New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Esteban Hammes


Esteban Hammes
GPA 3.54


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Drama

This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Esteban Hammes on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DRAM 2120 at University of Georgia taught by Neupert in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see /class/202058/dram-2120-university-of-georgia in Drama at University of Georgia.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/15
N otes Tuesday August 18 2009 455 PM Bambi Meets Godzilla Title sequence is longer than movie Black amp white IndustryEconomics 3 39legs39 of Cinema Industry Production plan shoot edit what we mostly think about when we talk about movies getting it all made I Distribution prints release Ad campaign merchandise Sony that kind of thing don39t make the movie just distribute it get a 13 of the profit I Exhibition theatrical amp nontheatrical TV DVD Technology Color vs BampW Widescreen how it affects movies Narrative Strategies Style Visual Audio Film Art example p 37 Shadow ofa Doubt Hitchcock 3942 Visiting Uncle Charlie at dinner quotthe powerful scene depends on many artistic decisionsquot niece and audience become more certain of his guilt screenplay provides vivid dialogue repeating patterns Visual style TIGHT CLOSEUPS point of view Joseph Cotton39s performance Steady beam of light can seem constant even though its being broken up critical flicker fusion our ability to see a constant image when it is many images all at once Wednesday August 19th 2009 Chapter 1 Critical Flicker Fusion pulses of light appear as a constant beam Apparent Motion we see movement from rapidly changing imagesobjects Optical sound track Super 8 no one uses it anymore but music videos use it a lot 35mm is still standard really expensive to shoot in 70mm a lot of special effects are shot in 70mm Film Stock vs Video Resolution lines of detail Super 8600 TV 525425 16mm 1100 HDTV 1080 35mm at least 3000 Pixels 35mm film 212 million depends on the film stock 800 million color hues TV 350000 HDTV 12 million 17 million color hues Compression on DVD lines coming out quotraggedquot or quotaliasingquot Contrast ratio brightdark 35mm 10001 vs TV 301 201 HDTV often marketed at 100001 DLP claim 1500 But DV and good video projectors typically 1501 Edison39s Kinetoscope by Dickson 1893 for a single viewer Had first commercially viable viewer for motion pictures a single viewer person could turn and look down into the tower and watch a clip for about 30 seconds Would be sold to businesses to charge people to come in and look at Much like a video game parlor Louis Lumiere39s Cinematographe 1895 camera projector Created patents Location shooting quotshow the world to the worldquot and framed artistically for maximum MOVEMENT DIAGONALS AND DEPTH Cinematographe means writing with light Beautiful realistic images Edison39s kinetoscope was with electricity because it was a huge tower camera didn39t move at all Lumiere wanted to get the camera out of the box comes out with this lightweight 1520 pound camera and sent operators throughout the world first moving images from around the world came from these people All 50 seconds long wanted lots of movement Framed them like paintings wanted them to be like paintings that moved They worried about depth wanted things in the foreground background etc First screenings were generally for scientists and the like Basically monumental to see things move on film Georges Melies combines magic acts with the cinema quotTRICK FILMSquot Ex A Trip to the Moon 1902 Started experimenting with special effects wants to show what you can39t do in real life Muybridge Another experimenter using photographs scientist using still photographs but wanted to observe how a horse runs wanted to study motion and movement Used a series of cameras set to go off consecutively Lots of naked people doing ordinary activities to study their motion Edwin 5 Porter Combines staging like Melies with exteriors like Lumiere an early western Ex The Great Train Robbery 1903 AMERICAN PRODUCTION 18951907 Camera operator system 1amp2 person crews 19071914 Director unit system More division of labor Director writer cinematographer 19141920 Central Producer system central producer employs talent 19201960 Producer Unit system Studio employs many producers each in charge of a slate of productions Film Form systematic looking for patterns a unified set of elements Assumption we crave form Your job perceive patterns and determine their functions the film provides cues Comparecontrast openingsclosings gt perceiving repeated motifs gt similaritydifferences quotreaquot pathetic Buster v quotsuperquot Buster gtpot development a series of quottestsquot for buster Beginning v end journey structure buster alone at theater vs end with 39girl39 double journey buster wins 2 times Hows it put together What are the pieces Segmentsmotifs Where meaning comes from we attribute meanings to film from cues Expectations via Experience Hunches we test as we watch Ex Wizard of OZ and Psycho Evaluation p 6365 lntensity Complexity Originality Coherence Form is visible in story and style Principles of film form Functions an element39s role in System Exs why is jack an quotartistquot in Titanic Why does Alyson work in TV in Knocked Up Why39s russel a scout in Up Similarityrepetition Differencevariation Development unitydisunity Pp6063 not so much Notes 826 Alfred Hitchcock Always made stuff up hard to tell what39s true and what isn39t Auteur french name for author to call someone this you39re elevating them to a different level you39re equating them with a novelist they have specific styles more quotauteursquot in later years because the studio system has fallen apart Auteur a director recognized for their individual traits in story amp style 0 Celebrated for their quotown visionquot and unique contributions to cinema history 0 Common themesmotifstechniques 0 Very subjective but forces you to look close at a movie 0 can you tell a hitchcock crime drama vs a Scorsese or Fritz Lang Auteur a quotcritical constructquot 0 Film critics look at all their films and isolate any distinctive traits O Auteur critics celebrate the contributions of individual artists in cinema history and rank them according to their significance 0 We in some ways it simplifies because we look more at 0 Ex North by Northwest 1959 Hitchcock Strong Narrative presence 0 Manipulating the audience 0 Creation of surprise and suspense O Reminds us it is all artificialfiction by calling attention to the process of storytelling Wrong man themes 0 Authorities are uselessincompetent Women are often put through mental and physical ordeals 0 Highly sexist cinema Dark Humor dominates 0 Strange mix of evil and comic scenes Highly Significant props 0 Wedding rings eyeglasses cigarette lighters are central objects motivating the plots and quotthe very stuff of his cinemaquot Form and Hichcock Hitchcock among most analyzed director in historytheory of the cinema His precisely structured narratives 0 Plus manipulative cinematic techniques Critics A hitchcock movie is a well constructed rollercoaster ride with no thematic depth or social concern French critics at Cahiers du Cinema praised his cinema 0 Analysis of his formal rigor quotRear Window39s apartment complex is organized around Jeff39s Jimmy Stewart projection of his limited romantic optionsquot ppl argue what39s formally perfect about the movie is that in the courtyard every window has to do with relationships Rear Window 1954 0 Characters I Jeff late 40s amp quotperfectquot Lisa mid 20s Salesman and his nagging sick wife Newlyweds behind curtain I Miss Torso I Miss Lonelyhearts Old married couple with dog I Bachelor Musician Notes week of 831 Wednesday August 3926 2009 141 PM Flow of Story Information Story all events lnferred depicted The quotdiegetic worldquot of characters I Things that fit the fictional time amp space of presented world I ie inferred can use soundtracks a lot Ex Buster got hired at the movie theater wants to be a detective and has dated quotthe girlquot for some time and even bought her a ring one day he decides to buy her some chocolates Ex Opening of North by Northwest Plot everything visually and audibly presented to us in its order of presentation I Ex Studio logo quotmetro picturesquot music quotpassed by Board of Reviewquot I Old proverb quotDon39t try 2 things at once Buster in theater reading How to Be a Detective I Boss tells him to sweep I Depicted events nondiegetic material titles music fades dissolves nondiegetic ex Band Wagon 1953 p77 Classical Hollywood Cinema I Hollywood formulas tend to followg rules Romantic comedy Musical Scifi Westerns Action Adventures Detective Story Can be made anywhere I But beyond genre I Narrative conventions exist very functionalefficient storytelling Goaloriented protagonist Central character39s desire determines plot Everything is built around hisher goals Minor characters helphinder Often 2 intertwined plot lines Buster amp guy solve crimes quotget the girlquot Scenes are motivated written by the causeeffect of those central goals Scenes are linked one into next quotdiegeticquot fiction timespace built around the protagonist Deadlines are essential for organizing timeaction Unless you do something She marries him tomorrow at noon The bomb explodes at midnight Bruno will plant the lighter at nightfal Closureresolution We learn whether the goal is reached yesno vs irresolution maybe Range of Information how much information do you receive from the plotnarrator Unrestricted the narration provides MORE information to us than any one character can know Very like omniscient narration Ex We see the bad guy pawning the watch while Buster undertakes the investigation I Or crosscutting rescue scene I Strangers tennis match Restricted we are restricted to what the central character in this scene seeshearsknows I Ex we follow Buster follow the bad guy where is 39the girlquot during that sequence Strangers on a Train Guy enters Bruno39s house do we know Bruno is waiting Depth of Information How deeply the narration lets us into the character39s vision andor mind Objective we seehear as if overhearing events Ex most shots in most movies or Buster outside his dream quotthe normquot for most scenes Subjective 2 sorts Perceptual point of view we see through a character39s eyes I Ex Buster reads his book or looks at chocolate in the store window I Bruno checks his watch guy reads a note Ann sees Bruno39s tie I Anyone in that position would see the following shot the narration aligns viewers with their perspective I But Bruno and the lighter in Barbara39s glasses very ambiguous I Mental we seehear quotinnerquot imagessounds like memories flashbacks fantasies I Ex much of Sherockjr is Buster39s dream of being a detective I Bruno quotseeingquot lighter amp quothearingquot is your name miriam I mental subjective depth I It only exists in a character39s mind Film Noir19411955 Panorama of Film Noir by Borde amp Chaumeton They define Noir39s essential traits a series or group style not a rigid genre or movement Subset within classic hollywood cinema Style visual style Plot structure reflect the DEEP EVlL amp INJUSTICE in life Lowkey Night and location shooting I Harsh shadows fog rain swept streets I Venetian blinds during daytime I Huge patches of darkness in frame Complex offbalance framing I Circular plots they begin at the end and reconstruct quotwhat went wrongquot I Heavy use of flashback Notes week of 99 Wednesday September 09 2009 134 P M Miseenscene Visual staging literal meaning to put on scene Creating meaning or signification Via 4 aspects Setting Cabinet ofDr Calgari amp expressionist artifice vs Bicycle Thef quotneorealismquot 2 CostumeMakeup Bruno vs Guy Miriam vs Ann 3 Lighting 4 Figure Expression actors amp acting ex Jerry Maguire p134 Functions I DevelopReflect Character Reinforce a scene39s actionmood I Create functional diegetic space I Create functional diegetic time Lighting Normal setup quot3 point lightingquot I Key primary source direction spotlight I Fill 2nd source direction floodlight softening shadows I Back source is above amp behind figure quothaloquot effect isolates figure from setting background I Highkey lighting entire area fairly evenly lit Lowkey lighting with harsh shadows much contrast in image amp much darkness ex in Film Art pages 125131 Notes week 914 Monday September 14 2009 128 PM N Chapter 5 quotThe Shotquot FramingCinematography Our goal Identify strategies of camerawork Look for patterns Test patterns for significance and style a Ex quotcharcter X is shown from a low angle just before she kills each victimquot DistanceShot scale camera39s distance from characterssetting p191 Close up medium shot long shot and extreme cu or s Perspective manipulation of the filmed material via CAMERA LENS a Wide angle distorts and exaggerates depth King of Hearts amp Maltese Falcon b Telephoto flattens depth Koyaanisqatsi amp The Graduate c A normal lens used for most situations shorter lens wider view d Deep SPACE planes of action e Deep FOCUS all planes in focus i Ex Citizen Kane Thatcher39s Library f RACK focus shifts from one plane to the next i Ex The Graduate39 Last Tango in Paris 2 Level Height Distance a b quotNormquot straight on from adult standing height a Medium Long shot Variations interesting but also must be tested i Patterns mark of directornarrator ii For function significance 3 Patterns of Mobile Framing a b c d e f Does the camera move How When Ex pan vs tilt vs zoom vs track vs crane Pan left and right Tilt up and down Handheld 139 Blair Witch Prol39ect MyrickSanchez one of few movies where cameras are diegetic hysterical camerawork ii Husbands amp Wives Woody Allen like an amateur documentary Patterns arcingcircling characters Jungle Fever Spike Lee 4 ASPECT RATIO a b c d e f g h J k Width Height Old quotacademyquot ratio 1331 your tv or a 3x4 photo Aspect ratio is not about size its about the dimensions of the screen Any TV that isn39t wide screen is academy ratio Ex original CINEMASCOPE 2351 Compromise New academy ratio 1851 Why do we care Television was taking audience away have a wider playing space Note 169 only 1781 quotnewquot philips 219 2331 PANSCAN reediting by selecting a part of the frame for TV aka Full frame i Ex Pillow Talk 3959 panscanned for TV LETTERBOX attempt to retain most of initial image width but leads to a quotshorter imagequot on TV JU LIAN SCHNABEL O O O O Painter turned filmmaker Basguiat 1996 on the late painter JeanBaptiste Basquiat Before Night Falls 2000 on the late Cuban poet Arenas Both are about troubled genius artists Diving Bel rights were bought by Speilberg39s assisstant Kathleen Kennedy Script by Ronald Harwood The Pianist amp they sought out Schnabel as the director Traits Central characters are INDEPENDENT even self centered and refuse to compromise STYLE is determined by their mental state Blurring of realityfantasy essence or creativity amp humanity Difficult to tell diegetic vs nondiegetic Strong evocative soundtracks Notes week 921 Monday September 21 2009 151 PM Framing LONG TAKESHOT SEQUENCE How long is a quotlong takequot Depends on context in this film and vs other films CHC norm 812 sec ASL vs 20 sec El Mariachi 27 Boogie Nights 30 Stranger than Paradise Jarmusch 230 Rope Hitchcock 10 minutes This used to be limited by 35mm film only so much of it Digital is unlimited Andre BAZIN praises Depth long takes for mirroring quotrealityquot Active spectator has to scan the space I Characters interact in quotreal timequot I Diegetic space more complex Reinforces complexityambiguity ShotSequence I Special long take an entire scene unfolds in one take I Ex Touch ovail Welles 1958 flamboyant crane tracking shot Weaving together 2 plot linesquot then cuts to hectic handheld camerawork I Continuous timespace based on quotrealquot duration and forcing an active spectator I May combine with Unusual camera positions camera mobility ex Kill Bill Tarantino 2003 Steadicam bodymounted camera this is a trademarked name Invented in 1973 by Garrett Brown 1st commercial film Bound for Glory Hal Ashby 3976 Camera stabilizing arm attached to body Put some camera parts in one place Period of Innovation 1980 1985 It enhances realism amp or spectacleartifice Art Cinema As a MODE of PRODUCTION I A diverse group of films originally attached to quotmodern Europeanquot auteurs 1 Post WWII cinema phenomenon i Reaction against dominance of CHC ii Less commercial than CHC iii About authorship quotthe latest Godardquot 2 Narratives DEFY CHC i Characters may wander rather than have a fixeddefinable goal ii Stories involve quotcharacter studiesquot rather than genres with strict cause effect ordering some events have no quotfunctionquot for story iii quotis it randomquot NO but it might look random on a 1st viewing iv It follows complex patterns and MOTIVATES ACTION by 1 Psychological complexity a Characters may be confused or act on impulse or be passive b Rather than being reduced to 1 or 2 simple character traits contrast wife in Rashomon with Hildy and Ann c Much ambiguity 2 Auteurism a This is the way people in this director39s films act vs CHC genre films b Recurring thematic concerns amp styles c See other films by this director for cues vs knowledge of other genre movies 3 Art films foreground style and the process of filmmaking a The director39s style is distinct b Bergman vs Kurosawa vs Resnais c Like modern art i They call attention to the process plot camera miseenscene editing ii And also storytelling itself What IS a character Did this all happen d quotwho is telling me this story and why in this fashionquot challenging stories and styles i 8 12 Fellini 1962 amp hiroshima mon amour Renais 1959 Notes week 930 Wednesday September 30 2009 Editing Editing creates O O O O O O O 0 Order I What are the order of the shots can put parts of a scene out of order Duration Of the event and of the shot Frequency ofan event I Can exaggerate events by repeating multiple times The potential to be disorienting or unify a fictional time and space May create Continuous or Discontinuous action I Discontinuous action creates a questionable time and space vs continuous which creates unity of time and space in diegetic world Real time sequence vs discontinuous action It assembles the DIEGETIC world time space Graphic rhythmic amp spatial relations between shots Ex pulp fiction shots identical cutting back and forth Ex The Birds p 224225 I Movement vs stasis faster pace unity quotexploits the graphic possibilities of editingquot CHC uses Continuity Editing Hollywood wants to give the illusion of a long take don39t want to call attn to every cut I Goal quotControl the potentially disunifying force by establishing a smooth flow from shot to shotquot Avg CHC has 8002000 shots I Organization creates timespace amp graphic links from shot to shot 0 LA Confidential had an avg shot length of4 sec Continuity editing a system various figuresdevices are used 0 I 180 degree rule p233 diagram uses axis of action Guarantees screen direction 0 Analytical Editing patterns I Establishing shot quotcutinsquot Shotreverse shot reestablishing shot I This breaks down the space while providing the illusion that time is unfolding continuously before our eyes Function guides our attention to pertinent action 0 Matches I Eyeline matches I Character A looks offscreen cut to supposed objectspace they see kuleshov effect the scene in the birds her looking gas her looking gas etc soundtrack is continuous and is a cue for continuous action I Matches on action I Cutting on a movement in shot A continue movement in shot B Grand Illusion vs Casablanca John Ford CHC Auteur 0 Expert at Genre filmmaking Helps define Western 0 Themes I Nostalgia for a vanishing past Civilization is a mixed blessing I Wilderness beautiful but disappearing I Search for a code of conduct in a changing world 0 Emotions I Empathy for main characters a strong sense of loss 0 Endings Men have to keep moving society does NOT work for free men Notes week 105 Monday October 05 2009 123 PM Editing Options Long takes continuous time amp space quotreal timequot duration Bazinian Ex Grand Illusion Renoir 1937 long takes mobile camera Vs Continuity editing rules Ex Casablanca Marseillaise Scene Vs Strategies of discontinuity I Disrupting a clear timespace Why ln CHC to show chaos or in Art cinema to explore editing39s potential Maltese Falcon Hutson 1941 Film Art pages 234238 2 2 Apollo 13 Howard 1995 Sped up takeff has 50 shots for an Average shot length ASL of 31 seconds I lntercuts several spaces houston control room amp inside capsule Strategies of DIScontinuity Montage fast cutting to condense time amp space the seasons pass I Or to SHOCK Cut on shapes To describe via sample shots I Establish a placetime ex Philadelphia Demme 1993 Condensation of time linear action ex Reguiem fora Dream Aronofsky 2000 i Ex Deconstructing Harry Woody Allen 1997 SM Eisenstein39s Montage Theories The film39s task is NOT to resemble reality but to affect HOW the audience looks at reality Goal to produce controlled intellectual responses via EMOTIONAL SHOCKS and perceptual Conflicts He also studied Pavlov amp reflexology stimulus gt response He also believed in Marxist Dialetics Thesis antithesis gt synthesis The job of the director is to plan out the film in terms of potential effects Es Battleship Potemkin 1925 Clips 1 people come to the harbor to celebrate a Mutiny on board the ptemkin Tsar39s Soldiers attack the people on the Odessa steps Battleship strikes back and prepares for battle against their fleet Vs films built systematically around discontinuity Soviet Montage Jump Cuts Violate continuity by Elliptical cutting portions of the shot are missing Ex Breathless Godard 1960 Editing creates order duration frequency of an event French New Wave 1958 1964 Context Post WWll quotNew Wavequot Generation 0 New noveltheater vs quottradition of qualityquot youth breaking from past Critical environment 0 Andre Bazin Auteur criticism Miseenscene criticism cahiers du cinema journal Calls for new cinema and new young talent based on personal styles New lowcost lightweight cameras amp sound equipment 0 Smaller crews and cheaper mode of production 0 One person could record sound on a new recorder designed for documentary amp TV news 0 One person could carry the camera Shooting anywhere I NEW OPTIONS Cahelrs critics begin making movies Claude Chabrol Le Beau Serge 1958 Berlin Les Cousins 1959 Venice Francois Truffaut The 400 Blows 1959 Cannes Shoot the Piano Player 3960 Jules and Jim 1961 These directors were constantly shooting and shooting for cheap Constantly making movies JeanLuc Godard Breathless 1960 Excitement over a quotWAVEquot These directors are showing people how to rethink cinema became a WAVE because people followed along 120 directors make a quotfirst featurequot between 19581964 New Wave StoryStyle Low Cost 0 Location shooting 0 Short shooting schedules few retakes O No expensive stars Casual Visual style 0 Improvisation O Mobile handheld cameras 0 Shoot silent when possible Goal To tell new stories in new ways Example of variety Agnes VARDA shot her 1st feature and set up her own Production company a coop at age 24 2nd feature Cleo from 5 to 7 1961 Notes week 1014 Wednesday October 14 2009 126 PM Experimental Cinema Experimental cinema avantgarde practice I explores the medium for personal expression Abstract form organized around color shape and movement I Via theme and variation parallel to musicals structures or abstract painting I There will be some underlying principle that runs through the filmquot Film Art p 357 I EX Ballet M canique Leger 3924 mechanical ballet I Mundane objects are transformed when their abstract qualities are used as the basis for a film39s formquot Film Art p 358 I kinetic art art that moves I EX Return to Reason Man Ray a Rayogram movie Associational form groups of images with no obvious connection no narrative I their juxtaposition in a series creates meaning Via associations 0 poetic qualities a concept that emerges subtle and gradual vs overt and obvious I EX Life Out ofBalance or Koyaanisqatsz39 Godfrey Reggio 1983 I a process ofimages that accumulate into a concept and warning about modern life I majestic nature vs destructive technology p 363 Sound Dialogue including voiceover narration Sound effects Music Identify as diegetic onscreen offscreen vs nondiegetic in all categories Synchronous vs Asynchronous from earlier or later in story A SOU ND SPACE particular to each scene It engages our senses Shapes how we interpret the action Directs our attention Cues us to expect something Mickey mousing simplistic relation btwn what39s in scene and what the sound is Consider SOU RCE amp FU NCTION Does it sound quotfaithfulquot But does quotrealisticquot sound exist what would it be like your home videos Classical hollywood sound a Sound space i Built around the main character39s or narrator39s perspective on this world ii Mixes dialogue iii Selected sound effects iv Music to reinforce moodtempo though levels often change updown v Ex stagecoach ford 3939 p 284 Direct Sound a quothonestquot and simultaneous to the recording b No mixing documentary practice c Ex Stranger Than Paradise Jim Jarmusch 3984 quotpurequot sound as recorded d Vs quotnaturalized artificequot of mainstream classical mixing Art Cinema Experimentation a Foregrounds sound manipulation amp violates CHC or direct norms b Ex pierrot le fouCrazy Pierre JeanLuc Godard 1965 i Sync sound dialogue any background sounds Waves ii Music mental amp or diegetic where does it go c Vs Jackie Brown 280283 with 3 versions offscreen sound shifts with each new perspective Zones of Action for lateral framing New options for miseenscene Guiding the audience39s attention in potentially more quotrealisticquot space Notes week 1019 Monday October 19 2009 131 PM Murray Smith quotIdentification amp Narrationquot What does it mean to quotidentifyquot with a character quotIdentificationquot must account for different levels of engaging with character 0 How is it in the course of some movies that you can identify with a character that would generally be disgusting or otherwise unlikeable O quotidentificationquot a complex shifting process it changes throughout the movie 0 It is rare that a movie has the audience identify fully with 1 character throughout 0 Previous work on identification CENTRAL vs ACENTRAL IMAGINING 36 CENTRAL quotI imagine jumpingquot The event is represented quotfrom the insidequot As if you are the participant Very rare to actually feel like you are on the rocketship but a lot of people talk about identification in this way 0 You would feel the physical sensations ACENTRAL O quotI imagine E I jump offa buildingquot less physical more mental 0 We are not quotin the placequot as much 0 More like empathysympathy I know what it feels like to experience this Ex Robin wood argues that we quotbecomequot the characters in psycho Vs Noel Carroll 38 Fiction only allows Acentral imagining vs Real life 0 Assimilating the situation as we share the emotional states with the characters fear relief pride 0 Parallel emotions Smith argues that it is a little beyond Carroll39s argument ofjust feeling for the characters but less than Wood39s argument that you can quotbecome the characters 0 But carroll and others can39t account for sincere EMPATHY toward characters 0 So we need a more complete notion of spectatorship O A 3 part quotstructure of sympathyquot Recognition does the film present significant character traitsquot 0 Ben is timid immature rich amp worried about his future 0 Walter Burns is controlling Hildy is initially wise and confident 0 Patricia is independent and ambitious Alignment quotspatial amp subjectivequot range amp depth 0 Range amp depth help us understand the character39s goalsdesires mise en scene 0 Ben feels lost Mrs Robinson fits his need to rebel and grow up Ben gains confidence with Elaine 0 Are we aligned with Mrs Robinson sometimes yes you get aligned with both characters because you can understand their predicament Allegiance do you agree with that character39s view 0 Sympathy for their values 0 We respond EMOTIONALLY Test case The Man who Knew Too Much Hitchcock 1956 Dr McKenna amp family visit North Africa meet the nice Draytons Sympathetic couple on vacation far from home So far the film is quotan alignment unitquot tying us to the family 0 O O O But then we become more aligned with Dr Ben McKenna as they become involved in spy thriller their son is kidnapped quotfatherdr knows bestquot after argument in hotel Ethnic Cinema From quot Race MoviesII to Spike Lee 1910s1920s Black Pioneers Examples Lincoln Motion Picture Co Realization of a Negro39s Ambition 3915 Trooper of Troop K 3916 Colored Players Scar of Shame 3929 10 Nights in a Barroom 3926 O Shoestring productions low budget put entire company into making one movie a year Sound and Studio System 0 Reduced the of lowbudget productions 0 Shown at churches special theaters etc Vs Oscar Micheaux O Writes Directs Produces 43 movies 0 Combines social themes interracial violence Romance Black Migration gambling prostitution 0 With entertainment that combines Sensationalism dances shootoutswith Social Criticism injustice hypocrisy need for education 0 Ex Within Our Gates 1919 0 Low budget selfproduction risky 10000 silents 20000 sound films this is extremely cheap for a movie single film strategy one movie a year putting entire company into one film at a time location shooting Vs Black Independent Cinema of 1980s Ex Robert Townsend39s 1987 Hollywood Shuffle I Self financed 60000 quotcalling cardquot film Spike Lee Auteur Stories may center on black characters but never in isolation social forces shape everyone 0 Story is product of a specific time and place 0 Complex cluster of central characters 0 lntertwines several stories complicating CHC norms O Ambiguity tough choices abound complicating quotidentificationquot is there a quotrightquot thing in Malcolm X or Bamboozed or Clockers or even Inside man 0 Style Challenges Notions of Classical Realism Very mobile even flashy camerawork I Bright stylized color and lighting Melodramatic use of music Foregrounds editing via montages and a variety of editing strategies punctuating dialogue amp action I Mix of acting styles different ethnic groups ACT differently Ex Clockers 1995 Summer of Sam 1999 Notes week 1026 Monday October 26 2009 128 PM Genre a descriptive term Defining O Identifiable by plot devices and icons 0 Some movies cross lines or borrow from several genres a musical western a scifi detective Conventions may be in the 0 Story 0 Themes 0 Techniques 0 Plus some comedies parody and mix conventions Mighty Aphrodite Woody Allen I Life of Brian Monty Python Jones I Blazing Saddles Mel Brooks But are Men in Black amp Zombieland parodies or comedies or thrillers or scifi O Genres change across time I A unique history for each genre Have science fiction films changed more than Westerns or Horror films Sub genres I Speed hostage thriller I Big amp Peggy Sue magical comedy 0 Contemporary crime thriller I A History of Violence Panic Room etc family at risk owe to film noir I Ex Big Heat Fritz Lang 1953 Social Functions 0 Cultural critics look for implicit amp symptomatic meaning and social functions Chapt 2 0 Are genre films conservative tools of Ideaology reassuring us amp teaching us which values are quotbestquot 0 quotpatience selfsacrifice gt victoryquot or quota woman39s place is in the home quotvs quot a woman39s place can also be in the White house Outer space Judge39s robesquot 0 Do genre films reflect culture 0 Can one movie reflect quotAmericaquot and its quotideaologyquot in 2009 The Western 0 quotImplicit Social Ideologyquot Civilized order vs Lawless frontier 0 Progress westward Mission to bring Civilization schools banks churches elections I Icons of setting mise en scene covered wagon vs lone gunfighter Family as future 0 Vs Indigenous people39s culture inferior dangerous primitive O Gunfighter sacrifices for community 0 Ex Shane vs Blazing saddles Musicals 0 Performance singing dancing test for Romance 0 Double resolution the show is a success so the heterosexual romance will be a success 0 Ambition optimism hard work are rewarded Women in and cinema Women as WritersDirectors Ex Julie Dash Daughters of the Dust Susan Seidelman D Seeking Susan Sofia Coppola Virgin Suicides Lost in Translation Audrey Wells Under Tuscan Sun Nora Ephron Amy Heckerling Goal equal opportunities in all levels of filmmaking More Bend it Like Beckhams Or Dark Knight Napoleon Dynamite or Bourne Identity from a female perspective Ex Double Happiness Mina Shum 1994 Alison Butler39s quotGenderquot 0 Gender and film I Societies shape gender via Cultural systems quotsexgender systemquot I Rudolph Valentino amp the scandalous gaze I Desire mixed with fear of alien I The Sheik O Gendered Gaze Laura Mulvey Study of women as spectacle objectified Argues that it always puts everything from a male view I Everyone identifies with what must be a MALE GAZEPERSPECTIVE Ex Brigitte Bardot And God Created Woman Vadim 1955 O Transgender ldentification looks vs Murray Smith39s term I Kathryn Bigelow Hurt Locker An quotauteurquot engaging with male action films I Ex Blue Steel 1990 Jamie Lee Curtis as new cop performing gender I Day 1 dressing the part I 1st robbery I Ok for women to 39act like a man39 and it is a form of crossdressing 293 Vs Boys Don39t Cry Kimberly Pierce 1999 I Brandon Hillary Swank I quotconstructs his masculinityquot quotescapes into fantasyquot with split transgender gaze divided look I Industry 5 of top 250 Hollywood films have women directors 0 Feminist Strategies I Focus on WOMEN39S LIVES amp issues Reveal GROUPS OF WOMEN support system across generations I Emphasize COPING STRATEGIES I Stories about OPTIONS other than WifeHomemakerDependent Confront GENDER CONSTRUCTION Women39s voices telling their own stories I Test cases Orlando Sally Potter 1993 crossgender casting Notes week 112 Monday November 02 2009 135 PM Intro to Animation 1 Pixillation Object animation i Clay models paper cutouts 2 Drawn Animation i Inkpaint on paper or note cards 3 Cel Animation i lnkingpainting on layers of clear cels 4 Direct cameraless animation i Drawingpainting on clear film stock Norman McLaran39s Blinkety blank and Len Lye39s Colour Flight 5 Computer Animiation i From South Park amp J Neutron to hyperrealism of Pixar Studio Animation A Division of Labor I Producers vs Directors vs Artists I Head Animator vs lnBetweeners Sound Dept vs quotPaint amp lnkquot I Photography Dept B Commercial Distribution Established quotnormsquot for length Fit CHC industrial conventions C Product Differentiation via a quotStudio Lookquot Disney vs Fleishcher vs Warners Color amp Depth in Disney 1 Reinforce Characterization 2 Provide depth cues i Shift color into distance ii Shift focus into distance iii Avoid flat blocks of color 3 Suggest Volume and Texture i Ex Liquids reflect and distort light use quothighlightsquot on glossy surfaces an egg should appear round amp fragile ii Ex The Ugly Duckling 3939 Warner brothers Style I Acknowledges Audiences and movie process I Flat graphic space Large FLAT color areas I Heavy outlines I A more quotmodernquot use of animation devices Ex Duck Amuck ChuckJones 1953 Independent Cinema I True independent films no money from studios and no distributor Ex Stranger than Paradise Jim Jarmusch 1984 cost 90000 sex lies amp videotape Soderbergh 3989 begun for 150000 then Columbia Home Video 12 million gt top prize at CANNES age26 Chan is Missing 20000 Slacker 23000 Pi 60000 Blair Witch 35000 El Mariachi 25000 gt 65000 25000 gt 250000 Napoleon Dynamite 400000 I Vs Kill Bill 55 million or Passion 30m I Technically an economic term unfunded by studios or distributors Vs Small to Medium Sized ProductionDistribution companies socalled quotminimajorsquot I Lion39s Gate Dogma American Psycho Farenheit w Hotel Rwanda Saw Crash Medea39s Family Reunion 310 to Yuma My Bloody Valentine Majors have an interest Fox Searchlight Disney owns Miramax amp Touchstone I Universal NBC owns Focus Features merged with Good Machine amp USA Brokeback Mountain m Away We Go Coraline 9 Sony Pictures Classics I Ex Frozen River Winner Sundance 2008 I BET for Hadjii39s Somebodies 2006 The quotIndie Lookquot I Low Budget films I Off beat personal stories inspired by Art CinemaNew Wave Risky story structures confusing or material outside mainstream genre norms Excessivedemanding violence ampor sex or even minimal quotlack of dramaquot I May emphasize quottaboosquot homosexual relations or quotcounter culturequot films on sex drugs teen prostitution Ex Go Fish Rose Troche 1994 Samual Goldwyn 15000 I Larry Clark39s 1995 Miramax amp Shining Excalibur I Thirteen Hardwicke 2003 Fox Searchlight Style I Defies quotCHC norms of qualityquot I Handheld cameras vs cranes Location vs studio Contemporary tales amp music I Valorizes cheap alternative sounds amp images amp marginal actors BampW DV Ex Chan is Missing Wayne Wang 1982 Anticlimactic anecdotal plot I Shot in 10 days over several weekends for 20000 with borrowed equipment I Crew paid a after any profits quotzen inspired detective storyquot a parody of buddy amp detective films and quotCharlie Chanquot Gus Van Sant Drugstore Cowboy 1989 25 million ProdDist by Avenue Productions My Own Private Idaho 1991 25 million New Line Fine Line To Die For 1995 20 million with Nicole Kid man Columbia Pix Good Will Hunting1997 10 million Miramax Elephant 3million HBOFine Line Last days 2005 Stories Marginal Characters Vulnerable flawed addictive Tales of contemporary underground Characters who often disappoint those around them and viewer Styles quotGrunge cinemaquot Long takes amp oblique angles onto action keeping audience at a distance Complex plot order via gaps ellipses between scenes Flash forwards time is subjective Mesmerizing soundtracks reinforce ambiguitysubjectivity is it mental or nondiegetic Notes week 119 Monday November 09 2009 128 PM Abstract Animation Robert Breer quotIn contrast to Hollywood narrative animation Breer39s films look disjointed and crudely drawn they group images by abstract formquot 0 Intro to his films quotarouse our curiosityquot and establish the basic elements he will manipulate throughout the film 0 Variations on colors shapes rhythms O quot a reflection on animationquot a poet39s animation avant garde 0 Materials Spray paints markers colored pencils I Rotoscoped home movies 0 Eng 1973 amp Fujj 1974 FUu I Disrupts unity I amp turns bits of a train trip backs of heads a cup rolling windows into an abstractprocess Len Lye amp drawing on film quotI wanted to be a painter and capture the illusion of motion on canvas then it hit me Why not do something that M motion Kinetic art was bornquot Lye Pure cameraless animation Influences Abstract Expressive Artists Paul Klee Kandinsky I Formal play with SURFACE LINES COLOR and RHYTHM Painting in time 0 Process finger paints stencils and scratches on film separates the 3color lab work pure colors shapes rhythms 0 Effect calls attention to essence of cinema still images projected onto a flat screen 0 Ex Colour Flight 1937 National Film Board of Canada 0 Nationally funded organization 0 Goal build prestige of Canadian Cinema 0 O quotTo produce and distribute distinctive culturally diverse challenging and relevant audiovisual works that provide Canada and the world a unique Canadian perspective 0 Norman McLaran hired in 1939 I Abstract direct animation quotartistquot He calls for a quotstripped downquot cinema simplified amp stylized I Cinema should parallel abstract painting about process color amp shapes amp rhythm I Free form transformation amp change Ex 1940 hand drawn sound too amp Be Gone Dull Care Hong Kong Cinema 0 Run Run SHAW revives Martial Arts Chivalry Films Wuxia pian in 3960s Stress on action stunts I Mixes genrestraditions I Peking Opera acrobatics I Japan39s Samurai tales I Hollywood westerns I James bond 0 1970s King HU makes MORE SYLIZED MARTIAL ARTS FILMS I Ex ATouch of Zen King Hu 1971 I Bruce lee makes Kung Fu popular in the West combines action reflection 0 1980s and early 1990s I Hong Kong became the world39s 2nd largest film EXPORTER I Vivid storytelling I Reduces character psychology I Builds in stark situations I Kill or be killed Sacrifice yourself for another Flashy style I Vibrant color I Hyperactive camera and editing Popularvulgar taste I Bloody excess and crude humor I Highly emotional I Bold melodramatic acts music I Anger disgust betrayal joy I 1 moodscene Martial ArtsChivalry i Ashes of Time Wong Kar Wai 1994 ii Blurring of 2 mystical characters quotart cinema versionquot iii Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon Ang Lee 2000 1 YoungJen rips up restaurant later she fights Yu Shu Lien for sword then Li Mu Bai chases her to retrieve his sword The Green Destiny popular international cinema version Modern Crime Drama i Hard Boiled John Woo 1992 1 Cop who loses partner fighting triad 2 Undercover with Tony Leung39s character N 3 Woo traits a Carefully choreographed violence b Discontinuity rapid crosscutting i Slow motion extendingcontracting time ii lntensified Continuity c Melodramatic plotsmusic i No place is safe for long d Heroism for cop or hit man i Professionalism values ii Sensitive killer iii And cops break rules for justice Notes week 1116 Monday November 16 2009 128 PM Documentary cinema Defining documentary cinema 0 Term coined by Robert Grierson I Documentaries are the quotcreative treatment of actualityquot O Bordwell and Thompson quotaims to present factual information about the worldquot 338 I quot asks us to assume that it presents trustworthy information about its subjectquot Robert Flaherty O Nanook of the North 1922 Les Freres Revillon producer and fur company Different forms and styles 0 Forms Categorical vs rhetorical 0 Styles I Traditional vs Cinemaverite Categorical Documentaries O Educates you about the world Noncontroversial Uses theme amp variation andor narratives Examples I Gaptoothed women Les Blank 1987 Winged Migration Jacques Perrin 2001 March of the Penguins Luc Jacquet 2005 O Rely on high visual style Rhetorical Documentaries O Presents an explicit opinion a call for action 0 Appeals to emotion authority 0 Examples The River Pare Lorentz 1937 Michael Moore OOO I Bowingfor Columbine 2002 I CapitalismA Love Story 2009 I Fahrenheit 911 2004 Traditional Documentaries 0 Prior Planning StagedRecreated Events High Quality Visuals Postsynched and nondiegetic sound Ex Thin Blue Line Errol Morris 1988 39nemaVerite direct cinema No staged events Rougher visual style Direct sound Ex High School Frederick Wiseman 1968 Q 0000 0000 Narrative story narrative discourse Narrationtelling as process Story a series of events containing CHARACTER ACTIONS action codes Major ampor minor each with own degree of resolution Major ex Guy must prove his innocence by the end Minor example Guy goes to Bruno39s father scene oriented Degree of quotcausalityquot varies from tradition to tradition I Endings key moments for narration Resolution How resolved are the central story actions CHC endings have strong TERMINATION EFFECTS closed endings vs oen Open story films Gapsellipses exist in the story I Some major action codes are left unresolved International Cinema example Run Lola Run Tykwer 1998 Combines steadicam with fastslow motion Jump cuts Black amp white vs color Animation Photo montages of still images destiny vignettes 35mm vs digital video Notes week 1130 Monday November 30 2009 131 PM Critical Questions in Contemporary Film Theory 1 History situates specific films and groups of films in context 2 Criticism analyzes particular films or in some category Auteur genre culture 3 Theory analyzes the nature and functions of the cinema Film Theory a more academic systematic study of Form Meaning Spectatorship Aesthetics Often competing modelsmethods Defining cinema and how it works Goal to explain cinematic practice systematically quotscientificallyquot O Structu ralism amp Semiotics Language shapes human life amp thought amp thus culture a structuring influence I Semiotics is the study of sign systems Ex you don39t know anything about the civil war without sign systems because you haven39t lived through it even if you had you would remember it in pictures or words they39re all signs Various language systems visual audio written Sign two parts signifier materialSR signified conceptSD And some signs are culturally determined I Ex cat vs chat vs gato vs universal or quotnaturalquot signsquot Signification results if you know the sign Results from signs and codes chains of signs A character a cluster of signs some rely on conventionscodes dress voice gestures generic Movies many signifiying systems Photographicgraphic images mise en scene amp camerawork Spoken languages voice over Written languages Sound effects Music Editing punctuation fades Ex American Splendor BermanPulcini 2003 I Structuralism isolating systems behind storied and societies analyzing their FUNCTIONS Stagecoach Male vs Female Especially binary oppositions I Good vs evil I Male vs female Postmodern quottextsquot disrupt classical models Mixamp match traditions I Undercut rational world Reject classical structuresendings Ex The Gleaners and Agnes Varda 2000 or Run Lola Run Ringo vs others Buck Hatfield peacock Dallas vs Mrs Mallory amp Mrs Gatewood Authority figures real vs false SheriffCavalry Banker Church league Outlawsrebels justified vs criminals RingoDallasDoc vs Geronmo amp Plummers Tracking gridstructure of character and any changes across the plot ringo39s journey escape capture escape Marxist Analysis looks for social and economic foundations 0 Class divisionexploitation 0 Classical cinema reinforces capitalism serves dominant culturepower structures 0 Pop culture dupes average citizen 0 This equals a culture industry a profitable propaganda process Ex Opening of Tout va bien Godard 1972 Ideology a system of beliefs held by a given group I Louis Althusser argues Ideology is created and passed on via language systemsrepresentations As myths quotthese colors don39t runquot quotland of freequot I Icons American flag I Oaths quotI pledge allegiancequot Ideology makes its RU LES seem quotnormalquot and quotnaturalquot Ideological analysis may look at I Patriarchy male control Religionethics Raceethnicity I How are dominant cultural values maintained in commercial cinema I Ex lronman Psychoanalysis I Study movies as if they were dreams I Interpretation of the film ampor apply it to Characters I Director Audience Cinema a dream screen I Spectator subjectpatient I And like a child passive in the dark Cinema as a sort of perverse pleasure I Voyeurism I Repression Narcissism PIXAR quot3Dquot ANIMATION 1986 Purchased from Lucasfilm by Steve Jobs Independent co Luonr 3986 I Prototype for future productions I quotself shadowingquot software and motion blur to render illusion of movement 1st 3D computer animation I Academy Award nominee I 20 International Film Festival Awards cost Rumored to be 60 million 1987 Red39s Dream wins awards at many festivals 1988 Tin Toy AA for Best Animated Short prototype for Toy Story39 40 quotmusclesquot for creating emotion on child39s face i i i i toxemia 0000 muzi oo I 1998 1999 2001 2003 The Incredibles 2006 2007 WallE 4O academy awards before UP N O O Jgt N O O 00 Knickknack RenderMan patent PIXAR signs 3 picture deal with DISNEY AA for RenderMan technology used on Jurassic Park Terminator 2 Toy Story released 1997 Geri39s Game ASL 28 88 shots New techniques for skinsurfaces AA for Best Animated Short A Bug39s Life Toy Story 2 Monsters Inc Finding Nemo Cars Ratatouille Vs Coraline Henry Selick 2009 Stopmotion object animation 3D RealD stereoscopic Exploits lnterocular Distance between eyes To achieve Convergence of 2 images And strategy for Selick cinematographer Pete Kozachik and Laika Entertainment quotnarrativizing the visual style Animation Alternatives France 3 producer of animation 2D comic book tradions Michel Ocelot Tales with faith in children39s imagination amp tolerance Bright colors amp flat visual style Profiles silhouettes lateral movement Kirikou and the Sorceress 1998 african tale of tiny naked hero Princes et princesses 2000 Azur et Asmar 2006 Lumiere amp Co 1995 40 directors are invited to use an original Lumiere camera for a 50 second movie Patrice Leconte returns to quotthe train stationquot LaCiotat Zhang Yimou Great Wall ldrissa Ouedraogo Etc


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.