EXPLNG LNG & TCHG
EXPLNG LNG & TCHG EPSY 2130
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FINAL EXAM PREPARATION EPSY 2130 Fall 2010 Notice that this exam is different from previous exams in some of the following ways there are four sections instead of three Part A refers to different scenarios for the short answers and the essay Part C has short answers 5 pts and very short answers 2 pts and no essay Part D is comprehensive and uses the scenario from Part C the essay in Part D is worth 20 points The actual exam will consist of four parts Parts A B and C focus on topics from Unit 3 while Part D is comprehensive As usual a limited number of lines will be provided about 34 page for essays so plan to be concise and clear PART A Assessment 30 pts total Short answer 3 questions 5 pts each Martin Grant has not been doin very well in your second 39 what he does turn in is 239 r r r His parents are very concerned that he does well in school so that he can eventually get in the honors track in high sc ool and get into a good college They have suggested that maybe it would be betterforMartin to move back tofirst gradefor another year since he is obviously not able to succeed at the second grade level but you have persuaded them to waitfor the results ofthe Fall TBS testing before making any decision Now the test results are in and they have come infor a conference Refer to the TBS score report attached rade class He takes a v t f Concepts that may be addressed Be prepared to interpret for Martin39s parents the meaning and implications of various types of scores Percentile scores percentage of those in the norming sample who scored at or below an individual s score Sub test scores scores in focused areas may indicated strengths and weaknesses Grade equivalent scores measure of grade level based on comparison with norming samples from each grade Norm versus criterion referenced scores Normreferenced scores are compared with the average performance of others while criterionreferenced scores are compared to a set performance standard in speci c areas of the Performance Pro le Also be prepared to use these scores to make recommendations and decisions about what should and shouldn39t be done to best help Martin in the future ad khsdkljfhaskjfnlasiudhvaslq ebf question 1 question 15 pts i 7 starting to skip classes or even withdrawing when many times he is sure that ifthey worked a bit harder and came into office hoursfor help they could do much better on the Final and therefore pass the class He is also bothered that during lectures students keep asking him quotIs this going to be on the examquot It seems to him that many 39 39 39 39 39 39 instead ofreally understanding the ideas he is trying to teach Since his PhD is in Biology Robertson has had no courses or training in teaching so he has come to you Director of the college 39s Centerfor Teaching for advice Describe in detail one practical change you would suggest Dr Robertson makes in the way he assesses and grades students in this course and explain why you would suggest this change based on speci c principles of assessment from class materials The manner of testing in Dr Robinson s class is considered a highstakes objective multiple choice testing model because the testing results have a powerful in uence on the student s grade If the student performs poorly on the midterm worth 50 of his or her grade they may become discouraged when considering their likelihood of passing the course He already offers methods of remediation to students who fail through his office hours but in order to make Dr Robinson s model of highstakes testing more appropriate and effective he should offer opportunities for retesting so that students have a chance to raise their test grades Because of this the students will become more invested in really understanding the information he is presenting rather than being purely concerned with the tests PART B Classroom Management 30 pts total As an experienced andpreviously successful English teacher Ms Brown was assigned this yearfor thefirst time to teach a section ofEnglishfor Life the lowest track English class or sohomores at her h h school Knowing that this track was mainly for problem students and low achievers the students there would be Short answer 3 questions 5 pts each Concepts that may be addressed You will be asked to analyze the causes for Ms Brown39s management problems in this class in three of the following areas taken from Woolfolk Ch 12 and the Questions to ask yourself handout The physical environment seating spaces physical organization etc The communication in the classroom rules procedures tacit messages expectations assignments feedback etc Ms Brown s teaching practices gaining attention maintaining focus adapting to students developmentalskill levels prior 39 39 J I ieuces r interests and goals increasing student choice and ownership etc The social relationships in the classroom teacherstudent parentteacher ampor studentstudent Ms Brown s handling of the students modi able behaviors Information about her students Ms Brown should nd out that might help her solve these management problems 1 question 15 pts Describe one change you would suggest Ms Brown make to solve some of her management problems in this class Describe this strategy in detail and explain based on materials from class reading or discussions why and how you think these changes will help eg Do not just say quotShe needs to give students more choicesquot give a specific example of one choice she could offer students and explain how you think offering that choice would improve things and what makes you think so PART C Motivation 30 pts total Shauna Washington teaches 7m grade math at BangorMiddle School and is working toward herMaster s degree in middle school education For one assignment she has been asked to reflect on a recent class that didn t go as well as she hoped it would Here are her notes on her I period s recent review sessionfor a test As usual Denisha and Hank were thefirst to volunteer to do problems on the board Even when it wasn t his turn 39 or shouting directions to the person at the board This was really annoying when Cheri n W was taking her turn She kept stopping and looking at me to see ifshe was doing the problem right and every time she stopped Hank would call out the next step and say he could do it about a thousand timesfaster Then when it was his turn he actually made a calculation mistake When I told him about it he erased the number reallyfast and saidI hadn t read it correctly prettyfunny H In nee the whole time this was going on39 they stopped when Iwent over to tand b them butI caught them again later Iwish they would spend less time talking and had drawn this incredibly elaborate space battle scene with all kinds ofships andplanets and such The only time he zoned in was whenMeisha was having a hard time doing one ofthe toughest reviewproblems on the board She and T ree got into a really interesting discussion and together my class I checked his elementa he s always struggled in school and in math especially infact he had to and it seems like because he he s plannin get him ajob in the plant where he works At the end ofclass we hadfive minutes left so I started to show the class a neat math puzzle I had seen in the newspaper over the weekend Afew ofthe kidsiTyree Meisha Denisha andBill really got into it but then Adrian W Hank got his notebook right out again and I couldn t help laughing so Iguess the class ended on a good note at least Short answer 4 questions 5 pts each These questions will cover the Expectancy X Value model of motivation SELF EXPECTANCY Selfefficacy feeling capable in an area We are m motivated to try tasks in which we feel a high degree of self ef cacy that we are capable in this area We are motivated to try tasks in areas in Which we feel little self e icacy ie areas in which we feel we have little capability View of ability We are m motivated to try a task if we have an incremental view of ability that is we believe we can gain ability to do the task through effort andor learning We are motivated to try a task if we have an entity view of our ability in relation to the task that is if we believe our ability to do the task is inherent and not changeable Locus of control We are m motivated to try a task in which we believe we have substantial control over our own performance amp success We are motivated to try a task in which we believe our success is mainly controlled by outside forces such as luck or the whim of a capricious judge Support We are m motivated to try tasks if we believe that support is available to help us if dif culties are encountered We are motivated to try tasks if we believe we are isolated in the task and no support or help is available Time amp resources We are m motivated to try tasks if we believe we will have enough time and resources to succeed in them We are motivated to try tasks if we believe lack of time or resources may handicap our achievement VALUE Intrinsic interest We are more motivated by tasks that tie in to our personal interests We are motivated by tasks that are not related to any personal interest Instrumental value We are more motivated to try tasks in which success will olTer rewards or bene ts to us We are motivated to try tasks in which success will offer few rewards or benefits or even possible punishments Relational value We are more motivated to do things that we see as important or helpful to people we care about We are motivated to do things that we see as devalued or actually aversive to people we care about Selfimage We are more motivated to do things that expand or enhance our image of ourselves We are motivated to do things that threaten or contradict our self image Prior need status We are more motivated to attempt a task when our prior more basic needs have been met We are motivated to attempt a task when our prior more basic needs are still unfulfilled Risk We are more motivated to try tasks in which the penalty for failure does not seem worse than the penalty for not trying We are motivated to try tasks when the penalty for failure seems worse than the penalty for not trying Very short answer 5 questions 2 pts each These questions will cover goal orientations Gaul Orientation F acus Mastering task learning understanding enough supporttimeresources MaSteryAppmaCh strong LOC view of ability prior needs met High SelfEf cacy eXtemal indicators of success ie grades judge success by how we measure up to others strong selfimage involvement high utility instrumental value PerfE go Goals Performance Approach PerfE go Goals Performance Trying not to look stupid High self image An Entity view of ability high Failure Avoidant cost of failure weak LOC lack of supporttimeresources Learned Helplessness Failure High cost of failures vs not trying Unmet prior needs 910w selfimage Accepting weak LOC lack of STR entity View of ability low self efficacy Concerned with doing bare minimum to get by weak LOC lack of WorkAvoialance Goal STR lack of intrinsic and instrumental value unmet prior needs low selfimage involvement low relational value low cost for not trying High relational value of a competing activity if not doing work Low Social Goals cost for not trying lack of intrinsic amp instrumental value unmet prior needs high relational value of a competing activity PART D Comprehensive 35 pts total Refer to the scenario in Part C Ms Washington s notes on a difficult math review session Short answer 3 questions 5 pts each You will be asked to look more closely at possible causes for Tom s student in the Ms Washington scenario learning and motivational problems in three short answer questions using the three main theoretical frameworks you have studied in the class Behaviorism including classical and operant conditioning all Bandura39s pg350 theories and the behaviorist related readings in REP pp 187196 amp 231238 Behaviorism explanation of learning that focuses on external events as the cause of changes in observable behaviors Social Cognitive Theory adds concern with cognitive factors such as beliefs selfperceptions and expectations to social learning theory Triarchic reciprocal causality individual affects environment which affects achievement outcomes which affects individual Newton s cradle Social Learning Theory learning through observation of others Classical Conditioning Association of automatic responses with new stimuli Dog salivatingaltoid example conditioned stimulus and response and unconditioned stimulus and response Operant Conditioning learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents Cognitive science including the information processing model strategies metacognition and schema theory including the Anderson amp Willingham readings REP pp 167186 Cognitive Science in order to learn students must focus on using learning strategies to memorize and attain knowledge Information Processing Model human mind s activity of taking in storing and using information sensory gt working gt long term EXAM 2 PREPARATION EPSY 2130 Fall 2010 PART A Read the scenario below You will be asked to answer three 3 short answer questions related to the concepts that follow Scenario A Samuel Davis hasjust had a hugefight with hisfather He s in 8th grade and hefeels he has done all right sofar in school mainly B s with afew Cs but this year it seems harder somehow For one thing Sam is endin more time chattin online with hisfriends at night so he s quot 39 39 vs Also there s a lot ofnew stu in eighth cultures in social studies and point of view in language arts and and clear the wa arithmetic and history did in earlier grades Besides 3 s 7 W u 9 his oldest brother is on a basketball scholarship in college and Sam wants to be just like him when he is older Besides after sitting in class all day Sam just can t wait to get to the gym and get moving e not solid Sam didn t make the middle school basketball team in seventh grade like most ofhisfriends did but v He worked all summer with his brother who showed him some college ball moves and coached him on his shooting and he practiced by himselfevery afternoon in thefall He tried out again this year andjust found out this afternoon that he made the team He went home all excited but hisfather wouldn t even listen to him hejust told Sam he couldn39t be on the team and said there was no needfor discussion on the matter He for d 3 c v i quot2 His brother will understand that it s no on the team and besides Sam knows t air Sam can t be with all his riends u too Concepts that may be addressed Kureinka39s temperament traits preferred style of responding moderately stable across time Temperament was the genetically based way a child behaved and reacted to environment some of us learn very effective coping styles throughout life eXperiences For example temperamentally you may be very distractible and active however though your years of schooling you have learned strategies and techniques that permit you to stay on task and engaged at least partially to college level courses o Senso Threshold the level of sensory stimulation necessary to evoke a response AKA sensitivity 0 the child s general level of motor activity when awake or asleep AKA energy 0 I the reactive energy of a response whether happy sad or angry how expressive a child is o 39 39 39 39 39 the l quot 39 quot39 of bodily functions such as appetite sleepwake and elimination AKA regularity m describes how easily a child adjusts to changes and transitions 0 Mood the basic quality of disposition It may be more positive a happy and cheerful child or more ne 3 ative a crank AKA rst reaction 0 the ability to continue an activity when it is difficult or when faced with obstacles stickto itness I the ease with which the child can be distracted by eXtraneous stimulation the level of concentration or focus AKA perceptiveness quotg00dness0f tquot compatibility between 1 39 39 39 and the 39 of the 1 help improve t by adjusting expectations adjusting environment or adjusting reactions Piagetian stages Despite Sam s age he s at a loss between the concrete and formal operational poor at hypothetical reasoning but does have high expertise and interest in a speci c area basketball Pare Hung High Control Low Control Styles High Warmth 39 39 39 warm but stern Permissive Low Warmth Reect1ngNeglect1ngUn1nvolved Indifferent Erikson39s stages bt stages 4 and 5 Sam exhibits some quality of industry vs inferiority as he begins to struggle with school but has trouble nding an identity identity vs roll confusion Marcia 39s identity formation stages Identity Moratorium Exploration without commitment struggle with identity crisis Characteristics of adolescence prefrontal cortex is not fully developed inhibits his ability to make good judgments and control emotions in midst of puberty so may have swelling of the amygdla which would make him more aggressive Peer relationships and statuses important all of his friends will be on the team without him contributes to his anger wants to be accepted and popular with his friends wants to be the star athlete like his brother Vygotskian learning theory more knowledgeable others cultural tools cultural capital contributes to better ability to adjust in school environment quotcycle quot of learning zone of proximal development sweet spot between too hard and too boring scaffolding happens within ZPD happens through a more knowledgeable other culture and cognition affect one another culture is learned through interactions such as Sam s interaction with his brother authentic tasks think about how he feels like his studies are vague and how more authentic assignments could help here PART B Scenario B Callie Brewer isjust 16 andfinishing her sophomore year in high school but she s thinking ofnot coming back nextyearfor a lot ofreasons It isn t like she sflunking out she passes all her classes and gets B s and sometimes even A s in Home Ec andArt but this year at school has been hardfor her Lastyear the school district redrew the attendance lines and Callie had to go to the new high school across town away from all her friends she grew up with She 39 and even the teachers seemed to L2 gave a speechjust last week about how kids shouldn t leave school because they 39 v but Callie is thinking about hers She d like to get afull timejob at the day care center near her home where she helped out this summer Her ather died in a trucking accident when she was nine and her mother works second shi t H r but therejust isn t much money left after payingfor rent andfood and everythingfor Callie and her two younger brothers and sister Callie s taken care ofher brothers and sister after schoolfor severalyears and she s always been good with little kids she s good at noticing how theyfeel and what they like and don t like and seems to understand what they need Her mom could sure use some 0 the money and the rest Callie wants to use to buy paints brushes canvas and other art 39 mainlyflowers and natural scenes ofthe hills and mountain streams near her home Even her mother admits her paintings are pretty although she says Callie shouldn t waste so much time on them Besides one ofCallie39s bestfriends has alreaay left school she had a baby in March and another is getting married at Christmas lfCallie dropped out she could spend more time with them Her own mother left school at 16 to marry herfather and they were really happy until he died and though she doesn t have a steaay boyfriendyet Callie eventually hopes to marry and settle down near herfamily so she doesn t see much advantage to finishing school M Concepts that may be addressed Kurcinka39s temperament traits high intensity strong reaction to discomfort at school dropping out low persistence seems indecisive and high withdrawal quitter high sensitivity low adaptability high perceptiveness notices everything high regularity resistance to change poor rst reaction serious quotgoodnessof t mother s expectations t well with Callie not t for school and societal expectations think about the guidance counselor s expectations Sternberg39s triarchic theory of intelligence creative art and analytical able to analyze judge compare and contrast Singleparent child issues single mother econ Issues mom is worker at walmart feels need to help take care of other siblings antisocial behaviors resists making new friends Erikson39s stages identity vs role confusion intimacy vs isolation Marcia 39s identity formation stages in a crisis identity foreclosure and diffusion fquot 39 39 o 39 39 39 39 39 p 39 prefrontal cortex inhibits ability to make logical decisions regarding her future Peer relationships and statuses peers are the primary in uence in school investment Callie s friends dropped out inability to make friendsmeet new people neglected Vygotskian learning theory more knowledgeable others her Mom she s in uencing Callie s choices cultural tools quotcyclequot of learning zone of proximal development sweet spot between too hard and too boring scaffolding happens within ZPD happens through a more knowledgeable other her culture is affecting her cognitionunderstanding of the world authentic tasks think about daycare and art interests desire for a fulltime job 1 15 pts Recommend a strategy to one or more of Callie s teachers that a constructivist might suggest to help solve the schoolrelated problems described in the scenario Explain your strategy in practicable detail being sure to include ways to avoid any potential bad side effects of this strategy and give a convincing explanation for m this is likely to be a helpful strategy based on something you have learned in this class related to constructivist theory eg Piagetian andor Vygotskian ideas Please be speci c in naming concepts theories or theorists from your readings to support your answer Constructivists emphasize knowledge from use not just inert facts focus on realistic environments Service learning Vygotskian focuses more on social aspect Piagetian Formal operations problemsolving strategy 7 hypothetico deductive reasoning good thing to implement because she s a logical thinker but cannot consider hypothetical situations for the future she could use this to identify sources causing her to want to drop out Callie must deduce and evaluate speci c solutions to her problem procon lists place emphasis on her monetary issues to show that in the long run education will be more pro table than dropping out to work at the daycare now will force Callie to explore options 2 15 pts Please write about one way that either cultural differences or poverty might be affecting Callie s education negatively and suggest one thing a teacher or counselor could do to help Callie overcome this educational barrier In writing about both the problem and the possible solution be sure to support what you say with speci c references to concepts ideas or theorists from your readings in these areas Poverty and cultural factors affect Callie negatively Think about More Knowledgeable Others in relation to the counselor who could use statistics to show Callie the importance of schooling PART C Scenario C Rosita Hernandez is having a hard time in third grade especially with reading writing and spelling so her teacher had her testedfor apossible learning disability hoping to get her some extra help Unfortunately Rosita did not qualify she did show problems in reading and writing but her IQ tested at only 78 in her state students must have an IQ ofat least 80 to quali as learning disabled rather thanjust slow learning Rosita s Q score surprised her teacher who has alwaysfeltRosita was bright Even though she struggles with written work she does very well in class discussions often coming up with original ideas or making good connections between instructional topics and things she has experienced or seen on TV Rosita s parents camefrom Mexico when her older brother was three years old and she wasjust an infant so Rosita has lived almost all her life in the US Rosita and herfamily share a rented double wide with herfather s brother and hisfamily in a mobile home park where many ofthe residents are also Hispanic Herfather has learned to speak English pretty well he and his brother run an auto boay shop where he works many hours each week to support his wife andfour children Rosita s mother has more trouble with English but she knows many oftheir neighbors and is active in the local Iglesia Catolica Catholic church Her teacher has suggested thatRosita s parents could maybe spend more time working on homework with her at home butRosita says herfather doesn t really have time and her mother can t help that much Besides it s not very easyfor her parents tofind a quietplace to go over homework with her Her teacher is getting really worried thatRosita may not be able to pass the state test required to go on to fourth grade she has also noticed that the other children rarely pickRosita as a partner for class work activities because she has a hard time completing them The other kids don t tease herparticularly but they arejust leaving her more and more alone Possible concepts to be applied in short answer questions Piagetian stages Concrete operational Parenting styles see part A chart Permissive Sternberg39s triarchic theory of intelligence Practical thinker can relate things to life experiences and TV IQ uses amp cautions IQ test is not completely reliable Erikson39s stages Stages 4 amp 5 Industry vs Inferiority Identity vs Role Confusion Peer relationships and statuses not developing strong peer relationships neglected status not being mistreated just ignored Vygotskian learning theory More knowledgeable others Rosita isn t getting help from her parents because they can tare busy nor her peers or teachers no more knowledgeable others Cultural tools doesn t practice English at home isn t getting help at home scores low on IQ test which inhibits her ability to gain more resources to perform better homework printed in Spanish in order to help her parents be more equipped to help Rosita with her homework quotcyclequot of learning Authentic tasks Potential Essay Questions 1 15 pts Recommend a strategy to Rosita s teacher that a constructivist might suggest to help solve the school related problems described in the scenario Explain your strategy in practicable detail being sure to include ways to avoid any potential bad side effects of this strategy and give a convincing explanation for m this is likely to be a helpful strategy based on something you have learned in this class related to constructivist theory eg Piagetian andor Vygotskian ideas Please be speci c in naming concepts theories or theorists from your readings to support your answer differentiated instruction Piagetian verbal skills are not at the same level as her classmates problem of the match 7 not within ZPD Vygotskian method of scaffolding CHECK WHICH THEORIST ZPD IS ASSOCIATED WITH 2 15 pts Please write about one way that either cultural differences or poverty might be affecting Rosita s education negatively and suggest one thing a teacher or counselor could do to help Rosita overcome this educational barrier In writing about both the problem and the possible solution be sure to suggort what you say with speci c references to concepts ideas or theorists from your readings in these areas negative impact she doesn t have English practice at home like the other students Vygotskian belief that children are not alone in discovering A er school programtutoring to allow for quiet studying away fromthe tmiler park inds of knowledge approach if teacher takes time to learn more about Rosita s family background she can adjust assignments accordingly Characteristics of Adolescerim ee Brain artic e Impulsivity Prefrontal cortex Development of the brainwhat does it mean Need a lot of sleep Emotionally reactive Don t evaluate all options before making decisions Peer Relationships amp status 0 Sociometric s atus Psychological tools are one kind of cultural tool also material go with Vygotsky s social cultural theory Goodness of fit fin PowerPoint on temperament adjust environment reactions and expectations to help the goodness of fit Part A Vygotskian cycle of al developmem will not Sternberg39s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence terminology instead study scaffolding 5 Conditions forLearning ummm quot 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 cum Onmhom w 1 Embed learning in memwnn k I I maulod Ida hall realistic amp relevant m mmuzfuwmla m 0 I bay uniimam uvnlur o eanunmems quotSham any 39 2 Provrde for social I Wumam wmwnsnmi I I a I HM I Hana Mona amp mix mm responsibility nng nmmsm l sun HEEqu umquot 39quot W D 5 I Mann u 3 Support multiple WM 39 Ez z f39z m mum Dimitriquot I I I Auionuuizauan DIM1h apply min perspectives m m 9mm 4 Nurture selfiawareriess 333213 5 Encome ownership compare and Murmur Industry vs Inferiority Child WI 39 A u u s eynnc sTnar m Then uses I556 mere me mum mum We 0 intelligence must deal With demands to learn quot939 39 9 c vy WWquot 4 2m W Allyn M 3M 7 it