PREV CARE ATH INJ
PREV CARE ATH INJ KINS 2100
Popular in Course
Popular in Kinesiology
Alea Nicole Vick
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jerrell Klein on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KINS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Cooper in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/202064/kins-2100-university-of-georgia in Kinesiology at University of Georgia.
Reviews for PREV CARE ATH INJ
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/12/15
EXRS 2100 Study Guide for TEST 2 The test will cover material through from Injury Recognition through Rehabilitation The majority of the test will be multiple choice bring your 2 pencils and Scantrons so I can run them through the Scantron machine There will be a section at the end that will be listing ll in the blank and short answer The test will cover material from chapters 6 9 10 15 16 and Anatomical Terms Yes anatomical terms will again be on the test as these are very important in the athletic training profession About 75 will be from the lectures and 25 from readings in the book Ifthere is a section in the book that we did not cover in lecture don t fret over it General Points 0 Know terms and their de nitions 0 Be able to apply examples Speci c Points 0 Environmental Concerns 0 Factors that contribute to heat stress Metaboic Heat Production Radiation Conduction Convection Evaporation o How to prevent hypertherrnia o WBGT its components the formula and how to classify events based on ACSM scale 0 Types of exertional heat illnesses EI H s causes signs and symptoms how to treat them and how to prevent them 0 Know when and how to replace uids as well as components and pro scon s to using sports drinks Types of cold weather conditions frostnip frostbite etc causes signs and symptoms how to treat them and how to prevent them 0 Know types of altitude sicknesses their signs and symptoms and how to treat 0 Be familiar with sickle cell trait its victims and signs and symptoms 0 Know sever weather safety ie ashtobang method 0 Injury Recognition 0 Know tissue properties and how they are de ned 0 Know different types of tissue loads and be able to de ne 0 Know characteristics of different tissues muscle tendon bone ligament etc anatomical properties and different types of injury that may occur to them 0 Be able to de ne draw different types of fractures 0 Know the different parts of bones epiphysis diaphysis etc 0 Know different conditions that may contriute to injury gait posture biomechanics etc 0 Tissue Response to Injur Know phases of the healing process how long they last and characteristics of each Know immediate and continued responses to injury Vasoconstriciton vasodilation etc Know 5 cardinal signs of in ammation Be familiar with mobility during healing Know factors that impede healing Know factors that affect healing Know healing properties of different tissues Know the different types of pain and characteristics of each Be able to identify differentpain bers and their functions Know different mechanisms of pain control 0 Know examples of how to measure pain VAS Pain charts etc and describe when each may be used 0 Modalities 0 Know how modalities are classi ed 0 0000000000 Notes Goal of seasonal conditioning is maintaining strength and fitness Technique for developing peak performance and minimizing injuries while avoiding overtraining is called periodization 0 Also reduces the risk of injury Power is the relationship between strength and time a component of speed Strength is the ability to generate force against resistance Sports medicine team includes team physician athletic trainer other physician dentist coaches parents others Athletic trainers always work under the supervision of physicians National Athletic Trainers Association NATA is the professional membership organization for certi ed trainers o Largest in the nation A concentric contraction is where the muscle shortens and the force generation is greater than the resistance Isometric contraction is where the muscle stays the same and the force is to the resistance good for rehab Eccentric is where the muscle lengthens and the resistance is greater than the generated force allows you to generate the greatest amount of force 0 Not functional because athletics is based on concentric contractions Plyometrics is a rapid stretch of a muscle eccentrically followed immediately by a rapid concentric contraction of that muscle lengthening followed by shortening o Helps generate explosive movement over a short time Type IIb muscle fibers are fast twitch in nature and are usually anaerobic they also have less fatigue resistance ability Type I muscle bers are slow twitch in nature they are fatigue resistance and usually aerobic in nature Stress is positive and negative forces that can disrupt equilibrium 0 Eustressipositive things that make you happy winning a game 0 Distressinegative things fumble 0 Athletes do well under stresspressure Max heart rate is 220age Fight or ight response is l of the physiological reactions more neuroregulatory to stress 0 Activated by the immediate threat of imminent danger Overtraining can lead to staleness and eventually burn out 0 Signs of stalenessgdeterioration in performance chronic fatigue apathy loss of appetite indigestion weight loss inability to sleep increased BP increased catecholamine secretions The body performs movements in all 3 planes It is appropriate for a 12 year old to begin a strengthening program if they are properly supervised avoid weight lifting until around 14 to allow skeletal muscle to fully develop 0 Program helps positive body image improved performance while preventing injury When comparing males and females who are the same ageheightweightbody fat muscle mass gains for the lower extremities are the same but men have more muscle mass in their upper extremities Inferior describes a location in relation to another where as distal describes location based on the point of attatchment Wolfe s Law describes that bone and soft tissue respond to demands placed on them causing them to remodel or realign alone lines of tensile force PEARLian acronym used to describe how the pupils should behave while you are checking vitals during a secondary assessment 0 PUPILS EQUAL AND RESPONSIVE TO LIGHT o Helps rule out head injury shock heat stroke hemorrhage or ingestion of stimulant pupils would be dilated 0 Failure of the pupil to accommodate light is a sign of a brain injury or alcoholdrug poisoning 2 types of tort are intentional where you are purposefully causing harm to another person or unintentional which is gross negligence Predisposing factors of shock are fatigue extreme temperatures dehydration illness FEDI When observing during a musculoskeletal assessment check for obvious deformities contusions discoloring swelling symmetry with the uninjured part HOPS is an acronym to help with assessing injuries O Historyiwhat was the M01 did you hear any noises past injuries 0 Observationgedema bleeding deforrnit Palpation start away from injury and move towards4structures are in the correct location tenderness irritation pulse 0 Special Testsitest the joints ligaments tendons and ROM A tort is a civil or legal wrong Compression is a force that results in tissue crush Tension is a force that pulls and stretches tissue Shearing is a force that moves across the parallel organization of tissues Bending more skeletal than ligamentstendons is where a bowed structure encounters axial loading Torsion is a force caused by twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends of a structure Load is an external force action on the body causing internal reactions within the tissues Stiffness is the ability of a tissue to resist a load helps prevent injury 0 Greater stiffnessgreater magnitude load it can withstand Stress is the internal resistance to a load Strain is the internal change in tissue resulting in deformation Muscle guarding is when the muscles around an injured area contract to splint the area involuntary muscle contractions that occur in response to pain following a musculoskeletal injuryiprotect the joint from further 1njury Tendons connect muscle to bone want tendons to be both stiff and supple Both heat and ice can reduce muscle spasm heat increases blood ow to the injured area while ice slows the metabolism in the area thus decreasing accumulated waste products Tissue stress includes compression tension shearing bending and torsion Subluxation is where the joint is pushed to its anatomical limit then able to resort back to the normal state on its own grade I or H NOCSAE established safety standards for all helmetsfacemasks in an effort to reduce head injury Prescription eye glasses and contact lenses do not offer adequate protection to the eyes 0 Use the properly tted and designed glasseseyewear for athletics Socks shoes and chin straps are all considered protective equipment Mouth guards protect the teeth lips cheeks tongue mandible concussions 0 They DO NOT prevent a loss of consciousness Secondary surveys are designed to gain deeper knowledge of an injury after life threatening conditions have been eliminated they monitory vitals Supine and breathingimonitor closely till regain consciousness Supine and not breathingiABCs should be established immediately Prone and breathingimonitor closely till they regain consciousness then carefully log rolled onto a spine board because CPR could become necessary at any time Prone and not breathingistabilize head log roll to supine position check ABCs and begin CPR During the primary survey circulation should be checked by using the carotid artery The treatment for internal bleeding is checking for rigidity in the abdomen or rebound tenderness limit movement monitor closely check for skin discoloration Types of shock o Hypovolemicitrauma with blood loss Respiratoryinot enough oxygen to circulating blood Neurogenicidilation of blood vessels in the CVS Psychogenicifainting due to dilation of blood vessels that reduce the amount of blood ow to the brain Cardiogeniciinability of the heart to pump enough blood to the body Septicisevere bacterial infection Anaphylacticiallergic Metabolicgsevere illness diabetes goes untreated Treatment for shock maintain body temperature calm the individual elevate feet and legs about a foot helps venous return no fooddrink do not want them to vomit Normal resting BP is 11070 During a medical emergency the athletic trainer and physician are in charge usually the athletic trainer has more experience and training in moving and injured athlete 0 0000000 3 phases of healing process 0 In ammatory responseil3 days 0 Fibroblastic repairia few days to 6 weeks 0 Maturation remodelingiabout 6 weeks up to 2 years Symptoms of in ammation include redness swelling tendemesspain increased temperature loss of function Therapeutic effects of heat increased tissue extensibility decreased joint stiffness decreased pain increased blood owmetabolic rate decreased muscle spasm post acute reduction in swelling Paraf n bath is the best thermotherapy for arthritic ngers or any angular joint Controlled mobilization leads to better scar formation and healing it helps to facilitate the process of healing by controlling in ammation thus reducing chemical symptoms Factors that impede healing page 289 extent of the injury edema separation of tissues muscle spasm keloidshypertrophic scars infection 39 39 quot quot tension 39 itiuu atrophy corticosteroids hemorrhage Nerve cells have little to no healing capacity however the nerve ber axon can regenerate very slowly Physiological effects of cooling include vasoconstriction decreased ischemic or secondary injury decreased nerve conduction analgesic Immediate vascular response to tissue damage is vasoconstriction of the vascular walls and in the vessel s leading away from the site of the injury last approximately 5 mins Pain sources Cutaneuossharp bright burning can be fast or slow onset Deep somaticgstems from structures such as tendons muscles joints periosteum and blood vessels Visceralidiffused at rst and may be localized later appendicitis o Psycho geniciindividual feels pain but it is emotional rather than physical Referred pain occurs away from the actual site of irritation pain in the lower back but is felt in the hamstring The acute in ammatory response lasts 3 mins The whirlpool is an example of conductionskins contact with water and convection water swirls around skins surface Weight does not impede healing Negligence is the failure to act as a reasonably prudent person would act Athletic trainers are responsible for the condition of the playing eld Ice bags are a method of heat transfer because heat leaves the injury Skin responses to cold 0 Stage 1 I Sensationgcold I Time 03 mins 0 Stage 2 I Sensationimild burning I Time 27 mins 0 Stage 3 I Sensationirelative cutaneous anesthesia I Time 5l2 mins Raynaud s Phenomenon occurs from cold exposure that involves cutting of blood ow to the hands and feet An ice massage using an ice cup should typically last 510 mins Cryokinetics cryotherapy is a technique used to exercise an injured limb in a cold environment Contraindications for super cial heat include 0 Loss of sensation Immediately after injury Decreased circulation Direct application to eyes or genitals Over pregnant abdomen 0 Acutely in amed body part Treatment protocol for applying a moist heat pack is to drain the hot pack cover it with several layers of soft towels apply for 1520 mins do not allow athlete to lay directly on pad Short term goals are small goals that lead to the larger goal such as reducing pain Long term goals are usually return to play 000 0000 Order for foot strike during the walking gate is supination neutral pronation supination Pes planus at foot are hypermobile over pronate supple Pes cavus high arch are hypomobile over supinate rigid Plantar fasciitisichronic injury that presents as being acute pain in the proximal arch and heel at attachment site pain usually worst in the morning because of our sleeping position plantar exed 0 Treatment orthotic arch taping heel cup better shoes stretching night splints NSAIDS Turf toe is a hyperextension injury with pain and swelling at the great toe and dif culty pushing off Frostbitegcold discolored ushed white yellow blue skin can be waxy sometimes numb 0 Treatment gently handle do not rub warm affected area bandage area Subdural hematoma is an accelerationdeceleration which no loss of consciousness and pooling of blood on the opposite side of the blow o No loss of consciousness may be dizzy usually complain of headache 0 Evaluate by physician Sesamoiditis in ammation possible fracture of the sesmoid bone which is literally embedded within the tendons in the big toe at the base 0 Function of sesmoid bone aides in movement reduces friction 0 Treatment is to limit the amount of great toe extension with tape or a rigid insert in shoe When using a wet bulb thermometer the dry bulb reading is the most important however the wet bulb humidity is the most in uential WGBT of 90 degrees F or more means exercise should be cancelled o 72178normal o 78182caution with nonacclimatized o 821867pay attention to at risk 0 8619071imit intense exercisestop Imbalance between water and electrolytes results in heat cramps which are extremely painful muscle spams that occur typically in the lower extremity usually only 1 but can be both or whole body 0 Caused by dehydration most often imbalance fatigue 0 Treatment mild stretching ice massage uid replacement pref a sports drink Heat rash prickly heat is a red raised rash with a pricklingtingling sensation occurs when skin is wet with unevaporated sweat generally localized to covered areas 0 Treatment dry the skin Heat exhaustion is caused by extreme dehydration that effects cardiac output symptoms include muscle cramps hyperthermia dehydration stomach cramps paleclammy skin altered consciousness dizzy sweating nausea vomiting weak but rapid pulse core ternp over 104 0 Treatment rehydrate move to a cool area remove excess clothesequipment EMS Heat stroke is when the body cannot accommodate the heat and looses the ability to dissapate heat through sweating and experience a breakdown of terhmoregulatory mechanisms symptoms include red ushed skin littleno sweating altered consciousness seizures confusion core temp of over 106 0 Treatment must cool core ice immersion and monitor vitals want temp to be 102 prior to transport transport to hospital consider disquali cation of activity Exertional hyponatremia is abnormally low sodium in blood from consuming too much uid either before during or after exercise symptoms are headache nausea vomiting swollen hands feet lethargy agitation 0 Treatment transport to hospital for IV of sodium and other diuretics Frost Nip affects exposed body parts with little blood ow ngers toes nose during high wind or severe cold or both but usually damp cold symptoms are rm skin cold painless areas that blister 0 Treatment applying rm pressure but no rubbing blow hot breath or place in armpits Super cial Frostbite most common involves only skin and subcutaneous tissues appears pale hard cold waxy do not rub affected area Sickle Cell is an abnormal structure of the red blood cell and its hemoglobin content affected by sprints or max out runs limited recovery cells clump arrhtmia renal failure At altitudes cells clump and block blood ow can cause an enlarged spleen Morton s Toe is a short lst MT making the 2quot 1 toe look longer Neuromuscular control focuses on 4 key elements proprioceptive and kinesthetic dynamic stability preparatory and reactive muscle characteristics conscious and unconscious functional motor patterns A total rehab program includes restoration of ROM reduction of pain regaining strength return to function and cardiovascular contro Within the first few days of a rehab program address the pain and swelling Navicular drop is a special test used to test for a pes planus condition Radiationishortwave diathermy Black eyeisubconjunctional hematoma Conductioniice bag Convectioniwhirlpool Pink eyeicaused by an allergy Conversioniultrasound Detached retinaiseeing black spots Hyphemaiblood in the anterior chamber The red zone of the meniscus covers the outer l 3 and has good vascular supply giving it the best chance at healing after surgical repair whereas the white zone covers the inner 13 and has very poor vascular supply and healing capabilities Osgood Schlatter s is a calcium build up at the insertion of the pareller tendon it occurs usually in adolescents and more in males then females it creates a painful bump on the anterior knee Non contact ACL injuries occur from planting and cutting with rotation or a deceleration and change of direction with rotational forces occurring 0 Grade 3 sprain treatment is surgery PCL injuries usually occur in car accidents but can occur by falling on a bent knee sometimes hear a pop and lack stability 0 Grade 3 sprain treatment is surgery MCL injuries occur from valgus force from the lateral side 0 Grade 3 MCL in a brace for 8 weeks because has good vascularization usually only x surgically if going in to x something else Meniscal injuries usually occur with the medial meniscus from rotational movements and valgus forces clicking popping locking at the knee and pain along the joint line Talocrural joint mortise is the articulation between the talus and the tibia Patellar dislocations usually occur laterally Anterior knee pain just below the knee cap that worsens with running and going updown stairs her quadricep strength is weaker on the injured side the suspected injury is of the quadriceps tendon and the patellar tendon Knee dislocations are a medical emergency because of the femoral aretery it is where the tibia slides anteriorly over the femur The subtalar joint is responsible for pronation and supination o Inversion and eversion of the foot The anterior drawer and Lachman tests both are ways to evaluate ACL injuries 80 of ankle sprains are lateral and are caused by inversion and plantar exion All 4 quadriceps muscles attach to the patella The lateral meniscus is shaped like an O and the medial meniscus is shaped like a C Functions of the meniscus are bathe joint in synovial uid cushions articulation reduce friction position femur stabilization The McMurry and the Aplysis are tests associated with possible meniscal tears o McMurry is more functional The Sag test is associated with PCL tears looking to see if proximal tibia sags when laying on back and knees at a 90 degree angle F lexion extension 0 Extension external rotation within last 20 degrees of motion anterior translation Extension exion o Flexion internal rotation within rst 20 degrees of motion posterior translation Lateral tracking is the most common disorder concerning the patella Hyperextension injuries can involve the ACL but most of the time are limited to hamstrings and joint capsule 0 Rarer see ligamentous injury Hamstrings is the most important muscle in preventing knee injuries
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'