by Disraeli Called Disraeli s leap into the dark uncharted territory Appealed to Working people of GB with reform bill Bill expanded Reform Bill of 1832 Bill provided for the redistribution of seats in House of Commons to make more equitable for all British men e Provided more seats in House of Commons for industrial cities amp boroughs suburbs at expense of depopulated areas in North amp West GB rotten boroughs f Almost all men over 21 who lived in cities were granted right to vote g Essentially doubled number of men who could vote but still not universal suffrage Disraeli also reduced govt regulation of trade unions NOT conservative Created govt regulation for improved sanitation P99 C William Gladstone Liberal Party leader most important liberal in 19th century GB 1 2 3 U 39gt Very adamant in support of Irish Home Rule free Ireland Supported free trade amp supported extending of voting rights Different from Disraeli because opposed imperialism which Disraeli loved Disraeli Was king of imperialism Abolished compulsory taxes that supported Church of England Provided legislation for secret ballot Introduced civil service reform required to take exam to get job Reform Act of 1884 passed by Gladstone a Granted suffrage to adult males out in countries on the same basis as it was in the cities b Added 2 million male voters c Brought Britain close to universal male suffrage
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