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by: Earl Stroman


Earl Stroman
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Earl Stroman on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GRMN 1002 at University of Georgia taught by Morgan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see /class/202053/grmn-1002-university-of-georgia in German at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Aufgehfs beginning ernnan language and culture interactive v 21 grammareeguenee llhristina J Wegel Based on the work of Richard langsIen llNB Chapel Hill wwwenfgehmeem Auf geht s Grammar Table of Contents 11 Basic verbs in present tense 12 sein and haben 13 Nouns and gender 14 Subject pronouns 15 Basic word order 16 Asking questions 212 Stemchanging verbs 23 gern 24 Definite indefinite and possessive articles 25 Comparisons 312 Plural forms 33 Separable prefix verbs 34 mochten 35 Subjects and objects 36 Telling time 37 Accusative prepositions 38 Negation with nicht and kein 41 Modal verbs 423 Time expressions 44 Adjectives 45 Dative prepositions 51 war and hatte 52 The conversational past 53 Coordinating conjunctions 61 we and wohin 62 Twoway prepositions 63 Subordinating conjunctions 12 14 Auf geht s Grammar Table of Contents 7 Bildung 71 The narrative past 72 The dative case 73 Modals in the narrative past 8 Europa 81 The superlative 82 wissen and kennen 83 The genitive case 9 Unser Alltag 91 Dative expressions 92 wenn wann 93 Reflexive verbs and pronouns 101 welch and dies 102 Unpreceded adjectives 103 Future with werden 111 als for past events 112 nachdem and bevor 113 More twoway prepositions 121 Subjunctive mood using wiirden 20 22 24 26 28 122 sein haben and modal verbs in the subjunctive mood 123 Subjunctive mood with wenn o 11 Basic verbs in present tense o 12 sein and haben o 13 Nouns and gender o 14 Subject pronouns o 15 Basic word order o 16 Asking questions 11 Basic verbs in present tense The verbs sein to be and haben to have follow their own rules but many other verbs that we use frequently follow a standard conjugation pattern As an example we will look at how the verb machen to do to make behaves Subject Conjugated Verb Ending ich mache e du machst st er sie es macht t wir machen en ihr macht t sie 3rd person plural machen en Sie you formal machen en These endings apply more or less to a large number of regular German verbs so you should memorize these as soon as possible 12 sein and haben The verbs sein and haben are two fundamental verbs in Germanijust like in English It s great to know that we can rely on these two verbs to have basic conversations It s lessthangreat that these two important verbs follow their own rules For every subject pronoun we have to learn a new form that is we have to conjugate the in nitives sein and haben to match the subject In modernday English we can only still see this in the verb to be I am you are heisheiit is etc and the 3rd person singular as in He talks to me Here are the conjugated forms for sein And here are the conjugated forms for haben ich bin wir sind ich habe wir haben du bist ihr seid du hast ihr habt er sie es ist Sie sind er sie es hat Sie haben 13 Nouns and gender German has two approaches to grammatical gender one that s logical as in der Mann die Mutter das Telefon and one that seems random at best der Maschinenbau die Universita39t das Kind You ll need to learn the correct gender for every noun The gender is indicated by the der die das in front of each noun and called a de nite article It s best to learn the de nite articles for each noun since the inde nite articles gin eine ein don t differentiate between masculine and neuter Imagine these sentences in English Here are a school and a restaurant It is ugly Phrased like that we wouldn t know whether the speaker nds the school or the restaurant ugly In German the subject pronoun it in English would make that clear as in Hier sindeine Schule und ein Restaurant Sie st ha39sslich Clearly the speaker nds the school ugly and not the restaurant The grammatical gender of Schule corresponds to Sig If the speaker found the restaurant ugly he would have said Es ist ha39sslich since it s das Restaurant aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Aufgeht s Grammar1 Smalltalk 2 14 Subject pronouns Germanijust as Englishihas different subject pronouns A pronoun is a word such as he or it that replaces a noun We use a number of pronouns to show differences between people and things that we are talking about Subject pronouns are very useful When we use them we do not have to repeat the subject as a noun over and over again In German these subject pronouns are ich wir du you informal ihr you informal plural er sie es sie 3rd person plural 7 Sie you formal The pronoun has to correspond to the noun that it replaces Thus we would say Der Mann istjung Er but 1722 Frau Sig hez Et Claudia In the beginning you will focus your attention only on the subject pronouns listed above with the exception of ilzr As you study German you will encounter what you might perceive as random gender designations for things For example die Universitz z t is feminine das Telefon is neuter and der Film is masculine So you would say Die Universitiz39t st grog Sie st schb n It may sound odd now but your ears will get used to it 15 Basic word order The most basic way to construct a sentence is to start with the subject The subject is often the person doing something The subject can of course also be a thing For example Das Telefon klingelt Zaut The phone rings loudly For basic word order keep Subject Verb X SV X in mind Das Telefon klingelt Zaut Subject Verb X You can also create more complex sentences as well as sentences that do not start with the subject For both basic and more complex sentences you need to remember that the verb has to remain the second element in the sentence This rule holds true with a few exceptions We can see how this works using our sentence above Ifwe want to emphasize the fact that the phone rings loudly we would say Laut lrlingelt das Telefon As you can see the verb remains the second element in the sentence 16 Asking questions When it comes to asking questions we can still apply the rule of the verb as the second sentence element For socalled wquestionsinamed as such because their questions words begin with the letter withe verb is again the second element A question you most likely heard on the rst day of class can serve as a guide We hei en Sig What is your name The wquestion words to learn at this point are warm when wie how was what wo where wer who woher where from However not all questions that we ask require a wquestion word If we want to inquire about something that can be answered with yes or no the question is built differently These yesnoquestions look like inverted basic sentences Instead of putting the verb in the second position these types of questions place it in the rst position as in HeiEen Sig Robert Is your name Robert You would answer either ja or nem depending on whether your name is actually Robert aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 o 212 Stemchanging verbs o 23 gern o 24 Definite indefinite and possessive articles o 25 Comparisons 212 Stemchanging verbs You have already learned the verbs sein and haben which both have irregular conjugated forms German has countless verbs that follow a very regular pattern for different forms such as wolmen to live which becomes for example ich wolme The 7e on the stem wolm indicates the 1st person singular The stem wolm stays the same throughout the various conjugations eg du wolmst wir wolmen With stemchanging verbs the stem itself changes for the 2nd and 3rd person singular These stem changes are specially marked on your vocabulary lists Make sure you learn these forms with the verb Take a look at the verb lesen to read ich lese wir lesen du liest ihr lest er sie es liest Sie lesen Even though stemchanging verbs are dif cult at rst there are certain patterns you can follow Here is a comprehensive list of these patterns 395 au u e i e ie In Unit 2 there is one other stemchanging verb to learn fahren to drive which also occurs in Fahmzd fahren to ride a bike Sie fz39z39hrt Fahmzd 23 gern Gem is a simple yet effective word that expresses that you like something You can also use it to express your dislike of something by adding nicht to the adverb gem Take a look at this example Er Ziestgem Gedichte He likes to read poems If you however do not like to read poems you can say ch lese nicht gem Gedichte The placement ofgern is fairly straightforward put it after the verb as in ch fahre gem Ski If you want to negate gem with nicht place gem after nicht ch fahre nicht gem Ski There is one additional speci c word order that is worth remembering when you want to say that you like a book a lm or a class Ich habe das Buch gem I like the book Ich habe den Film gem I like the lm Ich habe den Kurs gem I like the class As you can see gem goes to the end of the sentence and not after the verb haben The expression gem haben is a xed one and the object that you like goes between the verb and modi er here gem It is important to learn this exception as it supplies you with the possibility to state your likes or dislikes quickly aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Aufgeht s Grammar2 Familie und Freunde 4 24 Definite and indefinite articles German just like English has different types of articles two of which are de nite der die das and inde nite ein eine ein In English it is important to differentiate between the different types of articles in order to express different meanings There is a small yet important difference between these two sentences The man sees a mother A man sees his mother The same holds true for German DerMann sieht eine Mutter Ein Mann siehz sei39ne Mutter In German however you also have to pay attention to the correct gender masculine feminine neuter and the different cases At the moment you use most often the nominative case the subject case and the accusative case the object case Here is a simple example ch Zese ein Buck The subject nominative is ich and the object is ein Buch De nite and inde nite articles behave in a rather straightforward way for subjects de nite inde nite masculine der ein feminine die eine neuter das ein Possessive articles Possessive articles are words that show to whomwhat something belongs Here is a list of German possessive articles and their English counterparts mein mine ihr her euer your informal plural dein your informal sein its ihr their sein his unser our Ihr your formal In order to use possessive articles correctly you need to know both the gender of the noun that it refers to and the noun that it precedes Ich habe eine Tante Ihre Schwester hat ein Restaurant I have an aunt Her sister has a restaurant Ich habe auch einen Onkel Seine Schwester hat eine I also have an uncle His sister has a bar and Kneipe und sein Bruder hat ein Kino his brother has a movie theater When you use possessive articles you must to pay attention to several different things 0 the gender of the person or thing that it refers to 0 the gender of the noun that it modi es also a person or a thing and 0 the case of the noun that it precedes more on this in Unit 3 Take another look at the second set of the two sample sentences above Ich habe auch einen Onkel Seine Schwesterhat eine Kneipe und sein Bruder hat ein Kino The possessive articles are seine and sein respectively Both mean his in English In German you have to use sein or any other appropriate possessive article plus an ending if applicable The seine as in seine Schwester indicates that the possessive article refers back to a masculine person while it modi es a feminine noun The sein in sein Bruder indicates that the possessive article refers back to a masculine person while it modi es a masculine noun Therefore there is no additional ending aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar2 Familie und Freunde 5 25 Comparisons When we describe our personal traits or characteristics we often put them in reference to other people s traits and characteristics We can go about this in two ways either we say that we are more or less adjective than somebody else or we are equal to that person For example I am happier than he is or I am as successful as she is In German we say Ich bin gliiclrlicher aIs er and Ich bin so erfolqreich wie sie respectively Using these two speci c examples both constructions of gl cklicher 115 and so erfolgreich wig use the nominative case twice That means that there are two 1 s so to speak The comparative in German typically adds an far to the adjective Using some of the adjectives listed in your vocabulary lists for Units 1 and 2 inAufgeht sf you can see that you only have to add an far to the adjective and you have the comparative form Ich bin bhlich I m happy Ich bin bhlicher aZs er I m happier than he is Ich bin so frohlich wie er I m as happy as he is Ich bin nicht so frohlich wie er I m not as happy as he is aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 o 312 Plural forms o 33 Separableprefix verbs o 34 mochten o 35 Subjects and objects o 36 Telling time o 37 Accusative prepositions o 38 Negation with nicht and kein 312 Plural forms German has a wide variety of plural forms as you can see on your vocabulary sheets When learning a new noun you should become familiar with its plural form as well Luckily the de nite article for the plural form of all nouns in the nominative and accusative case is always the same die Even though there is no inde nite article for plurals there are socalled ginwords which express possession and negation If you want to say that you can t see your book you say ch seize main Buch nicht Or when you want to point out that these are his books you would say Das sindseme Ember The negation works the same way ch seize kein Buck Das sind keine B cher For both formsiin the nominative and the accusative caseiyou take the appropriate possessive article main dam 52in etc or the negation kein and add an 72 on the end Remember that the accompanying verb has to be in the plural as well Here is a comprehensive list of all plural forms in German with an example for each possibility Plural change Singular form notation Plural form plural does not exist die Musik die Musik no change in plural form der Stiefel 7 die Stiefel add ending 7e der Stift 7e die Stifte add ending fen die Bibliothek fen die Bibliotheken add ending fer das Bild fer die Bilder add ending in die Socke in die Socken add ending inen die Schulerin inen die Schulerinnen add ending is der Pulli is die Pullis vowel change umlaut die Mutter 7quot die Mutter vowel change umlaut add ending 7e der Zahn Je die Z ahne vowel change umlaut add ending fer reconstruction of the noun das Hauptfach Jer der HOrsaal is ale die Hauptf acher die HOrs ale There is one additional plural form that is used for those nouns without plural forms such as die Musik If you want to talk about different types of music you add earten to the stem die Musikarten You can also do that for sports der Sport die Sportarten Or for different types of sausages or cheeses die Wurst die Wurstsorten and der Ka39se die Ka39sesorten 33 Separable prefix verbs In addition to stemchanging verbs German also has separablepre x verbs A pre x is a word part that is added to a word here a verb to change or modify its meaning English has pre xes such as over take 9 overtake German uses a great number of pre xes with verbs to modify their meaning kommen to come 9 ankommen to arrive Aseparable pre x is a pre x that detaches from the main part of the verb and moves to the end of the sentence in basic SV X or XV S sentences You may think of separable pre xes as prepositional adverbs as in I turned the lights on but she told me to turn them off If you mix up the adverbs on and off the meaning of the sentence is different aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 3 Wohnen 7 33 Separable prefix verbs cont When you look at the verb eirzkauferz on your vocabulary list you ll see that it s written in a special way einokaufen The dot in the middle indicates that the pre x separates from the verb which looks like this ch kaufe Milch eirz I m buying milk In Unit 4 you will learn more separablepre x verbs such as ausschlaferz schla39ft aus eirzladerz Za39dz eirz statt rzderz and weggeherz some of which also happen to be stemchanging verbs indicated by the brackets And since we re calling these separable pre xes that means of course that there are also inseparable pre xes We ll deal with those later 34 m chten Much like the adverb gerrz the verb mb chterz is often used to express a preference In English we say I would like to go swimming In German we only need one verb for the equivalent of would like to mochterz Thus you would say ch mb chte schwimmerz The verb mb chterz is irregular in the 3rd person singular where the nal it is dropped er sie es mb chte Otherwise the verb conjugation follows the pattern of regular verbs as you can see here and on Page 239 ofyour Lerrzbuch ich mOchte wir mOchten du mOchtest ihr mOchtet er sie es mOchte Sie mOchten 35 Subjects and objects You ve already seen the words subject and object in Units 1 and 2 when we talked about basic word order To put it very simply the subject in a sentence does something whereas something is being done to the object In English we can t tell whether a noun is a subject or an objectjust by looking at it word order is the deciding factor Look at the difference between these two sentences The dog bites the man and The man bites the dog Word order tells us who is doing the biting This is not necessarily the case in German The main way to show whether a noun is a subject or an object is case Different de nite articles der die das or different endings on inde nite articles or adjectives are used to show how nouns function in the sentence This allows us to play around with the word order yet keep the meaning intact In the example with the dog we would express the dog biting the man as Der Hund beiEt derz Marzrz But you could also say Derz Marzrz bez Et der Hund The derz as in derz Marzrz indicates that this is the object rather than the subject of the sentence even though it is in the rst position This example only works with a sentence that has at least one masculine noun as they are the only nouns that change their article in the accusative case If we use two feminine nouns we are faced with the same dilemma as in English Die Katee beiEz die Frau Die Frau beiEt die Katee The basic difference you need to know here is that German has other means besides word order to show whether a noun is a subject or an object 36 Telling time In English we commonly use AM and PM to express when something takes place Germans prefer to use the 24hour clockto keep AM and PM separate Unless there is a clear point of reference such as Warm fa39hrst du am Nachmittag zur Um When do you go to the university in the afternoon you should always use the 24hour clock in German In spoken discourse Germans use the words Viertel and ball to express times like ch komme um Viertel var swell I ll be there at 145 PM or ch kaufe um hall 4 eirz I ll go shopping at 330 PM When you use Viertel and halb you can only use the 12hour clock which means that this is a less precise way to tell time At a train station for example you would see Der Zug fa39hrz um 14 Uhr30 ab and not Der Zug fa39hrz um haZb drei ab With the latter nobody would know whether the train is leaving at 230 AM or 230 PM aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 3 Wohnen 8 37 Accusative prepositions In German there are a limited number of prepositions that always use the accusative case If you want to express I go shopping for my father you would say ch kaufe irmeinen Vater am For now the following six prepositions are the most important ones to know listed here with their English equivalents bis until temporal by temporal as far as local dutch through local and causal fijr for gegen against ohne without um around 38 Negation with nicht and kein In German there are two types of negations nicht and kein The negation nicht is used to negate verbs adverbs and entire sentences as well as nouns that use de nite articles der die das and possessive articles main dam 52in etc Here are some examples with nicht ch mb chte main Auto nicht fahren I don t want to drive my car ch harke nicht gem Bla39tter I don t like to rake leaves ch ho re die Musik nicht I don t hear the music ch seize den Zettel nicht I don t see the piece of paper The other negation in German is kein which is an ginword This means that the ending has to show the appropriate gender and case for the noun that it negates Here are several examples with kein to illustrate this point ch mb chz e kein Auto fahren I don t want to drive a car ch harke keine Bla39tter I don t rake leaves ch 252 keine Gedichte I don t read poetry ch seize keinen Zettel I don t see any piece of paper To summarize the correct usage of nichz vs kein Use nichz when you are negating a verb an adverb a complete sentence or a noun with a possessive article Use kein with the appropriate ending if you are negating a noun with an inde nite article or without an article aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 o 41 Modal verbs o 423 Time expressions o 44 Adjectives o 45 Dative prepositions 41 Modal verbs Modal verbs modify the main verb and add layers of meaning to the action that the verb itself cannot convey Modal verbs tell others what we can or cannot want or do not want to do and so on The modal verbs in German are dijrfen to be allowed to k nnen can to be able to m gen to like to mijssen must to have to sullen should wollen to want to m chten would like to The verb mb chten is a special form ofmz39jgen and behaves a bit differently than the other modal verbs Mdgen is mostly used as a full verb without other verbs as in ch may 17m 1 like him or ch may Eis I like ice cream To say that you like to do something use a verb gem construction ch schwimme gem Modal verbs with an umlaut d rfen kb39nnen mb39gen mL39Zssen retain the umlaut in the plural forms but not in the singular forms dijrfen k nnen ich darf wir dUrfen ich kann wir du darfst ihr dUrft du kannst ihr er sie es darf Sie dUrfen ersiees kann Sie m gen mijssen ich mag wir mogen ich muss wir du magst ihr mogt du musst ihr er sie es mag Sie mogen er sie es muss Sie kennen k nnt Note with modal verbs k nnen the 1st and 3rdpers0n singular are identical mUSsen mUSst mUSsen For those modal verbs that do not have an umlaut in the in nitive sullen wollen the conjugated forms are much more regular sullen is the most regular of all modal verbs sullen wollen ich soll wir sollen ich will wir du sollst ihr sollt du willst ihr er sie es soll Sie sollen er sie es will Sie wollen wollt wollen The special modal mb chz en looks a bit different however like the other modal verbs there is no difference between the ich and the er sie es forms m chten ich mOchte wir mOchten du mOchtest ihr mechtet er sie es mOchte Sie mOchten aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 4Ausgehen10 423 Time expressions Time expressions help us clarify how often when until when or for how long we do something For now we will focus on adverbial time expressions Here is a list of time expressions used frequently abends in the evenings bald soon damals back then danach after that damn then einmal once frijher earlier back then gestern yesterday heute today immer always jetzt now mittags midday morgen tomorrow morgens in the morning between 600 and 900 AM nachts at night nie niemals never 0ft 0ftmals often oftentimes vormittags in the morning between 900 and 1159 AM zuerst rstly zuletzt lastly Oftentimes the time expression is at the beginning of the sentence as it is an important point of reference and therefore receives special emphasis remember the correct word order of XV S Gestem bin ich nichz zur Uni gegangen Heute gehe ch mal wieder Ubermorgen bleibe ch dann auch Zuhause But you could also say ch gehe heute nicht zur Uni The focus here has been on time expressions as adverbs However there are also time expressions that are formed with an adverb and an accusative object Note how the adverbs used in combination with days of the week months etc are in the accusative case jeden Tag every day jede Minute every minute jedes Mal every time letztes Jahr last year nachste Woche next week letzten Monat last month Here is a sample sentence Jeden Samstag wollte ch ausgehen aberjedes Mal hatte sie keme Lust As you can see there is a basic form ofjed Zetzt and m39z39chst you will have to add an 727212 or 725 according to the gender and case of the noun aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Aufgeht s Grammar 4 Ausgehen 11 44 Adjectives In Germanijust like in Englishithere is a difference between socalled attributive and predicative adjectives The important difference is that the attribute adjectives in German have endings particular to the case gender and number singular or plural of the noun that they belong to The predicative adjectives do not undergo any changes Here are a couple of sample sentences to illustrate this point The rst sentence uses a predicative adjective the second one an attributive adjective Das Bier ist gut ch trinke gem gutes Bier The ending of gut is 725 for the attributive adjective because the adjective here has to show that we have a neuter noun without an article in the accusative case Here is one more example with a masculine noun Der Film ist spannend Ein spannender Film macht immer SpaE Here the ending of spannend is far for the attributive adjective because the adjective has to show that we have a masculine noun with an inde nite article in the nominative case 45 Dative prepositions Previously you learned about prepositions that use the accusative Likewise there are prepositions that use the dative The main dative prepositions you need to know aus from local and temporal of material aufSer besides exception bei at local while during temporal gegenijber across mit with nach after local and temporal seit since von from local and temporal zu to local zu is common in idiomatic expressions such as ch gehe zu FuE I m walking aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 12 o 51 war and hatte o 52 The conversational past o 53 Coordinating conjunctions see IA Grammar 83AC 51 war and hatte In Unit 1 you learned about two very useful and important words in German sein to be and haben to have It is also important to learn these two verbs in the past tense German has three past tenses of which the conversational past and the narrative past are the two important ones In grammatical terms the conversational past is called the perfect tense and the narrative past is referred to as the past tense Please refer to page 232 in yourLernbuch for further explanations and sample sentences Although German speakers prefer to use the conversational past for most verbs when speaking and writing informally they do use the narrative past for sein and haben Those forms are war and hatte respectively Their forms in the narrative past are listed below You will notice that they have the same endings as the modal verbs sein haben ich War Wil waren ich hatte wir hatten du Warst ihl wart du hattest ihr hattet efSiees W31 SW ware er sie es hatte Sie hatten 52 The conversational past In informal writing and in spoken German the conversational past for most verbs is commonly used when speaking about events in the past Exceptions include the verbs sein and haben as well as werden and modal verbs Regular verbs use a gee pre x and a it at the end for the conversational past Here are a few sample sentences rst comes the present tense then the conversational past for each set of sentences ch reise gern durch Norddeutschiand Letztes Jahr bin ich durch Siiddeutschlandgereist ch esse gern Bratwurst Ich habe noch nie Gr nkohi mit Pinkelgegessen Socalled irregular and mixed verbs have a variety of pre xes and endings so you should make every effort to learn the irregular past tenses with the verb As you can see on the vocabulary handouts starting in Unit 5 the conversational past of irregular verbs is listed in addition to the in nitive and the stemchanging forms if applicable In Unit 5 all verbs listed happen to be irregular Your Lernbuch also has a short list of irregular verbs on pages 234 and 235 The last thing to pay attention to is whether the verb uses the helping verb sein or haben The helping verb haben is used much more often than the helping verb sein Sein is used for verbs that suggest movement literally and guratively as well as for the verbs sein bleiben and werden Here are several sample sentences Ich bin Zange in Deutschiandgeblieben I stayed in Germany for a long time Ich bin dart gern hemmgereist I liked to travel around there 0ft bin ich nach Berlin gefahren I wentdrove to Berlin often Ich bin in diese Stadt gezogen I moved to the city when Michael Jackson died aZs Michael Jackson gestorben ist aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 5 Quer durch Deutschland 13 52 The conversational past cont In the case of verbs with inseparable pre xes you don t add age7 to the beginning of the verb but you do add the it to the stem of the verb For example with the verb versuchen Ich habe versucht viele Sta39dte I tried to see a lot of cities in Germany in Deutschland zu sehen For verbs with separable pre xes however you have to place the gee between the separable pre x and the stem of the verb Take the verbs weggehen and ausschlafen for example Ich bin in Berlin 0ft weggegangen I went out a lot in Berlin and slept in every morning undjeden Morgen habe ich ausgeschlafen 53 Coordinating conjunctions Conjunctions are words that connect two sentences that can function independently of each other A coordinating conjunction does not change the basic word order of SV X These coordinating conjunctions are um and odet or denn for because abet but sondetn instead but Here are sample sentences that illustrate the usage of each of these coordinating conjunctions with a brief explanation und Ich besuche den Kolner Dom in NordrheinWestfalen und ich besichtige die Semper Oper in Dresden This means that the conjunction und connects two equally important ideas or sentences odet Vielleicht reise ich diesen Sommer nach Osterreich odet in die Schweiz The conjunction Oder connects two equal ideas or sentences which exclude each other Because the predicate subject verb is the same in both sentences it s ne to omit it in the second clause which is vielleicht reise ich diesen Summer in this sentence denn In Bayern trinke ich gerne mal ein Bier denn es schmeckt dort frisch Note the difference between denn and its more commonly used synonym or alternative weil denn keeps the word order of SV X in place whereas weil changes it to V SX abet In Deutschland gibt es sehr viele Dialekte abet viele Deutsche sprechen gar keinen Dialekt Aber is used to state a contradiction to a previously made statement sondetn Ich reise nicht gern im Winter sondetn im Sommer Sondem also contradicts a previously made statement yet that statement has to be a negative one therefore sondem is used much less frequently than abet As shown here in these examples coordinating conjunctions do not change the word order of the second sentence they violate the rule of the verb in second position a guideline that you surely worked hard at to master aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 14 o 61 wo and wohin o 62 Twoway prepositions o 63 Subordinating conjunctions 61 wo and wohin Both wo where and wohin where to are question words that deal with a location W0 inquires about a location that is assumed to be static whereas wohin asks about a change in location As a review here are two brief sentences W0 wohnst du Where do you live Woht39n gehst du Where are you going to Most often you will use mo and wohin as a direct question word You can also of course use both questions words in indirect questions such as ch weiE nicht wo du wohnst Du siehst nicht wohin er gent 62 Twoway prepositions The question words mo and wohin are an important support tool when looking at twoway prepositions You have already learned about prepositions that take the accusative case and about those that take the dative case 39leoway prepositions take accusative case when used to indicate movement from one place to another and the dative case when used to describe a location These prepositions are listed here and in your Lernbuch on page 247 an at up to in in into unter under auf on top of up onto neben next to var in front of hinter behind ber over above zwischen between in between Take a look at these sample sentences for the twoway prepositions in both cases Pay particular attention to the change of the de nite article an A ch Zaufe an dieEcke I m walking to the corner D ch warte an derEcke I m waiting at the corner auf A Du steigsz aufden Berg You re hiking up the mountain D Du stehst aufdem Berg You re standing on top of the mountain hint A Wir Zaufen hinter das Haus We re walking behind the house D Wir stehen hinter dem Haus We re standing behind the house in A ch gehe in den Laden I m stepping into the store D Ich bin im Laden I m in the store neben A Er steZZt sich neben die Ampel He s stepping next to the traf c light D Er wartet neben derAmpeZ He s waiting next to the traf c light ber A Der Vogel fliegt iiber die Brucke The bird is ying over the bridge D Der Vogel schwebt iiber derBrucke The bird is gliding above the bridge unter A Sie Zaufen unter den Baum They re walking under the tree D Sie stehen unter dem Baum They re standing under the tree W A ch steZZe mich var die Kirche I m stepping in front of the church D ch stehe var der Kirche I m standing in front of the church zwischen A Sie renntzwischen das Kind und den Ball She s running between the child and the ball D Sie istzwischen dem Kind unddem Ball She is between the child and the ball aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 6 In derStadt 15 62 Twoway prepositions cont As you can imagine these twoway prepositions will take a while to comprehend fully and to use with ease and con dence The best thing to do at this point is to memorize them notice them when you read and listen to German and identify whether they are being used in the accusative case or the dative case This will help you develop an intuitive feel that comes only with practice 63 Subordinating conjunctions Conjunctions are words that connect two sentences that may or may not be able to function independently of each other A subordinating conjunction changes the basic word order of SV X Here is a short list of common subordinating conjunctions als when for past events as 0b whether if for indirect questions bevor before obwohl although damit so that in order that seitdem since dass that w hrend while whereas indem while well because nachdem after wenn when whenever if conditional Here are sample sentences to illustrate the usage of each of these subordinating conjunctions with a brief explanation 315 A15 ich ein Kind war bin ich 0ft ins Kino gegangen As a childWhen I was a child I went to the movies often This is a helpful construction when you want to talk about what you did as a child bevor Bevor ich miz der Uni beginne habe ich eine groEe Party Before I start college I ll have a big party The conjunction betor differs from the preposition 1201 although both are translated into English as before The difference is that betor is a conjunction used to connect two sentences here Ich bin an die Uni gegangen and ch hatte eine groEe Party into one sentence by adjusting the word order The preposition var cannot do that but instead precedes a noun The sample sentence above would thus be Var Beginn der Uni habe ich eine groEe Party damit Damit ich in Rube Zernen kann gene ich in ein Cafe In order to study peacefully I go to a coffee place dass ch merke bald dass es dart nicht ruhig ist I soon realize that it isn t quiet there nachdem Nachdem ich einen Kaffee getrunken babe treffe ich mich mit Freunden After I ve had a coffee I met up with friends The conjunction nachdem is unique with regards to the combination of tenses For now keep in mind that you have two options Ifyou use the conversational past here ich habe getrunken in the part with nachdem you ll have to use the present tense here ich treffe mich in the other part of the sentence aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 6 In derStadt 16 63 Subordinating conjunctions cont 0b ch frage ihn 0b er Lust aufeinen Film hat I ask him whether he was interested in a lm 017 is only used in one particular construction When you ask an indirect question that could theoretically be answered with ja nein or anything related to that such as ch weiE nicht I don t know you use 017 to connect the indirect question here erLust aufeinen Film hat with the introductory phrase of the questioner here ch frage ihn Do not use 017 when you mean if in a conditional sense That would be wenn or falls in German obwohl Wir lesen viele B cher obwohl wir wenig Zeit haben We are reading a lot of books although we don t have a lot of time Just like in English obwohl needs a contrasting information seitdem Seitdem ich nicht mehr zuhause wohne treffe ich mich offers mit Freunden Since the time I m not living at home anymore I m meeting up with friends more often Seit and seitdem are the same and the usage of either depends on speaker preference w hrend ch treffe viele Bekann ta wiz39hrend ich spazieren gene I meet a lot of acquaintances while I m taking a walk Wiz39hrend in this construction is used as a temporal conjunction to show that two or more events are happening simultaneously Here wiz39hrend is used to contrast two ideas ch trinke morgens gern einen starken Kaffee wiz39hrend ich abends lieber Tee trinke I like to drink a cup of coffee in the mornings whereas I prefer tea in the evenings weil Wirgehen 0ft ins Kino well wir gerne gutes Popcorn essen We go to the movies often because we like to eat good popcorn The conjunction wail is the most frequently used and also the most important conjunction when giving a reason for an action thought idea and so on wenn Gehsz du 0ft ins Kino wenn es einen guten Film gibt Do you go to the movies often whenever a good lm is playing Wenn is a temporal conjunction that indicates that something is done more than once in the sense of whenever It can also be used as a conditional conjunction in the sense of if For example ch gene nur ins Kino wenn es einen guten Film gibt I only go to the movies ifwhen a good lm is playing aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 7 Bildung 17 o 71 The narrative past o 72 The dative case o 73 Modals in the narrative past 71 The narrative past The narrative past in German is used for formal written discourse and with a select number of verbs in spoken German Those verbs are 52in 9 war to be 9 was haben 9 hatte to have 9 had and warden 9 wurde to become 9 became as well as the modal verbs Unlike the conversational past the narrative past does not take a helping verb Therefore it is actually simpler to use and shorter nonetheless Germans prefer to use the conversational past for most verbs as pointed out above The narrative past is also called das Imperfekt the imperfect or das Pra39teritum the preterit in German To conjugate a regular verb in the narrative past you have to take the stem of the verb add aite and then the appropriate ending Here is an example with emenz ich lernte wir lernten du lerntest ihr lerntet er sie es lernte Sie lernten Thus after adding era the subject endings are ich 7 wir in du 7st ihr it er sie es 7 Sie in As you can see the 1st and 3rd person singular are identical and so are the 1st and 3rd person plural These are the same endings as mochten by the way There are a few exceptions to this conjugation rule that you can also read about on page 230 in yourLernbuch add an 72 before the ire ending if the verb stem ends in 7d or it or with consonant plus in 7m For example du arbeitetest or ch reclmete If you are using an irregular verb the conjugation pattern listed above does not fully applyiat least not for the 1st and 3rd person singular which are identical Take a look at the verb schreiben which undergoes a stem change ei 9 ie both in the conversational past and the narrative past shown here ich schrieb wir schrieben du schriebst ihr schriebt er sie es schrieb Sie schrieben As you already know German just like English has regular weak and irregular strong and mixed verbs which means that irregular verbs follow a less predictable conjugation pattern Therefore you should learn the past tense and perfect tense along with the in nitive Here are some examples for both strong and mixed verbs wissen 9 wusste 9 gewusst mixed verb combines elements of regular and irregular begins with gee and ends with it laufen 9 lief 9 gelaufen strong verb perfect tense adds gee to the in nitive trinken 9 trank 9 getrunken strong verb three distinct forms for the in nitive past tense and perfect tense aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 7 Bildung 18 72 The dative case In English we have some remnants left of the dative case as in With whom did you speak In German however the dative case is very much alive The question word to use with the dative caseiand one that resembles the English whom iis wem The 7m can be found in other instances with the dative case for example ch gebe dem Kind einen Kuchen Here the verb geben uses the dative case dem Kind to indicate the receiver of the cake German has a number of dative verbs which means that they have a dative case as well as a subject and possibly an accusative object Some examples are Wem gefz39z39llt die Uni Mir gefz39z39llz die Uni Wem hilfsz du bei den Hausaufgaben ch helfe ihr bei den Hausaufgaben Schmeckt dir der Kuchen Ja er schmeckt mir A list of important dative verbs includes antworten to answer danken to thank geben to give gefallen to like geh ren to belong to glauben to believe gratulieren to congratulate helfen to help passen to t schmecken to taste 73 Modals in the narrative past The modal verbs durfen ko39nnen mogen mussen sullen and wollen are used in the narrative past in both spoken and written German when you talk about past events the conversational past sounds awkward in most instances and is used only in very speci c cases such as Ich habe das nichtgewollz I didn t mean to do that The rst thing to remember when conjugating the modal verbs in the narrative past is to drop any umlaut from the in nitive form The modal verb durfen is conjugated here as an example The modal verbs ko39nnen mussen sullen and wollen all follow the same pattern as durfen ich durfte wir durften du durftest ihr durftet er sie es durfte Sie durften Mo yen or mochten as you might also remember it follows a different conjugation pattern provided here ich mochte wir mochten du mochtest ihr mochtet er sie es mochte Sie mochten Here are a couple of sample sentences to help you see the difference between modals in the present tense and in the narrative past Als Kind dur e ch nur Fahmzd fahren aberjetzt darfich auch Auto fahren In der Schule musste ch 0ft zum Direktor der Schule aberjetzt muss ch das sum Cluck nicht mehr aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 7 Bildung19 73 Modals in the narrative past cont In German the modal verb stands in for what is often a set of words in English Looking back at the sample sentences above the rst sentence in English would be As a child I was only allowed to ride my bike but now I m also allowed to drive a car It becomes even more complicated when you use the modal verb ko39nnen in the past tense think of the English equivalent could The word could in English can refer to something both in the past and as a real or unreal possibility German differentiates here clearly AIS Kind Ironnte man Rad fahren vs AIS Kind k nnte man Rad fahren You will cover the subjunctive at a later point in detail Right now keep in mind that you should always use the narrative past or the conversational past when you describe events that have happened in the past Do not use the subjunctive in German to describe those even if it seems like that is common practice in English aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 8 Europa 20 o 81 The superlative o 82 wissen and kennen o 83 The genitive case 81 The superlative The superlative in Germanithe highest form of an adjective or adverbican take two different forms When you have an attribute adjective you add est plus the appropriate adjective ending Refer back to Unit 4 and the accompanying video to refresh your memory on adjective endings If you want to say that the smallest state in Europe is Vatican City you would say Dar klairzsta Staat in Europa ist Vatikarzstadt The ending est is the ending of all regular adjectives However there are a great number of irregular adjectives Those adjectives undergo various changes in the comparative and the superlative They add an umlaut such as alt 9 a39ltar 9 am a39ltastarz The form am a39ltastarz is the predicative form of the adjective For example Dautschlarzd st alt Italian st altar Frankraich st am a39ltastarz Germany is old Italy is older France is the oldest Adjectives can undergo the following changes in the superlative form 0 add an 7a before the st when the stem ends in an 7d it or 72 wild 9 am wildesten stolz 9 am stolzesten and 0 drop the is and only add aft if the adjective ends with a 755 76 or 72 grof5 9 am groBten There are also a number of adjectives that take a completely new form for the comparative and the superlative such as we see in English with good 9 better 9 best Important adjectives are gern 9 lieber 9 am liebsten like 9 like better 9 like the most gut 9 besser 9 am besten good 9 better 9 best viel 9 mehr 9 am meisten a lot 9 more 9 the most The list of adjectives above includes the form am maistarz which is used as a predicative adjective Dautschlarzd basucha ch yarn Dia Schwaiz basucha ch liabar Ostarraiclz basucha ch am liabstarz Other adjectives change slightly such as hoch 9 hoher 9 am hOchsten high 9 higher 9 highest nah 9 n aher 9 am n achsten close 9 closer 9 closest teuer 9 teurer 9 am teuersten expensive 9 more expensive 9 most expensive There are of course also adjectives that only make sense in the basic adjective form such as tot dead or schwarzgar pregnant 82 wissen and kennen The two verbs wissarz and karzrzarz are closely related so closely in fact that the English equivalent of both words is the same to know In German wissarz means that you know factual information or about an event whereas karzrzarz means that you know someone or something The verb wissarz is often used in the short phrase ch waiE das I know that Oftentimes z ch waiE nicht is followed by a clause that explains what one knows preceded by dass ch waiE dass Dautschlarzd in Europa liagt I know that Germany is in Europe or by an inverted statement beginning with 017 ch waiE nicht ch ch Ostarraiclz basucharz warda I don t know whether Iwill visit Austria The verb karzrzarz however simply takes an accusative object such as ch karzrza ihrz I know him To use karzrzarz with a person you should actually know her or him personally Don t say Ich karzrzaArzgala Markal unless you have actually met Germany s chancellor in person instead say ch waiE warArzgala Markal ist I know who Angela Merkel is aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 8 Europa 21 82 wissen and kennen cont In casual conversation people will say Kennst du den Maler Picasso Do you know the painter Picasso to which you could answerzja ch habe schon viele yon seinen Bildem gesehen Yes I have seen many of his paintings Of course Picasso is long dead and we could not possibly know him but his name has become synonymous with his paintings so the sentence above would make sense 83 The genitive case The genitive case is used to show possession It should be noted that Germans use the genitive case much less frequently in spoken language than they do in written discourse In dialect the genitive case is virtually nonexistent There are several ways to indicate possession in German 0 you can add an is to the noun without an apostrophe Das ist Toms Landlra e This is Tom s map 0 you can use the preposition van ch raise mit dem Auto von meinem Vater I m traveling with my father s car 0 you can use the genitive case Das Auto meinerMutter st aber schb39ner But my mother s car is nicer Most masculine and neuter nouns get a genitive is For example Das Auto memes Vaters st schnell Der Kofferraum 125 Autos st auch grb39Eer My dad s car is faster The trunk of the car is also bigger The de nite and inde nite articles in the genitive case are as follows de nite inde nite masculine des eines feminine der einer neuter des eines plural der keiner Start practicing the genitive case in your written homework and short responses to get a feel for it You can also nd all the genitive forms in the Adjective Ending Table from the interactive aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 9 UnserAlltag 22 o 91 Dative expressions o 92 wenn wann o 93 Reflexive verbs and pronouns 91 Dative expressions There are a number of idiomatic expressions in German that take the dative case Here are a few common ones though you may run into others in your reading Mir ist schlecht I feel ill Es geht mirgut I m doing well Mir ist heiE I feel hot hm ist kalt He feels cold 92 wenn warm The German equivalent for when can be wann wenn or als We will focus on the difference between wann and wenn Wann is most often used in direct questions therefore it can also be part of an indirect question For example Warm kommst du nach Hause ch komme wenn ich mit derArbeiz fertig bin ch frage ihn warm er nach Hause kommz Wenn is never used as a question word It is a conjunction and introduces a sentence that is connected to another sentence Since wenn introduces a temporal idea the correct usage of wenn is determined by the grammatical tense Wenn can also be translated as whenever indicating an event that is repeated Here are a couple of sentences to highlight the usage of wenn ch fahre off in den Urlaub Wenn ich in den Urlaub I go on vacation often When I go on vacation I take fahre nehme ich meinen Badeanzug mit my swimsuit with me Ch bin immer schon off in den Urlaub gefahren I have always gone on vacation often Whenever I have Wenn ich in den Urlaub gefahren bin gone on vacation I ve taken my swimsuit with me habe ich meinen Badeanzug mitgenommen To recap the usage of wann and wenn 0 wann is used in direct and indirect questions 0 wenn is used in asense of whenever ie with events that are repeated 0 wenn can therefore be used with all grammatical tenses and modes past present future and subjunctive aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 9 Unser Alltag 23 93 Reflexive verbs and pronouns Re exive verbs are verbs that carry a selfreferential sich which means that the re exive pronoun refers back to the subject of the sentence In English we have separated words for those that stress that it was I or whoever is the subject did something as in The boy sees himself in the mirror In German we say Der Junge sight sich m Spiegel The sich is connected to the verb and has to be learned with it The re exive pronouns in the dative and accusative cases are re exive pronouns accusative dative ich mich mir du dich dir er sie es sich sich wir uns uns ihr euch euch Sie sich sich German also has a number of verbs that are re exive even though they are not selfreferential sich treffen mit jmdm to meet up to get together with so sich verabreden mit jmdm to make an appointment with so sich verabschieden von jmdm to say goodbye to so sich etw vorstellen to imagine something sich jmdm vorstellen to introduce yourself to so aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 m 24 o 101welch and dies o 102 Unpreceded adjectives o 103 Future with werden 101 welch and dies Welch is a question word that inquires about aspeci c person thing or concept Unlike other wquestion words welch must take an appropriate ending according to the gender and case of the noun that it modi es For example Welchen Film hast du gestem gesehen masculine accusative Which lm did you see yesterday Welche TVShow siehst du am Ziebsten feminine accusative Which TV show do you like best Dies can be seen as the equivalent to welch when used in a statement or as part of a question Dies is a demonstrative article which means that it refers to a very speci c person thing or concept In spoken and written discourse it is used to differentiate one thing from another most often for clari cation and emphasis In spoken German it is often used when someone is talking about a speci c object and pointing at it literally For example Hast du diesen Film hiergesehen pointing at a movie poster Did you see the lm advertised here Den bier pointing at a different movie poster This one Just like weZCh 1125 must take the appropriate ending according to the gender and case of the noun it modi es 102 Unpreceded adjectives Returning to adjectives once again the focus here will be on adjectives that are unpreceded which means that there is no article before the adjective Unpreceded adjectives are used commonly with plural nouns They are also found in announcements such as advertisements with singular nouns Just like with preceded adjectivesithat is adjectives that follow a de nite article der die das or an inde nite article em eine emiunpreceded adjectives have to show the gender and case of the noun they modify For example Neuer Film mit Til Schwez ger masculine nominative New movie with Til Schweigerl ch 252 nur spannende Biicher plural accusative I only read suspenseful books The endings for unpreceded adjectives are nominative accusative dative genitive masculine fer fen fem fen feminine 7e 7e fer fer neuter es es fem fen plural 7e 7e fen fer 103 Future with werden In German you can indicate that an action will take place in the future by using the present tense with an appropriate adverb such as morgen in zwei Wochen or in einem Jahr In English this is accomplished by a gerund which simply means that the verb ends in fing indicating an action in progress or an actionevent in the future There is also a proper future tense in German and it is formed by using the verb werden in nitive The conjugation pattern is ich werde wir werden du wirst ihr werdet er sie es wird Sie werden aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Aufgeht s Grammar 10 Unterhaltung 25 103 Future with werden cont The reason for having to learn the future tense instead of only the present tense plus an appropriate adverb is a stylistic one When you use werden to talk about an event in the future you can express different ideas Those ideas may include wishful or hopeful thinking for the future or the present as well as a sense of determination It depends greatly on the context in written discourse as well as on the emphasis and intonation in spoken language to determine the exact meaning of the sentence For example if you emphasize werde in the following sentences you are saying that you are determined to do something ch werde dieses Buch zu Ende Iesen I will nish this book no matter what Na39chstes Jahr werde ch nach Deutschland fliegen Next year I will travel to Germany for sure ch werde wohl em bisschen spr39z39ter Irommen Iwill probably come a little late but I will surely come nonetheless Irgendwann einmal werde ch nach Deutschland fahren One day Iwill travel to Germany and I am hopeful that it will happen Beware of the false friend wollen which always means to want to do something and never will do something You would say Ich werde dieses Buch Iesen in order to express I will read this book If you were to say Ich will dieses Buch Iesen then you are saying I want to read this book and nothing else aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 26 o 111 als for past events o 112 nachdem and bevor o 113 Twoway prepositions idiomatic 111 als for past events In Unit 9 you learned about the question word wann and the conjunction wenn to talk about information involving time German has a third word that translates into when in English and that is the conjunction als To brie y recap and to set 115 apart from wann and wenn take a look at the examples and explanations below Warm fz39zhrst du in den UrlaubP When do you go on vacation ch fahre in den Urlaub wenn ich Zeit habe I ll go on vacation when I have time Meine Familie ist fr her immer nach Mexiko gefahren My family used to always go to Mexico whenever wenn es Sommerferien gab we were on summer vacation Wann is a question word Wenn can be used with both present tense and past tense with the present tense it suggests a simply when If wenn is used with the past tense it indicates a repeated event in the past in the sense of whenever The conjunction 115 is used to talk about singular events in the past Therefore the conjunction 115 is much more restricted in its use than wenn Here are a couple ofsample sentences Als39 ich ein Kind war reiste ich vie mit meinen Eltern When I was a child I traveled a lot with my parents Als39 ich mit der Uni an ng hatte ich groEe Angst When Istarted at the university Iwas really afraid To recap 0 wann is used for direct and indirect questions 0 wenn is used for events in the present and the future the past if the event occurred repeatedly 0 115 is used for events temporally in the past if the event occurred only once singular event 112 nachdem and bevor The subordinating conjunction nachdem takes a special place among all other conjunctions in German since it demands a certain order of tenses being used Asubordinating conjunction means that the verb is kicked to the end of the sentence as in Nachdem ich die High School abgeschlossen hatte machte ich eine Weltreise ch mache eine zweite Weltreise nachdem ich den Uniabschluss belrommen habe In order to use nachdem correctly you have to learn yet another tense in German the past perfect tense The past perfect tense is a combination of the past tense of the helping verb haben hatte or sein war and the perfect tense of the main verb Nachdem ich einen Reisef hrer ber Liechtenstein gelesen hatte wollte ich unbedingt in dieses Land fahren When you learn the correct combination of two tenses keep in mind that only nachdem enforces such a rigid setup main clause subordinating clause with nachdem present tense bin hat reist perfect tense ist gereist past tense war hatte reiste past perfect tense war gereist hatte gesehen aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010 Auf geht s Grammar 11 Reisen 27 112 nachdem and bevor cont Here are two more sample sentences for the rst and the second tense options ch gehe in die Stadt nachdem ch memen Kaffee ausgetrunlren habe Er machte sich safari aufden Wag nachdem sie ilm angerufen hatte 113 Twoway prepositions idiomatic In Unit 6 you learned about twoway prepositions Such prepositions take either the accusative case or the dative case depending on whether they refer to movement usually accusative or location usually dative These twoway prepositions are an at up to iiber over above auf on top of up onto unter under hinter behind vor in front of in in into zwischen between in between neben next to However German also has many verbs which take a certain preposition The meaning of the verb depends on the preposition being used Since these combinations of verb and preposition are not always logical they have to simply be learned These include for example an denken an etw jmdn to think of sth so arbeiten an etw to work on sth auf bestehen auf etw to insist on sth warten auf etw jmdn to wait for sth so sich freuen auf etw jmdn to look forward to sth so in sich verlieben in jmdn to fall in love with so ber sprechen iiber etw jmdn to talk about sth so sich freuen iiber etw to be excited about sth so unter unter uns gesagt that being said between the two of us var Angst haben var etw jmdm to be afraid of sth so zwischen kosten zwischen 10 und 15 to cost approximately 10 to 15 To round things off we would like to add two more important idiomatic expressions with prepositions even if not with a two way preposition These are Ich bin zu Hause ch gehe nach Hausa I am at home I m going home aufgehtscom Live Oak Multimedia Inc 2010


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