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by: Dr. Waylon Kozey


Dr. Waylon Kozey
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Waylon Kozey on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ERSH 6200 at University of Georgia taught by Cramer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/202092/ersh-6200-university-of-georgia in Educational Research And Measurement at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Phonemic Awareness and Musical Pitch Discrimination Related Amanda Strout ERSH 6200 December 13 2004 Dr Cramer Phonemic Awareness and Musical Pitch Discrimination Related Problem De ning the relationship between the processes of phonemic awareness and musical pitch discrimination would be very important to the elds of reading and music education A clari cation of how these processes are similar in nature could allow for other types of research and applications of using music to help children learn phonemic awareness as part of their prereading skills This study will investigate whether systematic musical pitch discrimination training can aid and speed development of phonemic awareness skills in children aged four years old After I received my Bachelor of Arts degree in music at The University of Georgia I worked as a Kindergarten and PreKindergarten teacher for two years at a private school It was during these years that I made an observation the children who were the best singers were also the ones with the best grasp of phonemic awareness Even before beginning my Master of Education program at The University of Georgia I wanted to look into this topic of research In my exploration I found only one study which examined the relationship between of these topics However the study I found was the exact model of the research I intended to plan Now I will be able to build off of this previous study to nd if musical pitch discrimination can aid the process of gaining phonemic awareness The term phonemic awareness refers to the ability to manipulate the spoken sounds in language For the purposes of this study musical pitch discrimination will be defined as the ability to detect and report differences in musical frequencies The assumptions of this study include that the children are able to grasp both phonemic awareness and musical pitch discrimination skills Another is my ability to effectively teach the musical pitch discrimination skills It is assumed that all of the children have normal range hearing between 0 and 20 decibels of loss The children must be able to hear at least 20 decibels of sound within the frequency range of 1000 to 4000 Hertz Implications of this study can include a few important things This may help researchers discover new ways to assist children s literacy skills Preschool and early elementary classes could use musical pitch discrimination skills to systematically work on training children to hear the differences which eXist both in music and speech Another educational implication would be carefully structured musical training as an essential part of young children s school curriculum Lamb amp Gregory 1993 Review of Related Literature Phonemic Awareness Prereaders need to become aware of the sounds that make up spoken words McKenna amp Stahl 2003 Without this understanding of how speech is made up of a sequence of small sounds there is no logic to our written system Yopp amp Yopp 2000 Emergent readers need 1 39 39 to J J the 39 quot quot of spoken language Richgels 2001 This is one of the reasons why phonemic awareness is seen as one of the most important foundations of reading success Yopp amp Yopp 2000 Phonemic awareness occurs when children grasp the idea that letter sounds can be manipulated to create new words Fisher amp McDonald 2001 Phonemic awareness is part of phonological awareness which is the awareness of the sound structure of language in general Yopp amp Yopp 2000 p 130 Phonological awareness refers to any size unit of sound in language while phonemic awareness refers speci cally to the phoneme Children should enter school having phonemic awareness or be taught it during kindergarten Phonemic awareness is not connected with written language and is entirely an auditory skill The relationship between reading and phonemic awareness is reciprocal as reading level increases so does phonemic awareness 2003 Phonemic awareness has been a proven crucial element for success with the written form of the language learning to read NRC 1998 The level of a child s phonemic awareness when entering school may be the single best predictor of success in learning to read Adams 1990 Measures of phonemic awareness correlate with reading success throughout a child s academic career and may be the most important causal factor in separating normal and disabled readers Adams 1990 This has been demonstrated in several languages in addition to English Adams 1990 While phonemic awareness is important it is also difficult to acquire Adams 1990 However phonemic awareness is a skill that can be taught Phonemic awareness instruction teaches children how to attend to and manipulate speech sounds in words NRP 2000 Teachers can do several types of activities that all work on building phonemic awareness skills for children Adams outlines the types of phonemic awareness skills as rhyming games word segmentation sound deletion phoneme blending phoneme manipulation oddity tasks and phoneme substitution 1990 Using Music to Teach Literacv Skills There have been plenty of articles written describing how to use music to aid teaching of certain preliteracy skills In these studies music has been used in many ways to help children with different aspects of literacy Fisher and McDonald examined the use of songs to provide phonological awareness activities 2001 In this article the authors suggested how music can be used for several pieces of early literacy instruction including concepts of print a sense of story and sequence phonemic awareness background knowledge and vocabulary basic spelling patterns and early writing activities Fisher asserts there is no better way than music to provide young children a captivating entrance into the world of phonemes Words are played with in songs through being shortened lengthened repeated sung high low loud and soft Lyrics are rhymed and altered in many waysiall connected to language play or language development 2001 In their article Hansen and Bernstorf have paralleled the similarities of reading text and reading music and how reading music can help in text reading 2002 Their article discusses the similar decoding skills that are used in reading both music and text Dena Register did a correlational study to see if music therapy among 4 and 5 year olds increased their preliteracy concepts 2001 In her ndings she stated music therapy greatly aided children in print concepts and prewriting skills 2001 This research demonstrates one way musical training or therapy can aid those children struggling with prereading activities Systematic use of music in early childhood classrooms provides another way to teach these important skills Register 2001 Giving children an alternate way of learning prereading concepts allows more children to learn in the style in which best suits them Music enhances the learning of prereading and writing skills through the use of nursery rhymes rhymes in songs and reading musical texts In addition music and songs help young children encode and retrieve information which normally might be too difficult for them to remember by other types of learning Pitch Discrimination Studies have been done on frequency discrimination in adults and children The ability to discriminate the frequency or pitch of sounds is considered to be critical for normal speech understanding Thompson et al 1999 Phonological processing abilities have been found to be the most critical skill in developing decoding abilities and later reading efficiency Walker et al 2002 Evidence has been found stating deficits in auditory perception may accompany reading and spelling problems Walker et al 2002 These deficits have also been shown to have a negative in uence on the development of reading abilities and continue to exist in adults with reading disorders despite years of remediation Walker et al 2002 Some studies done on frequency discrimination in relation to speech perception state that speech sound discrimination is developed by age six but that speech perception skills change with auditory experience Kraus et al 1999 Musical pitch may be different In a study where participants listened to musical excerpts Demorest and Serlin found that musical novices showed no age related differences in the perception of pitch variations while demonstrating an age related increase in sensitivity to rhythmic variations 1997 In this study musical novices were tested from grades 1 5 and 9 as well as musical novices who were elementary education majors at the beginning of their required music course They played a Schubert melody and its variations to their subjects and asked them to rate on a scale of 1 identical to 20 completely different The melody varied randomly in both rhythm and pitch The researchers found no signi cant differences between any of the age groups in responses to pitch changes Demorest amp Serlin 1997 This lends credibility to the idea that pitch discrimination abilities exist early and do not change significantly through one s lifetime Studies have shown that infants have abilities in pitch discrimination between two notes Olsho 1984 Distinguishing whether age has an effect on musical pitch discrimination is still an area of controversy Studv of Musical Sound Discrimination and Phonemic Lamb and Gregory 1993 have performed the only study I found using both musical pitch discrimination and phonemic awareness They did a study on the relationship of musical sound discrimination pitch and reading ability They conducted a correlational study on five and siX year olds They administered a reading test a phonemic awareness test and a test of musical pitch discrimination In this study musical pitch discrimination was defined as the ability to determine if a set two pitches or chords that are played are the same or different The notes or chords lasted 05 seconds and the second set followed the first note or chord after a silent period of approximately 05 seconds Before starting the musical test the researcher asked the children if they understood the words same and different and also asked a few nonmusical questions requiring the answer of same or different If the researcher was satisfied with their understanding they then tested the child s musical pitch discrimination as described above They also administered a reading test Their reading test consisted of four parts They included concepts about print word matching letter sounding and word reading where the children were encouraged to sound it out The nal test administered was a test of phonemic awareness skills It was a shortened version of the test of Phonemic Awareness by StuartHamilton They found that the children who possessed high phonemic awareness had higher scores on the reading tests than those who had difficulty with the phonemic awareness test This information is in congruence with studies that have been done relating phonemic awareness and reading ability Also the children scoring highly on the pitch discrimination also did well on phonemic awareness and the reading test They found a moderately high degree of correlation between how well children could discriminate pitch and perform these prereading and reading tasks Their findings suggest that pitch discrimination is related to phonemic awareness They stated an ability to perceive slight differences in phonemes thus appears to depend on the ability to extract information about the frequencies of the speech sounds It is reasonable to assume that such an ability is related to the discrimination of pitch differences in music Lamb amp Gregory 2003 p 24 Correlational Phonemic Coef cients Awareness Simple Reading Phonic Reading Pitch 060 077 056 All plt005 Lamb and Gregory s 1993 study was a rst step towards discovering if music education can be structured to include more clear literacy and educational goals There are limitations in this study This study did not prove any type of causal relationship This study only tested children to nd if skill levels of both phonemic awareness and pitch discrimination were correlated While the children received no training in either phonemic awareness or pitch discrimination phonics instruction was emphasized in their classroom and school This could have affected their amount of knowledge Their sample size was small consisting of only 18 children nine male and nine female All of these children were from the same class and had the same instructor Their research does not show if systematic pitch training can assist children with learning phonemic awareness skills It also does not show whether children who do not possess phonemic awareness will be able to discriminate pitches For children who have dif culty with phonemic awareness Lamb and Gregory s 1993 study now opens the road for further research to determine if systematic training of pitch discrimination could help children lacking phonemic awareness Children with reading dif culties often have dif culty perceiving speech sounds Godfrey et al 1981 The skill of pitch discrimination is related to perceiving slight differences in speech Other implications may include genetics Since music has strong biological roots Weinberger 1998 de ciencies in phonemic awareness and musical pitch discrimination could be genetic which would allow for more careful monitoring of children who might have trouble with these skills Perhaps children who have dif culties with phonemic awareness could bene t from musical pitch discrimination instruction However if the processes are similar children with dif culties in phonemic awareness might also have dif culties in learning to discriminate pitch More research would have to be conducted in order to nd of pitch discrimination training would assist children who have dif culty with phonemic awareness or if both skills would be affected by the child s learning dif culty Research would have to be done to determine if there are bene ts in pitch training for those struggling with prereading Musical pitch discrimination training for prereaders would allow them an alternate or additional way to learn to distinguish differences in music and speech Perhaps simply having the reinforcement of a different approach would aid some children Students who receive training in musical pitch discrimination will receive higher scores on a test of phonemic awareness skills than students who do not receive the training To discover whether musical pitch discrimination training can aid and speed development of phonemic awareness skills I plan to conduct a quantitative study on young children Methodology The type of study I propose is an extension of the research done by Lamb and Gregory which will research the effects of pitch training on phonemic awareness I propose a quantitative study to compare the effects of systematic musical pitch discrimination training on prereaders aged 4 years old This would help to further determine the relationship between these two factors This study would intend to see whether systematic musical pitch discrimination training would aid and speed development of phonemic awareness skills in children aged four years Research Methodology I plan to study a group of approximately 40 children with a control group of 20 children and an experimental group of 20 children The sample will come from children in PreKindergarten classes in AthensClarke County between ages four years and ve years who are not yet readers I hope to have a sample consisting of approximately half boys and half girls The children will be randomly assigned to groups All children will have their hearing tested and reported to the researcher classroom teacher and parents prior to the onset of the study I plan to use a randomized prepost design R 01 X 02 R 01 OZ Both groups will continue their regular classroom prereading instruction including phonemic awareness instruction The control group will receive no musical pitch instruction The experimental group will receive instruction in pitch discrimination for a 12 week period The experimental group will be given 20 minutes of instruction three days a week on musical pitch discrimination in a group setting of ten children Phonemic awareness will be operationalized through the Phonemic Awareness section of the Phonological Awareness Pro le by LinguiSystems Inc All tests will be administered individually in a quiet room These sessions will be tape and video recorded to allow for cross checking of assessment results The operationalization of the independent variable will be done by criteria The musical pitch discrimination instruction will be focused to teach the concepts of 0 Listening and differentiating between notes as higher or lower than other pitches Listening and differentiating between same or different notes Describing two and three note chords as same or different Reproducing intervals by singing both rising and falling intervals Sound localization 0 Sound discrimination Tools for instruction of musical pitch training would also be needed These may include a xylophone hand drums piano film canisters for making shakers an egg timer a video camera tape recorder and a synthesizer or electric piano The Test of Phonemic Awareness has a score out of 95 possible items I will score and record individual assessment scores This information will be used to find the mean and standard deviation of each group I am planning on dealing with expectancy through the audio and video recording of the assessments I will record the results during the assessment and then check the scoring through the video recording Instrumentation and pretesting are threats to the internal validity of this design Selection maturation and contemporaneous events have been controlled through this design Maturation will also be accounted for in the ANCOVA Mortality is always an issue in research designs but I have done my best to create in the design a situation where less mortality will occur By having the instruction for a short period during time at school I hope to keep mortality from becoming an issue M On the pretest the control group had a mean of 45 and a standard deviation of 16877 The experimental group had a mean of 44 and a standard deviation of 16445 Both groups had an improvement on the posttest scores Here the control group had a mean of 60 with a standard deviation of 18166 and the experimental group had a mean of 7505 with a standard deviation of 10531 The analysis of covariance is the statistic which will be used to examine these results This statistic is used to control for the differences between groups and adjust the posttest scores for the error part of the children s true scores The ANCOVA will provide an adjusted posttest score that will account for these things Therefore the hypothesis that children who receive musical pitch discrimination training will have better phonemic awareness is supported PreTest St PostTest St PreTest Mean Deviation PostTest Mean Deviation Control 45 16877 60 18166 Experimental 44 16445 7505 10531 I Control Group E Experimental group Discussion This research has shown musical pitch discrimination training to be a valid way of aiding the acquisition of phonemic awareness in this study with young children Hopefully music and early childhood teachers will begin to incorporate this type of training with their young children Limitations of this study would be the sample size of 40 children Different teachers administering the phonemic awareness instruction could potentially disadvantage some children in performing on the tests Also controversy concerning speech perception and age could potentially affect the results of this study More research will need to be done with a larger sample size This would allow for the use of the Solomon design where pretesting is no longer a threat to internal validity Research also needs to be done with different populations of children including those who have language learning dif culties to see if musical pitch discrimination training will assist them with phonemic awareness References Adams M J 1990 Beginning to Read Cambridge Massachusetts MIT Press Demorest S M and Serlin R C 1997 The Integration of Pitch and Rhythm in Musical Judgment Testing Age Related Trends in Novice Listeners Journal of Research in Music Education 45 6779 Fisher D and McDonald N 2001 The Intersection Between Music and Early Literacy Instruction Listening to Literacy Reading Improvement 383 10615 Godfrey JJ SyrdalLasky AK Millay KK and CM Knox 1981 Performance of Dyslexic Children on a Speech Perception Test Journal of Experimental and ChildPsychology 32 401421 Hansen D and Bemstorf E D 2002 Linking Music Learning to Reading Instruction Music Educators Journal 885 1721 52 Kraus N Koch D B McGee T J Nicol T G amp Cunningham J 1999 Speech Sound Discrimination in SchoolAge Children Psychophysical and Neurophysiological Measures Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research 42 10421060 Lamb S J and Gregory A H 1993 The Relationship Between Music and Reading in Beginning Readers Educational Psychology 131 1927 McKenna M and Stahl R 2003 Assessment for Reading Instruction New York Guilford Press National Reading Panel NRP 2000 Alphabetics section from the National Panel Reading Report Retrieved April 14 2004 from httpwwwnationalreadingpanelorg National Research Council NRC 1998 Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children Washington DC National Academy Press Olsho L W 1984 Infant Fequency Discrimination InfantBehavior and Development 7 2735 Register D 2001 The Effects of an Early Intervention Music Curriculum on PrereadingWriting The Journal ofMusic Therapy 383 23948 Richgels D J 2001 Invented Spelling Phonemic Awareness and Reading and Writing Instruction In SB Neuman and DK Dickinson Eds Handbook of Early Literacy Research pp 142155 New York The Guilford Press


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