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by: Melyssa Gaylord


Melyssa Gaylord
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melyssa Gaylord on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 3070 at University of Georgia taught by Krohn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see /class/202049/soci-3070-university-of-georgia in Sociology at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Study Guide Exam 3 Juvenile Delinquency FAMILY Family is the social institution uniting individuals into cooperative groups that over see the bearing and raising of children It has also been defined as persons related by blood Timeline of Family Structure Pre industrial Extended families were the norm When the nature of work changed from agrarian to industrial adolescence and childhood were invented Adolescence is seen as a transition period between adulthood and childhood the time to phase in adult responsibilities Family of origin is the family in which the child grows up and today in Western nations like the United States usually consists of only parents and children Role Modeling an important part of learning social role expectations is thought the observation and subsequent identification with and imitation of those who already fill those roles While parents instruct their children in regard to the dos and donts of social behavior the children also learn by watching their parents and older siblings Latchkey children is used to describe the numerous school aged children who return home after school to an empty house There has been little research that links higher rates of delinquency with children who have mothers who work outside the home When considering family size and birth order The oldest child becomes the llthird parentquot to younger siblings and identifies more strongly with adults as a result they are not as likely to be delinquent The youngest child also seems to be insulated against delinquency they benefit from parents with experience and have older siblings as role models Middle children are not usually given the responsibilities of older children and not given the freedom of youngest child Middle children are more likely to be delinquent Compulsive masculinity an overemphasis on manly characteristics Functionalist Perspective on Family View family as backbone of society Provides key functions Socialization most important Regulation of sexual activity incest taboo social placement ascribed status and material and emotional security Conflict on Family Family perpetuates inequality from generation to generations to the next by stressing Property and inheritance reproduces social class in each generation Patriarchy Race and Ethnicity Symbolic Interactionists and Family ndividuals construct family life building a reality that differs case to case Family is the most important agent of socialization Socialization is the lifelong process by which children and adolescents develop personality and learn cultural patterns Cooley s Looking Glass Self A child s image arises through interactions with parents Social class affects how parents socialize their children This position in social hierarchy determines who is more likely to be caught Kohn Lower class parents coming from little education and jobs that require close supervision cultivate obedience and conformity Millers Focal Concerns Trouble toughness smartness excitement fate and autonomy are all more common in lower class youth Adorno Parenting Styles Authoritarian lower class too strict Permissive middle class too permissive Authoritative upper class just right Symbolic39 39 is 39 Ithe most y of the r DIVORCE AND BROKEN HOMES Parsons Divorce is particularly damaging for males since they are likely to engage in compulsive masculinity Internal dimensions of family Relationship between parent and child and parent and parent Problem with internal dimensions like a loveless marriage is that these variables are difficult to measure Bynum Broken Home Thesis Broken home is a better predictor of delinquency where the internal dynamics of the family are broken like when a home is maintained quotfor the kids Violence between intimates Children according to learning theory who grow up in a violent household view violent behavior as normal and are more likely to engage in violent or delinquent behavior as a result Violence usually manifests itself as an external dimension of family life SUMMARY OF FAMILY Relationship between broken home and delinquency is ambiguous While it seems to be a contributing factor to delinquency the fact is intact homes produce their shares of delinquent MEDIA Non material cultures norms values and beliefs is learned through mass media Sutherland Differential Association Orignally argued that socialization had to be face to face However now we must consider media as a primary agent of socialization Media effects learning process which effects behavior directly through imitation desensititization and vicarious reinforcement 6 You re only drawn to media you already bring values to We learn our norms and values via the media Strain perspective on Media Media emphasis on ads and materialism facilitates a strain between goals and means Conflict on Media Media operates as an llopiate of the massesquot a means by which the cultural elite exercise control Early research on comic books said more time spent reading the more likely a child is to be delinquent But it is important to remember that just because a correlation or association can be shown between variables doesn t mean there is a causal effect Research has shown violent crime rates have not gone up because of the spread of mass media peak homicide rate was 107 in 1980 Demographic research has suggested that the Baby Boomers 187 Million who came of age in the 60 s and 70 s has been the reason for that spike Most criminologists agree that media can play a contributing role in violence it is rarely if ever the central cause Shuder points to a reinforcement of values we already have via media Robert Heiner Analysis of news media and delinquency 1 News coverage of crime and violence is usually so immediate that the viewer has little time to consider context of crime The incident becomes news not the reasons behind it 8 Entertainment reality shows emphasize violent crime that is often inaccurate and selective Also they disproportionately show minorities being arrested by white officers 3 The public sees senseless vicious and random crimes and routinely bypass thoughtful solutions about crime in favor of any angry response making delinquency good political capitol In the absence of strong or moderate paternal influence there appears to be a short term increase in aggression for kids who watch violent tv or play violent games However there is no correlation between porn and sexual deviance RELIGION Durkheim Said that religion was the backbone of society Marx said that religion was the opiate of the masses that keeps people s attention focused on other worldly issues Weber founded the sociology of religion He felt that religious ideas changed society and people and played a prominent role in how people thought and behaved Control Theory Religion serves as a control for adolescents and adults Learning Theory posits that religion reinforces conformity Strain Theory Religious communities may provide the adolescent with social support and thus reduces strains leading to possible delinquency Labeling theory religious participation reduces the likelihood of being labeled delinquent Problems with associating religion and delinquency How do you measure the extent to which a person is religious Taking into account cause and effect denominational differences family school etc Early research measured religiosity by church attendance the more you attend the more religious you must be Most likely religious kids come from religious homes that promote conformity and have the same peer associations media influence etc that also promotes those ideas Durkheim less integrative types of religion were more likely to have members commit suicide that more integrative groups The type of religion a person identifies with has varying degrees of control over the person and that is the key EDUCATION School is the first institution beyond family to be entrusted with children A shift occurs from who kids are to how they perform Arena Behavior a struggle for both status and territory An arena is a public place where individuals or groups are pitted against each other in struggle to determine dominance and often survival Schools are designed as a screening device their role is to acknowledge academic performance and intellectual development through awarding academic credentials Schools enforce middle class values BECAUSE most teachers are white middle class and protestant William Glasser pointed out that students who cannot cope with an unsuccessful school experience can either drop out or go to school and cause trouble FrustrationAggression Hypothesis Frustration arises when an individual is unable to reach some desired goal This frustration is vented in the form ofaggressive behavior Generally accepted that frustration can lead to aggression but it does not have to Malevolent Vandalism Activity in which property is destroyed out of malevolent motives on the part of the perpetrators Data on school crime is difficult to assess because school disclosure of crimes varies on a district by district basis and schools don t want to report crime and make their school look bad Mcdermott suggested crime and fear of crime should be viewed in a community context since schools which experienced high rates of crime tended to be located in high crime neighborhoods Weber bureaucracy as an ideal type is typiefied by a clear cut division of labor a hierarchy of authority an elaborate system of rules and regulations people treated as cases not as individuals and a clear cut career pattern for those working within bureaucracy Polk viewed education as one of the most important elements in delinquency prevention and control Functionalists on School 1 Schools teach norms and values of mainstream society in order to promote social unity 2 To unify a culturally diverse society of people into a unified whole and prepare children and adolescents for adult responsibilities 3 To transmit cultural values and norms as well as civics classes that instruct students in the political way of life 4 Foster social integration and teach new immigrants societal values and norms 5 Helps kids and adolescents to assume culturally approved statuses and perform roles that contribute to the ongoing life of society 6 Teachers encourage best and brightest and guide other students with ordinary abilities to other programs 7 This system of encouragement enhances meritocracy Con ict on Education Schools reproduce class structure from generation to generation They teach the values and norms reflective of a white protestant middle class at the expense of a lower class Presentations of ideas like civics classes serves as a form of social control Compliance discipline punctuality and respect ready kids for responsibilities as adults Kozor Found that lower classes and disproportionately African Americans who misbehave face more severe responses from teachers than do middleupper class white kids He also inequality with performance in school Standardized Tests Standardized testing shores up education and racial inequality and low academic performance leads to delinquence because delinquents are less likely to participate in school activities Standardized testing terrorizes teachers and principals and humiliate students Scripted teaching destroys teaching as a profession Standardized testing measures nothing more than test taking ability Critical thinking skills are lost Testocracy a person s value is determined by how well they take a test The solution is to abolish NCLB Symbolic Interactionists and Education Labeling School tracking has a direct link to delinquency Self fulfilling prophecy Kids who get tracked or labeled early are more likely to see themselves as such and perform accordingly The argument FOR tracking is that every student can t be taught the same thing at the same pace The argument AGAINST tracking Social background has more to do with tracking than aptitude Tracking separates students academically and socially Lemert Secondary deviance and the role of truancy truancy serves as a screening device for schools to drive away students who cannot succeed there Truancy labels a child deviant and the act leads to suspension or expulsion which is likely to lead to other problems 15 of African American kids k12 are suspended every year vs 4 of white kids BULLYING Bullying is no longer viewed as kids being kids Cyber bullying continues 247 Programs for bullying are designed to help teachers principals and parents to become aware of the adverse effects of bullying Zero tolerance measures are being re examined in light of research showing they do nothing to deter delinquent or violent activity Increased use of drug testing and videotaping is counterproductive Boredom is increasingly the problem PEERS AND DELINQUENCY Subcultures Cultural patterns that are strongly in opposition to larger culture Culture Entire body of shared and learned beliefs values attitudes traditions normative expectations and other forms of knowledge that is passed on from one generation to the next within society Goode s Subculture 1 interact more frequently with one another and more intimately than they do with members of other social categories 2 Have a way of life and beliefs tha are somewhat different from other social categories and 3 think of themselves as belonging to a specific group and they are so defined by those who do not share this trait The youth subculture has 8 functions Common values and norms A unique lingo Distinct forms of mass media Common styles and fads A sense of belonging Unique or distinctive status criteria Social support WNP P PF N Gratification of specific needs Reference groups Groups by which we make judgments of ourselves Cliques Small primary group within youth 39 39 that 39 the 39 39 time and conformity Adolescents routinely try on different selves within the clique Warr and Stafford Consistent finding is associated between delinquent friends and delinquent behavior and is often dependent on motivation and opportunity PROSTITUTION 1500 prostitutes under 18 were arrested in 2008 100000300000 estimated under age prostitutes in the United States Most prostitution is directly related to running away 100000 arrested as runaways each year Safe Haven Laws are designed to decriminalize the abandonment of children but has had unintended consequences Kids thrown out of houses and prostitution is the only place they have to turn DRUGS AND ALCOHOL Under 18 arrested for drugs 195000 For Alcohol 176000 Elliot Peer group which a teen is a part of plays a huge role in determining who uses drugs Rebellion does play a part but more often teens are motivated by peer pressure and proximity to delinquency Sex peer group and delinquency Juveniles account for 25 of sex offenses in the United States GANGS Shaw and Mckay Gangs are like a pickup game of basketball Most delinquency is committed by group is often spontaneous game like and thrill seeking in nature Gang activity however is more often organized purposeful hierarchal and historical National Youth Gang Center estimated in 2008 that there were 2000025000 youth gangs in the US with 700000800000 members committing crimes in approximately 5000 cities Most of these estimates come from police departments but federal funding to aid police departments in dealing with gang activity is also attached to such numbers There is a financial motive for police departments and chiefs to redefine group delinquency and gang delinquency Gangs arise and form around social class as well as race and ethnicity in neighborhoods where there is concentrated poverty and immigrant status Half of all juvenile crimes are attributed to gang members Motives for Membership Fear of being alone or vulnerable boredom defiance of authority figures loyalty to racial or ethnic groups adventure money and poor relationships with parents Coleman39s Social Capital a reservoir of resilience in some individuals that enables them to resist the allure of potentially damaging associates and activities Acquired through nurturing intergenerational family relationships etc What marked the rite of passage to adulthood in agrarian society The Marriage Ceremony Which phrase is used to describe numerous children who return home alone after school Latchkey Children there are an estimated 3 million A school that has 2000 African Americans 2000 Latinos and 100 white students would be considered resegregated NOT diverse Violence usually manifests itself as an external dimension of family life such as bruises etc Research links higher rates of delinquency with a lack of supervision of children Media affects learning processes which affect behavior through imitation desensitization normative socialization and vicarious reinforcement A reference group is a group with which an individual has a strong sense of identity regardless of his or her actual membership in the group Harry Gracey contended the primary purpose of kindergarten is to introduce them to a rational beauracratic structure Dawn of 1990 s saw renewed effort in censorship spawned by hip hop music Describe 2 of 3 sociological perspectives on family and their take on the families relationship to juveniles Study Guide 2 Chicago School is concerned with urbanization and effect of crime on community s citizens The Medical Model of Sociology describes delinquency as a pathology one is quotsickquot and must be made better This can be a problem because it gives an quotexcusequot for deviant actions Social EcologyDisorganization Theories Thomas and Zhanecki s quotThe Polish Peasant 1927 Discussed how social disorganization breaks down traditional roles Concentric Zone Model Park and Burgess The closer you get to inner cities the higher the crime rates because social disorganization is higher Shaw and McKay argued that it was the place not the people that caused the crime anyone in these environments would have social norms that break down and are replaced with disorganization Inner zone theories do not explain white and upper middle class crime or the fact that most people even in inner zones don t commit crimes Neodisorganization Economic deprivation results in an underclass who are trapped in a state of social disorganization that leads to anger frustration violence and crime Stark Poor and urban neighborhoods suffer from social disorganization9 stigmatizes residents 9 fosters criminal mentality Neighborhoods become known for crime9 Police begin to target those areas Higher crime rate Broken Windows Theory Wilson and Kelling Physical disorder creates crime and delinquency like prostitution graffiti physical signs of deviance create the appearance of disorder and invite further disorder that is more serious Criticisms of Ecological Theories s poverty causing crime Why don t all inner city residents commit crime Why are crime rates actually falling in some inner city areas They assume economic norms of materialism for everyone Strain Theories Agnew Deprived communities suffer from greater strains lower control and higher rates of delinquency as a result Merton s Strain Theory Crime and deviance arise from society s goals and means by which it prescribes attaining those goals If you buy into the means and goals Conformist If you buy into the goal but reject the means innovator If you reject both and escape society Retreatist Reject both and find your own way Rebel Merton argued that the most dangerous of these categories was rebellion Criticism Can t explain upper or middle class deviance assumes people want to be well off financially doesn t explain violent crime empirical evidence doesn t support Messner and Rosenfield Explained middle and upper class deviance with Merton s theory by adding the idea of relative deprivation someone will always have more than you They also argued that while people may be the same economically they have other goals to aspire to like respect and masculinity Agnew s General Strain Theory Removal of positive stimuli or introduction of negative stimuli adds to repeated stress emotions and anger increased drug abuse etc Violence is determined by source of the strain Like violence is about masculinity and terrorism about religion Agnew also argued that strains that usually lead to violence share several characteristics Strain viewed as unjust by strainee viewed with high magnitude by person who experiences strain and person with strain already has low self control Subcultural theories focus almost exclusively on lower class deviants Cohens Non Economic and Non Utilitarian Delinquency Status frustration over differences between middle class values and lower class norms Delinquency is about a good time as opposed to economic gain Miller Delinquency is caused by lower classes common cultural values not that they are good or bad just different There are 6 identifiers for this Trouble toughness smartness excitement fate fatalism and autonomy These ideas are not found in middle class culturesvalues Wolfgang and Ferracuti A Subculture that values violence is more common among lower classes especially in urban AfricanAmerican males than elsewheremore delinquency in these populations Anderson s Code of The Streets Delinquent gangs and subcultures arise in impoverished neighborhoods and a code of behavior emerges which becomes part of a street subculture that fosters delinquent and violent behavior 9 Linked to social disorganization Criticisms Suffer from Methodological problems only male only lower class and circular reasoning Cloward and Ohlin Legitimate and Illegitimate opportunities depending on where one resides determined by class if illegitimate opportunity outweighs legitimate opportunities a youth will go illegitimate and vice versa SOCIAL PROCESS THEORIES Symbolic interactionism Society as a product of every day interactions of individuals Learning theories Crime and deviance are learned behaviors no one is inherently bad but become that way through socialization Learning theories can answer questions structural theories can t why all or most people don t commit crime and can explain why upper and middle class people commit crimes Sutherland s Differential Association Person s tendency towards conformity depends on relative contact with others who encourage conventional behaviors and those who don t 9 steps Criminal behavior is learned Behavior is learned through interactions with other people Learning occurs within personal intimate groups Learning includes techniques and specific motives rationalizations and attitudes Direction is learned from favorable and unfavorable outcomes IE law is bogus or should be followed 9Differential Association my vary in frequency duration and priority Socialization is the key to understanding behavior lt Criminal and non criminal behaviors are the expression of the same needs and values BUT do we become influenced by delinquency or is delinquency caused by being with others who are also delinquent Other criticisms You can t measure the influence of peer groups so empirical evidence can t be collected There s a lack of research for females Variations on Differential Association Glaser s Differential Identification It s not necessary for a juvenile to interact or socialize with a deviant peer group simply identifying with or wishing to join such a peer group is enough Bandora s Social Learning Theory of Aggression Repeated exposure to violent TV and film causes children to be similarly aggressive Sykes and Matza s Techniques of Neutralization Deny culpability guilt deny victim it didn t hurt anybody condemnation of condemner it s your fault I did it and an appeal to higher loyalties CONTROL THEORIESSOCIAL BOND THEORIES Question becomes why most people aren t criminal Social Bond Theory Essence of social control lies in anticipating consequences Conformity can be linked to 4 types of social controls Attachment commitment involvement and beliefs The more a person is attached to these conventional norms of society the less likely they are to be deviant Bond theory is separated from learning theories by motivation Bond theory assumes everyone is tempted by delinquency but develops social bonds which prevent them from acting on temptation Broken home thesis A household where single parents are more likely to be found are more likely to have delinquents in theory the children have fewer social bonds Evidence has suggested a short term effect like when parents get divorced but not long term effects that prove this Bond theory assumes girls are more attached to family school and other conventional beliefs than are boys explaining lower deviance rates Also assumes whites are more likely to be bonded to society because typically social bonds are white values and beliefs It s also assumed that with age you mature out of deviance typically maturation theory and become more attached to conventional means and goals Self Control Theory A lack of self control on behalf of deviant Circular reasoning and causal order 6 Criticism Tittle s Control Balance Theory Those who exercise control over other sand those who have control excercised over them are more likely to be criminal or deviant than those with a controlled power balance ration Reckless Containment Theory nner and outer containment positive self concept family and external pressures poverty and pulls delinquent peers He believed that veryone was pre disposed to deviance separation of deviants from conformists degree of individuals personality can reign in deviant impulses CONTROLCRITICAL THEORIES Social Conflict Paradigm Society is an arena of inequality that generates social conflict and crime Crime results from the way society is arranged by power economics capitalism and various demographics Capitalism encourages a culture that promotes individualism materialism selfishness and greed all of which can be found at the roots of criminal activity Labeling Theories Deviance and conformity result not from what people do but how others define and respond to those acionts Imagining official and unofficial reations is what motivates some to be delinquent and others not to be Becker No action is inherently deviant Deviant behavior becomes such because people so label it Deviance becomes relevant What may be deviant one place is not deviant others Tannenbaum s Tagging Hypothesis Tagged deviant by community peers etc people take that label to heart and begin to act the part they ve been quottaggedquot with Chambliss Saint s and Roughnecks Our impressions of people guide how we label them dressed nice not as likely to see deviant as if dressed cheap or differently Lemert s Primary and Secondary Deviance Primary is passing act secondary is taking on deviant label after primary act and committing more deviance Goffman s Stigmatixation Some internalize deviant image some don t Garfinkel 39 an entire 39 39 39 an individual Scheff Retrospective labeling Braithwaite Restorative justice focuses on restoring bonds between convicted and society Currie Upper and middle class deviance is result of lax parenting or very harsh parenting Medicalization of Deviance Transformation of moral or legal issues to medical matters


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