AP Bio-Ecology CH 52-53
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Date Created: 07/05/14
Ecology how organisms Interact with envlronment at 112014 93OAM Biotic living other organisms Abiotic non living Ie Water climateelevation climate composition of soil Biomes major life zone l certain kinds of organisms can survive there similar organisms 5 x r 4 n p r no large anlm down huge plants and planted cropsbut soil was the worst BC stays 0 rte A 3 Savanbnf orial and sub equatorial wet and dry seasons hivores and camivor us settle in ad p z arge animals 4 Chaparral mjgjagjmgg coastal areas pregip very seasonal 305Ocm V a 2 Rd 8 P 9 39i ecosystem Ag ther cool to r I p o quot sne ssnal pr get j fquot339 fL 72 6 6 P PQ V gt g Qst g 3070cm but a lot of it is snow cold 39 EZ PZ ake g nota lot of hristmas trees sothat snow falls 6 Taiga northern n 2Y in winter SOC quot5quotr 3 9 VW undergrowth ve W W is of biggest biome y g1 T 7 Temperate brolef j V 3 M V 0 x 3939 8 Tundrai e U 1 quot seasonallfrcharacterized by permafrost layer Aquatic physical enviro PhoticaDI1Qflc depth of photic zone depends on clarity of water Benthic zone very bottom of iphotic zone Freshsaltbrackish Movingnot l r C p to different place on the planet Species transplants illegal 10 survive but some10 can become pest species PopuIation same C9 P9 similar enviro pressures Dens39rty number of 39 77 N8 is Dispersion how the individuals are spaced within that area Markrecapture 1 Capture 3 individuals and mark them Release in same area 2 Come back latercapture n organisms count how many of those are markedx Z I 39 n N A Capture and mark 200 Come back and capture 250 out of those 25 are marked How big is population 2 L00 10quot 790 V 3 39 77 39 N B Capture 75 Come back capture 100 5 markecf5 35 39 3 Vs U3 1 2 D l E2 0 lmmigration movementj to the population Emigration movementpgn of the population Patens of dispersal Cumped individualsiialmnather and J Qesplead BC of resources mating herd etc positive interaction Uniforrn Lsome plants QtIln nZils that prevent others of its species A Random fairly 111 A 0 g 0 Plants whose seeds dispersed by the wind Demographyii fiilylbquotf39iiltdt8Qt3 of population and how they change overtime ut each other le Life tablechart developed by life insurance companies Oohort group of 0 g n that are the f A g SUfY Q hQggQ p OpOrtion of members of cohort live at a certain ager39 always P quot P quot Large mammals young stage well an 1 Small animals to die at any age High mortality of bapies but long life if survived Reproductive rates havln9naby how many you are going to have 0 Multiple litter species starts with few in litter has more then drops down optimal reproductive age Change BlDE BD Nsize of population AN change in population At time interval A V F B p A Per capita rate L Q quotquot 5 Ab J AT 9 quot r3 39 pz J2 I F B 1 I qJC39g rel I in L lt l 4 frag I I1 9 1J39r H5 R is decreasing Jr5 T 1 In a population of 1000 there are 70 births and 40 deaths in one year What is r What is NAt What is size of population size of population 39 after1yr2 r 39 lt10 79 3 A e5 4 A quotrV 3quotgt a03 x30 l lo00 0 39939 7 39 1 P1061 LogisticGrowth Carrying capacityK max number of species that can be sustained in an area constant for a place at a time ii 395quotquot 1 K 1 quot mm M K ml T a 3 N J u 44 Izdntitl Sigmoidc e 11 quot9 K7 0 ltspecies learn K I T 5 effect if popIJlatlonibeloWaGolminlelel in some species lllt 639ly39to die too smallbad smallest sustainable pop100 Life History how and when reproducing emgLpaity39quotBl39g quotquot n all reproductive effort in one time death afterwards Ie Organisms with short lives or breeding season only always 1 time 39 1teroparity 39 P 0 energy to survive which depends on likelihood to survive must also look at A how likely babies are to survive 39 depend have fewer and better babies more competitivel r selection a lot of babies with low survival rate prey species Feedbacktegulatlon maintains ecosystems density dependent or independentabiotic factorsnatural disasters 9 I D Dependent mechanism that death but decrease birth Competition 02 individuals in an area less food Predation easier for predator to find prey if there is a lot Toxic waste Ie Aquatic organisms chemicals lntrinsic overcrowding increases aggressive behavior but decrease in sexual behavior most common in mammals Territoriality limits how many can be in an area Disease larger population faster disease spread Population dynamics stability uctuation predatorprey interactions Population cycles Y 7 2 1 l Age structure rapidly growing pop a lot of prereproductive pop and some old Community a group of species that live close enough to interact Interspecific between species 1 Competition different species try to use same limited resource that limits growth and survival A Competitive exclusion one species runs the other out of the area Gauss 2 species cannot occupy the same niche description of role in the ecosystem 8 Both species die off or 1 survives C Resource partitioning divide resource but not equally must have character displacement one uses resource in different form V a Must have slight differences in resource b Has to be variation in the population i quotV I U 0g I
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