EXPLNG LNG & TCHG
EXPLNG LNG & TCHG EPSY 2130
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clotilde Hodkiewicz on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EPSY 2130 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/202097/epsy-2130-university-of-georgia in Educational Psychology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
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rnrsnnn Gnach Measurnnmu FINAL EXAM PREPARATION EPSY 2130 Spring 2011 DIRECTIONS Below are some scenarios concepts and essay questions from which your Final exam will be composed The scenarios given are the actual scenarios that will be used on the exam although in some sections you may not be asked to address all of the concepts on your exam you should be prepared to address each of them The actual exam will consist of four parts The rst three parts focus on the main topics from the nal part of the class while the nal section is more comprehensive Each section contains short answer questions worth 25 pts and three also contain an essay question 1520 pts each As with previous exams you will write your answers directly on the exam you will have 46 lines to answer each short answer question and about 12 to 34 ofa page to answer each essay question so plan to be concise and clear You are encouraged to discuss with other students how these concepts and questions might apply to the scenarios but all answers will be writtenindividually in class during the regular threehour exam period though I expect many people will take less than three hours to write the exam NOTE Scenarios re ect typical students and teachers in common educationrelated situations but all names of people organizations and schools and speci c details in the scenarios are ctitious PART A Assessment Read the scenario below You will be asked to answer three 3 short answer questions related to the attached Performance Pro le Martin Grant has not been doing very well in your second grade class He takes a very long time to do work in class and often misses turning in homework what he does turn in is often incomplete with many erasures and errors His parents are very concerned that he do well in school so that he can eventually get in the honors track in high school and get into a good college They have suggested that maybe it would be better for Martin to move back to first grade for another year since he is obviously not able to succeed at the second grade level but you have persuaded them to wait for the results of the F all IT BS testing before making any decision Now the test results are in and they have come in for a conference Concepts that may be addressed Be prepared to interpret for Martin s parents the meaning and implications of various types of scores e g percentile scores sub test scores and grade equivalent scores norm versus criterion referenced scores in speci c areas of the Performance Pro le and ALSO to use these scores to make recommendations and decisions about what should and shouldn t be done to best help Martin in the future Q Percentile Scores the percent of students in this grade in the nation with a lower score on that test total or composite Subtest scores often compromised of only a few questions and therefore a student missing a couple of questions could mean they fail that section of the test for reasons not related to their knowledge level Gradeequivalent scores re ects how they scored compared to other students The first number is the grade level and the second is the month in that grade level For example his composite score was a 27 meaning that on the entire test he performed as well as a student in their second grade year seventh month Normreferenced scores scores compared to the performance of others The grade equivalent score is an example Criterionreferenced scores scores based on a set performance standard The subtest scores are an example of this Recommendations for Martin 0 He does M need to go back to first grade he is clearly capable of doing second grade work Help him to keep a schedule of when things are do work on his time management to help him get things tumed in on time and tumed in completely Find a tutor maybe he is misunderstanding the directions Encourage his parents to place less pressure on him Make sure all instructions are clear Q Q Q Q Q 0 O O 0 Essay question 15 pts NOTE This question is NOT based on the quotMartinquot scenario above Dr Elisha F reppon has recently been hired as the Head of the English Department at a large state university her first challenge is to deal with some real problems that have arisen with ENG 10 the Freshman English composition course taken by over 2000 students each year Students are taught by TAs in over 80 sections averaging 25 students each They have to write two formal five page essays which are graded by their instructors and they also take a midterm and a final exam that is standardized across all sections and machine graded An increasing number of students have been complaining about grading inequities among instructors claiming that for example the C grade they got on an essay would be a B or even anA in other sections Looking at samples of graded essays Dr Freppon can see that some instructors take of heavily for grammar and spelling errors or typos while others seem to focus more on organization or essay content In addition while some instructors provide lots of comments so students know what to do di erently next time others just circle errors and put a letter grade on the top Students also complain that the midterm especially takes them by surprise it doesn39t seem to cover the material their instructors emphasize in class and they feel like studying for it and for the final that follows is just a guessing game As a result of these problems students often fail to get through ENG 101 the first time they take it with some not earning the required C while many others withdraw from the course at midterm to avoid getting a bad grade These students have to take the course again and some even a third time setting them back a semester or more in their degree programs and wasting the students39 time and money and the University39s resources as well In a recent group meeting with Dr Freppon the instructors brought up their own issues They said some students are not really well enough prepared for the class but by the time they turn in their first essay just before the midterm the instructors feel they have no choice but just to give them a bad grade They agree that the course description and textbook focus mostly on learning how to organize different types of essays and write clear sentences and paragraphs while the all course exams seem to focus more on grammar and other mechanics this is why some instructors have begun to add material and grade the essays more harshly in these areas to help students prepare for the exams but they all feel there is not much else they can do they teach the units in order from the required textbook and they have no control over what shows up on the midterm and final which had been composed each term by the former head of the Department by selecting machine gradable questions from a T estBank that came with the textbook One group has suggested that perhaps the required grade in ENG 101 should be lowered to aD but this doesn39t seem like a good solution to Dr Freppon Many students would still withdraw at the midpoint to avoid getting any kind of low grade on their transcripts and besides a number of University faculty have already complained that too many students who pass ENG 101 still don39t seem to have the necessary skill to construct a solid essay when they get to more advanced classes Frankly Dr Freppon is not quite sure what to do so you has come to you the Associate Dean for Instruction for some advice Since the problems in ENG 101 seem to center around assessment issues please describe in some detail two practical changes you would suggest Dr Freppon make in the way students are assessed and graded in this course and explain why you would suggest these changes based on speci c nrincinles of from the course readings and or lectures 6 Create a clear rubric which defines what is expected on the essays and such include how many points are to be taken off for mistakes Offer this rubric to students so they know what will be expected of them If teachers had discretion about the rubric have them come to you as the nal word on the problem Most of these teachers are grading with criterion referenced score based on the statement students are not really well enough prepared for the class instead they should consider fonnative instruction where they asses through instruction to measure leaming see where the kids are at and then adjust their practices to help them grow Q PART B Classroom Management Read the scenario below You will be asked to answer three 3 short answer questions related to the concepts that follow and one essay question Mr Benson is starting his second year teaching 2 quot v science at Waukesaunee Middle School Last year he had so much trouble with the lab experiments designed to go along with the textbook that he really isn39t sure he should even do them this year He started last ear with a x but once they got in the lab 39 39 39 v Again just before each lab he would spend 20 minutes or more going over exactly what he wanted them to do but he 39 39x w and point out what they were doing wrong They just couldn39t or wouldn39t follow correct laboratory procedures Students often did procedures incompletely or in the wrong order misused equipment and seemed to spill about half of the chemicals they were using which meant that hardly any students got the correct results and the lab was always a big mess to clean up V s v 39m gt to use the equipment and who had to write up the results in the lab book Students argued while they stood in line waiting to measure out each chemical from the big bottle in which it was kept and once four students actually got into a ight after one tried to quotcutquot in line and another responded b calling him an obscene name Most of the 15 3 v R t H to be heard over them which typically produced only a short sullen silence before the chatter started up again Constantly trying to contain the noise and keep the mess and breakage to a minimum quot he i but he discovered his mistake one day toward the end of the year when one of the group egged on by the others succeeded in turning his Bunsen burner into a blowtorch singeing two of his fellow students and burning the paint off a large area on the back wall the principal had a long talk with Mr Benson after that incident Even as a first year teacher Mr Benson was able to keep his students pretty well under control when he lectured they were usually pretty busy copying the notes he put up So he is tempted to just skip the labs or maybe just do them himself as demonstrations On the other hand Mr Benson knows that lab work is an important part of preparing for high school science and he doesn39t want to short change his students He has come to you the science department head at Waukesaunee for some suggestions about what went wrong and how he could maybe make things work better this year Concepts that may be addressed You will be asked to analyze the causes for Mr Benson39s management problems in this class in three of the following areas taken from Woolfolk Ch 12 and the Questions to ask yourself handout the physical environment seating spaces physical organization etc the communication in the classroom rules I J tacit messages 1 quot assignments feedback etc Mr Benson s teaching practices gaining attention maintaining focus adapting to students developmentalskill levels prior 39 J I ieuces r interests and goals increasing student choice and ownership etc the social relationships in the classroom teacherstudent parentteacher amp or studentstudent Mr Benson39s handling of the students modifiable behaviors information about his students Mr Benson should find out that might help him solve these management problems a Physical Environment 0 Spread out resources so there isn t as much waiting in line for things 0 Don t put the kids that know what they re doing in the back comer a Communication 0 Make assignments much more clear I Write steps on the board I Pass out printed instructions 0 Allow students to ask you questions without judgement 0 Make students altemate or share responsibility for doing experiments amp writing lab reports a Teaching practices 0 Obviously his teaching practice of lecturing the rules procedures isn t working so he should try something new a slideshow with pictures demonstrations silly songs etc o The children are obviously interested in the labs they fight over who gets to use equipment argued while waited to measure chemicals out a Social relationships 0 Students squabble 0 Neither parties students or teacher respect each other 0 He should set clear rules that demand respect for and from everyone 8 Students modifiable behavior 0 Instead of yelling at the kids Mr Benson needs to remain calm when talking to them 0 The students should get punished ie not get to participate in lab when then do things like argue talk excessively or burn each other 5 Information about his students 0 He should find out their interests in the lab 0 He should find out how they best respond to his instruction I One step at a time oral written Essay 15 pts Please describe at least two changes you would suggest Mr Benson make to solve some of his management problems during lab periods Describe these changes in some detail and explain based on materials from class reading or discussions why and how you think these changes will help eg Do not just say quotHe needs to give students more choices give a speci c example of one choice he could offer students and explain how you think offering that choice would improve things and what you have speci cally learned in the class that makes you think so a He needs to write the instructions out on the board If he does this the kids will not be able to say they didn t remember how to do it or something like that Kids need to know exactly what is expected of them a I also suggest that he institute some type of punishment for their misbehavior PART C Motivation Read the scenario below You will be asked to answer a number of very short and regular short answer questions related to the concepts that follow You will also use this scenario in answering part D of this exam Juanita Melendez teaches seventh grade social studies at Washington Middle School and is working toward her Masters degree in middle school education For one assignment she has been asked to re ect on a recent class that didn t go as well as she hoped it would Here are her notes on a recent review session for a big test on the Middle Ages in herfirstperiod class I planned to do a kind of quotQuiz Show quot game for a review that hoped would really engage the students with lots of short answer questions but also some bonus questions for teams to work together on that would require longer more thought out kinds of answers I picked some of the slower quieter kids to be team captains and I got the game started up pretty quickly and smoothly Then as usual Greg began to get impatient and started calling out answers whenever anyone on his team hesitated even when it wasn39t his turn He also began to make fun of some students on the other team asking them why they were quotso slooooow quot and saying he and his team could answer quotabout a thousand times faster quot I had to shut that down right away Then when it was his turn he actually gave a wrong answer and when I didn39t give him the point he insisted I hadn39t heard him correctly I finally had to tell him I didn39t think quotSaladinquot sounded a whole lot like quotGenghis Khan quot so I was pretty sure I wasn39t the one who had made the mistake prettyfunny T he game did go more slowly than I had hoped though Several of the kids like Sharice and Brent seemed really hesitant to commit to an answer they39d kind of start to say something and then look to see how I was reacting and if it looked like they were wrong they39d switch what they were saying I tried not to give anything away by my face or voice but the reactions of their peers were usually enough to tip them off Deshaun and Tilda never even gave one answer every time it was their turn they39d say quotpass quoteven though that lost their team a point They39ve done OK on their homework in this unit so I don39t think they are really that lost hope not but maybe it just seemed safer to not to take the chance of giving the wrong answer in front of everyone And then on the bonus questions Robbie kept raising his hand and asking me to explain why a certain answer was right or wrong I don t usually mind when he does that because I know he just wants to make sure he understands things but it was just taking too long I was worried we wouldn t get through the whole game so I had to ask him to check with me after school if he needed more help I hope it doesn t discourage him Meisha and F enice were whispering and giggling the whole time the game was going on they stopped when I went over to stand by them but I caught them passing notes again later I wish they would spend less time talking and pay more attention in class they need this review ifthey are going to do well enough on this test to pull up their grades Jerome wasn t paying much attention either most of the time he was drawing on his paper I got a glimpse of it later he had drawn this incredibly elaborate castle with a moat and drawbridge and knights jousting and such I suppose in a way it was on topic Anyway the only time he zoned in was when Elaina one of his teammates said she thought there were two possible answers to one of the questions She and Jerome got into a really interesting discussion bringing up stuff I don 39t think was even in the textbook but once they settled on an answer Elaina sat down and Jerome went back to his drawing I m not too worried about him though he always does great on tests although he s a little slack about turning in homework H e s nowhere near as bad as Andy though I am worried aboutAndy s grade He gave such o ithe wall answers when it was his turn that I asked to see his homework and he had to admit he hadn t done any of the practice questions I had assigned for this review He hasn t turned in much of the homework for this whole unit he always seems to have some reason he doesn t it have itihe had to go to his grandma s house or he lost it on the way to school or he didn t know there was any assignment etc etc etc Andy s a really nice kid with a smile a mile wide but I m afraidI ve been letting him get away with too much lately Jay is another one I m really worried about Like Deshaun and Tilda he passed every time it was his turn to give an answer I tried to encourage him to at least try on one question I thought would be pretty easy for him but it kind of backfired He said that he didn39t see why we had to learn quotall this real old stuff quot and anyway he had quotbetter things to do quot than to study for quota stupid History test quotI don t know whatI m going to do with him he s failing my class I checked his elementary school records and it seems like he s always struggled in school in fact he had to repeat third grade because he failed the state reading assessment twice at that level He never seems to be interested in what39s going on in class in fact half the time he seems half asleep He never turns in any homework and he writes as little as possible on exams often skipping the essay questions entirely I ve even o ered to help him after school but he just says he doesn t need any help he s planning to quit school just as soon as he can because his father can get him a job in the plant where he works He told me once that his Dad has done just fine without a high school diploma and he will too I know his father is a foreman at the plant and makes a good living for his family But times are changing and I want Jay to realize how important it is to go to high school and not shut off his options I just don t know how to motivate him We did get through the whole game with 5 minutes left so I started to show the class some pictures I had found of Medieval Art and talk about how it was so di erent from both the Grecian inspired art of the Roman Empire and the later realistic art of the Renaissance A few of the kidsiJerome Elaina Robbie and surprisingly Sharice got really interested but thenAdam asked ifthe pictures were quot going to be on the test When I said no he and a lot of the other kids including Greg and Heather and F enice started to put their books away and get ready to leaveicatch them doing anything extra Then when I added that might ask about one of them for extra credit on the test Greg got his notebook right out again and started taking notes I couldn t help laughing so I guess the class ended on a good note at least Concepts that may be addressed Goal Orientation including Mastery approach Performance approach and avoidance Work avoidance and Social goals and the Expectanch Value model of motivation including factors that can affect Expectancy self e icacy view of ability locus of control support amp time and resources and those that can affect Value intrinsic interest utilityinstrumental value self image relational value and risldcost a Goal oriented o Mastery approach wanting to leam material not concemed with others 0 Performance approach wanting to outdo others make take short cuts as long as it gets the grade trying to win seeking positive reinforcement 0 Performance avoidant trying not to look bad avoiding instances of poor performance 0 Work avoidant don t want to work hard or do well they just don t want to work 0 Social goals it is more important that they fit in their social groups a Expectancy X Value model 0 Self efficacy belief in your own ability 0 View of ability I lncremental we can improve our performance based on effort I Entity ability or performance is fixed 0 Locus of control determining where the control lies for the situation we are more motivated when we think we have more control 0 Support we are more motivated by tasks when we think we will have support should we encounter problems 0 Time resources more motivated when we think we will have enough time and resources a Value 0 Intrinsic interest we are more motivated by tasks that we find interesting Utility instrumental value more motivated by tasks that will offer us rewards Self image more motivated by tasks that will expand our image of ourselves Relational value more motivated to do things that are important to the people we care about 0 Risk cost more motivated when potential benefits outweigh potential risks OOO PART D Comprehensive Concepts that may be addressed Using the same scenario from Part C you will be asked to look more closely at possible causes for J ay s learning and motivational problems in three short answer questions using the three main theoretical frameworks you have studied in the class Although there is considerable overlap among these three frameworks we have de ned them for the purposes of this test as follows You M use these categorizations when answering questions in this section Behaviorism including classical and operant conditioning all Bandura39s theories and the behaviorist related readings in REP pp 187196 amp 231238 Part A EPSY Final Material Section 1 Percentile ScoresA student s raw score compared with other student s raw scores in the norm group Martin falls around the 501h percentile rank in reading and vocabulary and around the 751h percentile rank in math social studies and science This does not mean a 50 or 75 is his grade for the test but that he falls in those percentile ranks among the other students SubTest ScoresFor example Geometry under math concepts Overall Martin s scores were rather high with few scores in the negative The bars are used as visuals to compare his scores with other student s scores The only area that was rather low compared to others was Approaches and Procedures GradeEquivalent Score Measure of grade level based on comparison with norming samples from each grade According to Martin s gradeequivalent he is on track as a second grader because his scores fell between 23 and 31 NormReferenced Score Assessment of student s achievement in relation to one another CriterionReferenced Score Assessment of each student s mastery of course Martin overall is above average compared to his fellow classmates under normreferenced scores He is rather close to the mastery of course objectives in terms of Language total Math Problems Math Computation Science and Sources of Information under the criterionreferenced scores Part 2 Part B My first suggestion for Dr Freppon would be to give the TA s a set curriculum and rubric in which to teach and grade from If all TAs were to teach and grade in the same fashion no student would bene t from taking a certain TA s class In REP it describes standards for assessment to be fair and ethical My suggestion would help ful ll absence of bias equitable treatment equality in outcomes and opportunity to learn My Second suggestion would be to give the students a formative test at the beginning in order to access the levels at which the students are at and adjust future instruction based on areas they need help in If the instruction is tailored to their needs they will more than likely be better equipped for tests and the nal In Woolfork it describes how these tests can help improve learning which seems to be the underlining problem in the English classes Physical EnvironmentHe needs to plan for easy access to materials plan for smooth traffic ow to enable movement without disruption Possibly have the lab set up at each table beforehand Design a bulletin board with proper lab rules Communication Have the students begin be copying the days procedures for the lab and have the students take it with them create a routine for gathering materials teach the students to EPSY 2130 thaviorism Classical conditioning T48 The Three Stages of Classical Conditioning STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 Uncondnioned 39unoondliioned ugcandmmeu stimulus response stimulus Em r Fwd Salivaiion N u t39ral slimuliis stimulus quotJ a 39 w i i Be ll 39i a ii I No effect Pavlov s Dog Skinner s Operant conditioning A9B9C Antecedent Behavior Consequence Four types of consequences Behavior Encouraged Behavior Suppressed Stimulus Presented Stimulus Removed or Withheld Consequences One way to help keep positive and negative reinforcement is to consider emotions elicited by each Reinforcement typically will elicit a positive emotion With positive reinforcement you receive a quotgood thing that elicits quotjoyquot quothappinessquot quotpridequot etc trophy With negative reinforcement you lose a quotbad thing which elicits quotreliefquot Seat belt alarm Long uncomfortable pauses Punishment typically will elicit a negative emotion Presentation punishment you get a quotbad thing and elicits anger sadness regret et c Awhippin Removal punishment you lose a quotgood thing and elicits anger sadness regret etc grounding Why Punishment should be your quotLast Resort It doesn39t teach new desired behaviors It focuses attention on undesired behavior Instead of prompting the change in behavior you want it often causes a host of unintended side effects including avoidance classical quotaversionquot effect cheatingattempts to quotget aroundquot the rules a hostile oppositional environment quotthemquot vs quotyouquot fearresentmentdefiance negative selfconcept quotthe bad kidquot loss of autonomy amp selfregulation focus on behavior ratherthan learning But Praise has its pitfalls too you need to Be honest Focus on the product or action not the child Focus on the present not the past or future Be specific Attribute success to the child39s efforts Praise should often be private public praise embarrasses many children and can alienate peers Avoid comparisons to others whenever possible Try to avoid praising children for actions you would take for granted in peersit makes them feel dumb Whenever possible praise should provide the child with specific feedback he can use to praise himself and to repeat the desired behavior Reinforcement Schedules Con nuous Fixed Interval Variable Interval Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio ABA Behavioral modification 3 facets Specification of behavior to be changed ABC intervention Tracking and graphing results Four primary reasons for behavior Gain something Avoid something Attention Self stimulation Other Highlights Managing group behavior SevereProfound Behaviors Reinforcement schedules ABAB Designs In Class Assignment 12 points Get in 5 groups of4 or 5 people Develop 2 scenarios wherein a student has a behavior that you would like to encourage and a behavior that you would like to suppress For the behavior you would like to encourage employ a negative reinforcement paradigm For the behavior you would like to suppress employ a presentation punishment paradigm The stimulus for both the negative reinforcement and presentation punishment must be the same Pick a schedule of reinforcement and defend why you useditp205 Be prepared to briefly quotact out your scenarios What pattern differentiates negative reinforcement from punishment
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