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by: Erling Ward


Erling Ward
GPA 3.51


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This 41 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erling Ward on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELI 1001 at University of Georgia taught by Sharp in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/202098/reli-1001-university-of-georgia in Religion at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
DAY 1 Christianity He is risen Origins the Life of Jesus The Christos Very little on early life born of Virgin Mary in Bethlehem and grew up in Nazareth near Galilee lce Public years begin with baptism by his older cousin age 30 Temptation by Satan in the desert while fasting 40 days Recruiting 12 disciples and female followers NeXt 13 years Jesus traveled worked miracles healed the sick raised the dead and taught how to apply Jewish law to everyday life and taught morality and love of God Some teachings pointed to salvation and some kind of apocalypse what was his rst miracle Tums water into wine at a wedding A few days after entering Jerusalem for Passover Jesus was arrested for corrupting the people and claiming kingship He was condemned tortured nailed to the cross crucified and died Two days later his followers claimed that he had been resurrected after finding an empty tomb and then seeing Him alive Read John 11 and Luke 22 for Thursday n0 writing Major Beliefs about Jesus Bom of a Virgin Mary wife of Joseph Family of David through Joseph A Rabbi who completely followed the Jewish Law Spoke with and loved people of every social class ethnicity and ideology Often taught in the form of parables Jewish reactions to Roman rule Essenes Pharisees Zealots Sadducees Jesus took a different path Seen as the Messiahawaited in Judaism Not just a human messiah but God himself Christology For Christians Jesus is One of the three of the Triune God Father Son and Holy Spirit for some Jews and Muslims this borders on polytheism A perfect and willing sacrifice and humanity and an example of selfsacrifice The Son of God and God Himself incarnation of God Completely God and completely human The logos of God and the Love of God The means of salvation union with God despite humanity s faults Christian groups often disagree on how this works but they all agree that Jesus is central to a connection with God Forgiveness a constant theme in Christianity After the resurrection Jesus appears to many people before ascending to Heaven However not leaving his people alone he sends the Holy Spirit 3rd part of Trinity after Him to guide his followers Christian Pentecost in Book of Acts Christian Anthropology and Eschatology Humans are all made in the image of God anal they all suffer from Original Sin In practice what does this say about us Spiritual every person has an eternal spirit Bodily humans are also physical The body will die but the spirit persists in some state Heaven Hell maybe Purgatory Future and present Some form of bodily resurrection affirmed Particulars of this are debated or simply not discussed Our intended nature is perfection without Original Sin Christians in particular members of the Body of Christ 3 Major Doctrines of Christianity Developed and Understood in the first 500 years of Christianity through councils scripture and holy inspiration Maj or l Incamation Jesus IS God AntiIncamation heresy the Ebionites said Jesus was a Jewish prophet not God 2 Trinity God has a Triune nature Father creator Son redeemer and Holy Spirit Sanctifier These are three aspects of the same Goal 3 Atonement The sacri ce of Jesus a Godman without sin allows all people to connect with God through Jesus For Christians Jesus restores us to our intended nature State of Original Sin Does this happen in a moment At death While alive Is it a process Can you lose it once you have it Can you be blames for not knowing Jesus Differing views on all this but universally Christianity sees Jesus as central Early Heresy Gnosticism most dangerous saw world as evil and secret knowledge as means of salvation Basically saw world as being evil and world was run by evil demon World was seen as an illusion Know Marcion and what Marcionism is God of Old Testament is evil and Jesus brought a completely new religion Deny Old Testament and have nothing to do with Judaism and Old Testament time Periods 3BCE30CE Lifetime of Jesus 30CE120 New Testament or Apostolic Age 120451 The Early Church 4511517 Middle Ages l 517 1600 The Reformation l7th Cent Present Modern Period We may be in another age as of the last few decades Teritatively we will call it the period of the Emerging Church Origins The Gospels The gospels from the Greek evangel good news are accounts of Jesus life teaching ad Passion The Christian message was crystalizing into recognizable form by the mid rst century When Christianity became the est religion of the Roman Empire church leaders made a list of the writings they acknowledged to be scripture creating the New Testament Marks account earliest Gospel Luke s account Mathew s account Synoptic Gospels John s gospel is very different in that his purpose is to set out just the narrative but is cosmic signi cance John explicitly proclaims Jesus as divine messiah and savior Jewish Sect to Christian Church The rst disciples were largely peasants and shermen who expected the end of the age and the return of their teacher to come at any moment The principle in uence on the early Church however was and educated Jewish convert who took the name Paul According to Paul gentiles non Jews could be Christians and faith in Jesus is a major part of salvation salvation past present and future tense Est Christianity in many of the port cities of the Roman Empire Paul was later martyred by beheading Rome The Apostle Peter was also martyred in Rome but by means of upsidedown cruci xion Why the difference Difference because he was a Roman citizen What was the distinctive about Paul s early biography 2 points Faracee and Roman citizen Forming Church Community Christianity formally organized during the early centuries already some organization by time of Paul 50s CE Churches founded by original Apostles and their followers Regional bishops Archbishops were in charge of larger areas At rst mostly Jews but soon gentiles became the primary coverts Works of charity Baptism and communion Eucharist reenacting Passover and Christ s sacri ce and a certain egalitarian living where essential parts of early communities By the 3rd century four Christian centers gained prominence Alexandria Jerusalem Antioch and Rome Threats of Early Christianity Other sects and theologies threatened the proto orthodox theology Heretical sects included Gnostics Ebionites the Arian Heresy and Marcionism all had their own scriptures Heresy of Marcionism rejected the Old Testament and anything Jewish Took the Old Testament God of Wrath stereotype to its conclusion Exact dates for heretical scriptures are debated Most were written decades after the accepted scriptures of the NT At the time 12 cent CE there was no official doctrine official Bible or official interpretation to completely answer major questions Why did Christianity wait a few decades to begin writing and canonizing Scripture and doctrine H ow does Christianity and Paul both accept and reject the Old Testament law at the same time Christians accept the Old Testament by the history and 10 commandments and rejected Jewish interpretations laws Law is ful lled in Christ Persecution and Martyrdom Persecution and Martyrdom From the Roman perspective early Christians were guilty of insubordination Like some Jews before them they refused the pagan religion endorsed by the state Christians were systematically persecuted as a matter of state policy especially under Nero Imperial Christianity Constantine r 30637 gradually abandoned the persecution policy issuing an edict 0f Mulan in 313 that gave Christians liberty to practice their religion Emperor Julian then brought back Christian persecution It was only with Theodosius Ir 37995 that the empire became officially Christian and major persecution ended Creeds The Church began composing creedsStatements of the content of Christian faithvery early in its history Christianity began to be defined by belief Orthodox Perhaps as early as 150 but certainly by the early 3r century a formulation known as the Apostles creed was coming into use The other wellknown ancient formulation is the Nicene Creed named for the Council of Nicaea in 325 The Nicene Creed is more specific about the Holy Spirit It counters some early Christian groups that denied aspects of Trinitarian theology DAY 2 No sooner has the dust settled on the debate over the Trinity in 381 than the doctrine of Christology came into debate Was Christ two separate persons one divine and one human as believed by the Nestorian churches Was Christ one person with only a divine nature as believed by the Monophysite churches Was Christ one person with both a divine and a human nature as believed by the Greek and Roman churches Nestorian and Monophysite churches broke away around 5Lh century and they represent a minority of Christians to this day l The Mystical Body of Christ Christians see themselves as members of the Body of Christ That is Christ is still in the world through his people Each person contributes in hisher own way Gradually Christians began to see the Church in two ways at once The Perfect Church This is the Church as Christ and the Holy Spirit that dwells in them and pour upon them grace and love The fallible Church The Church Ithe physical world Since it consists of imperfect humans it is not perfect and can be criticized This in itself is a lesson in forgiveness Early Councils Apostolic Council in J erusalem in book of Acts w Paul and other apostles Decisions about gentile converts and Old Testament Law 7 Ecumenical Councils Three major importance 325 Council of Nicaea Creed Trinitarian doctrine official scripture being decided on around this time 381 Council of Constantinople antiArian Heresy Confirmed Jesus Christ as eternal 451 Council of Chalcedon Christology Jesus is completely God and human in one person Went against Nestorian and Monophysite doctrine Mystery of the Trinity Debates The Council of Chalcedon in 451 steered a middle course between the Nestorians and the Monophysites by asserting that the incarnate Christ was one person with both a divine and human nature Became part of the Trinity doctrine After this three Eastern regional groups separated themselves from Constantinople The Coptic Christians of Egypt and Ethiopia the Jacobites of Syria and the Armenians How does Christianity s views of God in physical from impact its view of the world Canonization of the New Testament Contains 4 Gospels Acts of the Apostles Letters Epistles many attributed to Paul and the Book of Revelation Christians accepted views of Judaism if Jews have it in scripture we will Earliest writings in the Bible some of Paul Gospel of Mark 60CE Matthew Luke Acts 75100 Gospel of John 90llO Revelation 90110 or 60 Maybe material from both Theorized Q source for Matthew and Luke The Bible officially became The Bible around the 4th century Revelation was especially controversial However Christians mostly agreed on the 4 Gospels and many epistles as early as the late 2quotd cent CE Some books were deemed false and rejected Gospel of Thomas Apocalypse of Peter etc and some were true but not included Didache late lSt cent Speaks of early Christians teachings rituals and worship Koine Greek New testament was written in Koine Greek Only example of this type of Greek Greek of the commoners Christians ultimately accepted the same Old Testament scriptures as the Jews just being canonized then in Judaism The early church used the Septuagint Greek copies of the Old Testament and not the original Hebrew manuscripts St Jerome and the Apocrypha late 411 early 5Lh cent St Jerome at the Pope s request went back to the Hebrew and translated the Old Testament into Latin However he found that many books of the Greek Old Testament were not in the Hebrew Old Testament written by Hellenized Jews These Greek Old Testament books and additions to Hebrew Old Testament books were designated Apocrypha and are still a part of the Roman Catholic Bible no longer included in most Protestant Bible or the Jewish TaNaKh Macabees Sirach Tobias ect Roots of Roman Catholicism The Latin Tradition The Church centered in Rome began to be known as catholic that is universal The bishop of Rome had primary ecclesiastical authority in the Latin speaking West Authority drawn from the first Bishop of Rome the Apostle Peter who gures prominently in the Gospels you are Peter and upon this rock I will build my church Papal Infallibility does not mean anything the Vatican says is true Must be Ex Cathedral St Augustine 345430 Clari ed Original Sin and applied the Greek philosopher Plato to Christianity Today about 12 of the Christian world l billion are Roman Catholic John Baptist 11 forged signatures 7 Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church l Baptism universal Can be performed by ANYONE 2 Confirmation Roots DAY 3 3 Eucharist the actual body and blood of Christ Center of the Mass 4 Reconciliation penanceconfession a sure means of forgiveness but not the only meansDifference between mortal murder really separate us from god and venial minor sin sins 5 Anointing of the Sick Last Rites 6 Holy Orders Bishops Priests Deacons no women 7 Marriage giving your life to God and getting married were both seen as good 7 Sacraments will be on Test Sacrament vs sacrament anything can be sacramental Salvation comes from God alone Faith necessary However salvation nor damnation are completely guaranteed for any living individual in Roman Catholicism No predestination or moment when one is saved despite whatever one doesbelieves later Salvation as a process but Catholics still do not believe they earn it with works a common misconception Emphasis on Free Will Emphasis on Scripture and Tradition Belief in Purgatory along with Heaven Hell but little description of Purgatory of Eastem Greek Orthodox The Greek Orthodox Tradition After the Council of Chalcedon Greek and Latin Christianity grew further apart 1054 The nal break between Rome and the center for Christianity in the East in Constantinople Some doctrinal differences but mostly culturalpolitical differences led to this Language played an important part in their success Used local vemaculars rather than Greek National Identity The Orthodox Church also venerated icons and permitted its clergy to marry Sacraments similar between Orthodox and Roman Catholic Major differences between Orthodox and Roman Catholicism No Papal authority in Orthodox Run by councils A heavier emphasis on mysticism in Orthodox In Roman Catholicism overall mysticism is neither emphasized nor discouraged Today about 150 million Christians are Orthodox Prayer of the Heart An important tradition in Eastem Greek Orthodox Christianity with in uences in Roman Catholicism and some Protestantism Lord Jesus Christ son of God have mercy on me a sinner Hesychasm Prayer of the heart cultivated within the Orthodox Church Follows the idea of pray without ceasing Developed extensively by the Desert Fathers of early Christianity 3rd5Lh cent CE Dese1t Fathers roots of Christian monasticism and many traditions in prayer d m N3r 5 cent Medieval Christian Period The Middle Ages Collapse of the Western Roman Empire around 500 to Renaissance Protestant Reformation around 1500 Monastic communities developed The medieval monasteries player a crucial role as cultural custodians Preserved what might have otherwise been lost in plagues invasions disasters political turmoil etc A major source of Christian wisdom and constant prayer By the 10111 cent however some monasteries were attracting criticism To respond to the needs of the poor a new type of religious order emerged The mendicant orders such as the Franciscans and Dominicans dedicated themselves to severing the people while living society with them l3th cent Friars monks in the world The Crusades Military campaigns spanning two centuries in which Western Christians attempted to recover Jerusalem from Muslim control Arab Muslims captured Jerusalem in 637 The Muslims were generally tolerant to the Christian and remaining Jewish locals and pilgrims until the 113911 century under the Seljuq Turks who were less accommodating than the Arabs In 1905 Pope Urban II declared its God s will that Western Christians go to the aid of the Eastern Christians and liberate the holy places of Palestine The crusaders won some victories but were driven out again St Francis among other Christians opposed the violence of the Crusades Saints Saints examples of living a life like Christ For Catholics and Orthodox One may ask a saint who is united with God to pray on hisher behalf A sortof divine prayer group One does not worship a saint Ce1tain saints came to be associated with speci c conditions occupations or symbols In some places the traditions of particular saints include elements of pre Christian customs and symbolism Preeminent among the Christian saints is Mary the mother of Jesus She became a gure of intense popular devotion both as the principal feminine point of access to the Trinity and as a model of sorrowenduring love Evil the Devil Angels Heretics In the Biblical tradition the term angel meant messenger A view common since early Christian writers though only suggested in scripture is that the devil started as an angel but that through pride he tried to take over God s role and so fell from grace Paradise Lost John Milton The Devil presides over the realm of Hell Heaven union with God Hell separation from God Evil an absence of God Augustine or an active force seeking destruction Or both Inquisition in the Middle Ages many heretics were persecuted ad sometimes executed Often included Jews Muslims and even Christians outside the mainstream ex Galileo Scholasticism and the Middle Ages Faith and reason for scholastics are mutually con rming Anselm c 10331109 Faith itself has a kind of rationality Faith seeking Understanding It was in the 12111 cent through the Islamic world that Western Christianity discovered the writings of Aristotle which gave more scope than Plato Augustine for practical considerations and examination of the material world Thomas Aquinas c 122574 combined Christianity with Aristotle Aristotle advocates Maimonides Judaism Aquinas Christianity Averroes Islam Medieval Mystics The late Middle Ages saw a remarkable owering of mysticism in Judaism Christianity and Islam The most formidable advocates of mystical thought was the German Dominican Johannes meister Eckhart c 12601327 Eckhart and others sought identify the self with the image of God Also saw God in all the neamess of the world A striking feature of late medieval mysticism was the scope it afforded for women St John of the Cross and St Teresa of Avila Dark Night of the Soul Roots of Protestantism The Protestant Reformation Resulted from the corruptions in the Roman Catholic Church Selling of indulgences and other abuses of power and church finances It was the dynamic personality and faith of Martin Luther 14831546 that began the Protestant Reformation Also development of the printing press more Bibles Luther Rejected Roman Catholic authority but maintained most of the tradition as authoritative at first Principle of Solo Scriptura that scripture contains all the information necessary for salvation developed after Luther Justification by Faith alone More weight to scripture and less on tradition Emphasis on personal experience Today over 12 billion Christians are members of some Protestant denomination There are thousands of denominations but most Protestants are members of a few major groups Lutherans Methodists Calvinist Churches includes Presbyterian and Baptists DAY 4 St Francis ReadingRe ection Due T0m0rr0w Extra Credit Lost Scriptures Due Test Day Extra Credit Film The Mission Of Gods and Men and Luther The Reformation The Reformation was marked by division and diversity Three main establishments emerged from the 161h century Lutheran Anglican and Calvinist Lutheranism allowed ample scope for rational and intellectual argument in the exposition of scripture but it also encouraged a deep sense of personal piety Lutheranism retained a Eucharistlike sacrament but they celebrated it in the vernacular and held that Christ s body was present along with the bread and wine but it did not become them Massive amounts of violence often broke out between Catholics and Protestants during the Reformation Reformation in England In Germany the Reformation was a popular movement but in England it was royal policy In 1534 the English parliament and King Henry the V111 passed an Act of Supremacy which proclaimed the king as supreme head of the Church of England Anglican Church begins Called Episcopalian Church in USA Same as Anglicanism but not connection with royalty Very similar to Roman Catholicism in worship and doctrine but places no authority in Rome Calvin and the Reformation John Calvin 150964 began rigorous norms of doctrine and conduct in the city of Geneva For Calvin God was absolutely sovereign initiating all actions Humans are so sinful that they are utterly dependent on divine grace for salvation Therefore the sovereign God has predestined every person to either salvation or damnation Little room for freewill In the Netherlands and Hungary the Calvinist churches has been known as Reformed churches In England and Scotland they have been called Presbyterian Calvin though supporting Predestination knew that we could not completely know who is or isn t predestined Meanwhile In Catholicism Roman Catholicism after 1500 The Roman Church recognized the need to correct many of the abuses of ecclesiastical power that Luther had condemned The Council of Trent acted to enforce discipline and end the abuses while reaffirming key traditions Founded shortly before Council of Trent in 1540 the Society of Jesus or Jesuit order exemplified three of the principle areas of renewal in the catholic Church spiritual discipline education and missionary expansion Jesuits and other missionaries encountered the native religions of the New World Often there was violence as Conquistadors and other European encountered native peoples However not all encounters were violent nordisrespectful to local customs Our Lady of Guadalupe The Jesuits were expelled by from Brazil by state authorities for advocating the rights of Native Americans Other l6Lh cent Protestant Movements The Anabaptists of Germany emphasized adult rather than infant baptism as well as the separation of political institutions and religion Roots of the Baptist Church Unitarianism rejected the doctrine of the Trinity Later merged with another group the Universalist Church in the 20Lh cent Puritanism was not denomination in itself but a movement in English and colonial American Protestant Churches Emphasized the purging of Catholic ritual ornamentation The puritans held firmly Calvinist theology committing themselves to a rigorous view of human sinfulness and divine predestination Roots of Modern Denominations l7th Century Denominations Like the Anabaptists in continental Europe the English Baptists practiced the baptism of mature believers but they were much more connected with the Puritan movement than with the Anabaptists Gained many followers in the first Great Awakening in the USA 1740s Roots of Baptist Church in America Also grew greatly among African Americans Quakers emphasized movement of the spirit No formal services Heavy emphasis on social justice Congregationalists church community is authority Founded Yale Harvard and other colleges 18Lh Century Denominations Pietism a movement rather than a denomination was about seeking spontaneous renewal of faith accompanied by a feeling of the certainty of divine forgiveness and acceptance Revivalist Movements in the USA emphasized spiritual reawakening often with an intense emotional response Holiness Churches independent churches emphasizing revivalist mindset In the late 1720s a number of Anglican students at Oxford University formed a group to study the Bible they were called the Methodists Brought a more charismatic attitude to Anglicanism but they retained much of the doctrine John Wesley Practice Christian prayer is a reverent and contemplative conversation with the divine In Catholicism orthodox this goes along with the 7 Sacraments Eucharistlike practice is common to all branches of Christianity although it is referred to by different names such as Communion It reenacts the Passover and Christ s Passion Baptism is the Christian ritual in which a person is admitted into participation in the community of the church the most universal Christian ritual Protestant Worship Different protestant forms of worship express carrying degree of differentiation from the Roman Model Most protestant churches emphasize the reading of the scripture and the interpretation of it in the ministers sermon along with worship through music and prayer Liturgical Year The Christian Year The liturgical year begins with Advent the series of four Sundays that precede Christmas Christmas traditionally Dec 25 The celebration of his birth is set around the midwinter solstice as the Christian idea of a birth that would bring new blessings was easily associated with the annual renewal of the sun s radiance Liturgy a constant reenactment of the Gospel message Lent and Liturgical Year Easter Celebration of Jesus resurrection at the conclusion of Lent a period of 6 12 weeks of solemnity re ection and discipline The Friday before Easter is known as Good Friday The day Jesus died on the cross The 501h day after Easter is Pentecost marking the emergence of the church as a missionary movement with a message for all people Liturgical Churches Catholicism Anglicanism Orthodox etc also celebrate many Fest Days for important Biblical events saints and other events in Christian history Cultural Expressions Art and Symbol The cross is the center symbol of Christianity Tumed sufferinginsult into a symbol of God s triumph Other important symbols are the sh and the rst and last letters of the Greek alphabet alpha and omega Many see the sh as code since the Greek word for fish ichthus is made up of the initial letters of the Greek phrase lesous Christos Theouhuios soter Jesus Christ son of God savior An early Christian code under persecution Jesus Depicted in many ways often on the Cross Traditional artistic motifs convey aspects of the Gospels Christianity unlike Judaism and Islam allows artistic representations of God Church of the Annunciation in Nazareth Cultural Expressions Church Architecture Largescale sanctuaries begin in the 4th century In northern Europe a new style of arch came into fashion around the 123911 century Gothic Stations of the Cross in Catholic churches the sequence of events from Jesus trial to the placing of this body in the tomb Protestant churches rearranged the furniture of the church to suit their theology Instead of an altar that the priest faced with his back to the worshippers Protestants adopted a communion table behind which the minister stood facing the congregation New American Denominations SeventhDay Adventists argued that the second coming of Christ the adven was imminent Also rejected Sabbath on Sunday Jehovah s Witnesses are another millenarian group centered on the belief that the Advent is imminent They rejected the doctrine of the Trinity and regard Jesus Christ as a created being although they believe that in dying he gave humanity second chance to choose righteousness and escape the punishment expected at the end The Church of Christ Scientist advocating healing through prayer alone rejecting medical treatment American Denominations Cont The Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints Mormons was founded by Joseph Smith who claimed to have experience a vision of God and Jesus The textual basis for Smith s new faith was an account of God s activity in the Western hemisphere entitled The Book ofMormon Protestant congregations that cultivate the practice of speaking in tongues call themselves Pentecostal after the Pentecost Emphasis on immediate personal experience rather than textual or doctrinal tradition Rapidly growing inthe USA American Evangelicalism Protestant evangelicalism draws on earlier themes notably the assurance of God s grace and acceptance which they refer to as being born again Also draw on prophetic traditions of the Old Testament Billy Graham The rise of MegaChurches Fundamentalist evangelicals Committed to the literal authority of the Bible fought against both modern biblical criticism and the developing theory of human evolution Fundamentalism belief in literal interpretation and complete inerrancy of scripture Many Fundamentalists are Evangelicals but not all Evangelicals are Fundamentalists and vice versa Classic Arguments for Against God Rooted in ancient Greek philosophy PlatoAristotle Applies to Judaism Christianity and Islam with slight variations 3 main categories of arguments l Cosmological Proofs for God Not everything can be contingent infinite regress Criticism does not necessarily prove a God 2Ontological Proofs for God St Anslem and Rene Descartes The denial of a being than which none greater can be conceived is a contradiction Therefore by the principle of non contradiction God exists Criticism Existence is not a descriptive term Immanuel Kant 3 Teleological Proofs for God The world exhibits order andor purpose Therefore there is a creator Criticism This assertion is largely one of faith Chaos may reign elsewhere Major argument against God Today The Problem of Evil How does God allow it All major religious philosophers today both Atheists and Theists recognize that there are reasonable arguments for and against the belief in God One side may be wrong but neither side is unreasonable Cultural Expressions Church Architecture Largescale sanctuaries begin in the 4th century In northern Europe a new style of arch came into fashion around the 12Lh century Gothic Stations of the Cross in Catholic churches the sequence of events from Jesus trial to the placing of this body in the tomb Protestant churches rearranged the furniture of the church to suit their theology Instead of an altar that the priest faced with his back to the worshippers Protestants adopted a communion table behind which the minister stood facing congregation Controversies and Adaptation The Enlightenment The rise of Deism The 18111 a period of philosophical skepticism about religion David Hume Atheist vs Immanuel Kant Christian The 19th century looking at religion in a social context The 201h century Psychology Freud religion as social construct Carl Jung important archetypes in religion a part of who we are Kierkegaard and Christian Existentialism the leap of faith Questions about the Historicity of the Bible Especially the Old Testament Documentary Hypothesis Archaeology Natural History Historically a serious problem for Fundamentalist Protestants Not as much for Catholics Orthodox and many Protestant groups In terms of the New Testament and the life of Jesus what kind of evidence could prove or disprove the Gospels Is such evidence even possible Controversies Today Charles Darwin proposed that organisms were not created exnehilo but developed over time through a process called natural selection His theory had aws lacked genetics but later biologists improved vastly on his original theory Many Creationists attack Darwinism without realizing that it is not the same as the theory of Evolution Evolution tells you H owthings came to be but not why Stances on Evolution Catholicism no official stance Creationism or Evolution allowed Protestantism opinion varies greatly Other issues debated in Christianity today Religious Pluralism what happens to people of other religions How is one Saved Biblical Scholarship is there any difference between scripture and tradition since the Bible came from tradition How is one to follow the gospel instruction to evangelize What is the place of Christianity in politics Does it have a place Abortion the death penalty homosexuality and openly gay priestsministers Modem Roman Catholicism In 196265 the Second Vatican Council address issues faced by the church in the modern world Many adaptations were made Mass in vernacular More power to lay persons More individual Bible study Critical Biblical scholarship allowed More dialogue with Protestants and other religions Emphasis on Truth within and outside the church Pope John Paul 11 considered a saint by many and having the 2quotd longest Pontificate embodied many of these ideals However some more conservative positions were affirmed such as the prohibition on the use of artificial birth control and a celibateallmale priesthood Ecumenism In 1948 the World Council of Churches was formed with representation from most major Catholic Protestant and Orthodox groups Offered a climate of mutual acceptance and common purpose an emphasis on unity within diversity A number of denominational mergers also took place in the 20 century such as the 1925 formation of the United Church of Canada by the Methodists Congregationalists and a majority of the Presbyterians In 1960 Roman Catholic Pope John XXII created the Secretariat for the Promotion of Christian Unity which was designed to bring about a rapprochement with other Christians Though many issuescon icts remain largescale violence between Christian groups seems to be a thing of the past Emerging Church not a denomination but an attitude shared by many Protestants Catholics and E Orthodox Reforming Society Living the Gospel Christianity emphasizes true faith bearing fruit in the world In the decade before WWI Christian critics of the civic and corporate order in North America called for the Christianization of the economy leading to the social gospels movement South American liberation theology makes use of Christian biblical and theological resources that parallel Marxist thought MLK Jr and other leaders used theology and the Gospel to advocate social justice for oppressed groups The 201h century brought dramatic changes in the cultural expectations of women in society and this corresponds to changes in theology and the church Islam Notes DAY 1 Basics One God Allah God in Arabic Believed to be the same God worshipped by Jews and Christians God is supreme Just the Creator and has in nite love Prophets beginning with Adam and ending with Muhammad Major Texts l The Qu ran God s Truth revealed to Muhammad 610632CE 2 Hadith sayings by and about Muhammad Belief in souls Heaven Hell Satan angels demons jinn and Day of Judgment Equality of all humans before God No original sin instead forgetfulness Humans servants of God and mirrors of God s attributes Most Important Place the Kabah in Mecca a shrine believed to have been built by Abraham and Ishmael First shrine to the One God Over 1 billion Muslims worldwide Although Islam begins in Arabia the largest Muslim populations today and elsewhere highest Muslim population in Indonesia Origins Islam means submission in Arabic and signi es the commitment of its adherents to live in total submission to God A person who professes Islam is called a Muslim meaning one who submits to God Generic vs Voluntary Islam The prophet Muhammad was born into the Quraysh tribe of Mecca in Arabia around 570CE Was orphaned as a child Once a year during the month of Ramadan Muhammad spent days in seclusion in a cave on Mount Hira It was during one of these retreats in 610 that he received the call to become a prophet and the rst revelation of the Qur an The angel Gabriel appeared to him and said Recite Beginnings of Revelation Prophet Muhammad did not tell anyone about his revelation because it was frightening and scary For twelve years Muhammad preached the new faith of the One God to his people with mixed success Much corruption in the society of Arabia at that time and mostly polytheistic In 622 Muhammad under persecution was offered an invitation by the city of Yathrib about 400 km north of Mecca which thereafter came to be known as median the city of the Prophet 622CE begins the Islamic Calendar In Median Muhammad est the first Islamic commonwealth a truly theocratic state headed by a prophet whose rule was believed to follow the dictates of a divine scripture Jews were granted full religious freedom and equality with the Muslims on the condition that they support the state and refrain from entering into any alliance against it Increasingly though Islam began to distinguish itself from Judaism The Mi raj Night Journey 6l2CE Just before migration to Medina in 622 Though exact location is not given in the Qu ran Muslims believe that Muhammad traveled to Jerusalem on a miraculous night journey and from there he ascended into heaven where he spoke with God The traditional location of his ascension is on Temple Mount in Jerusalem the same location as ancient Israel s temple and where Abraham nearly sacrifices Isaac or Ishmael for Muslims Jerusalem the third holiest city for Islam after Mecca and Medina From Medina back to Mecca Without the means to support themselves in Medina the Muslims who had ed Mecca began raiding Meccan caravans returning from Syria This led to armed con ict such as the Battle of Badr wherein the Muslims in icted a crushing defeat on the Meccans Eventually in 630 the Prophet set out for Mecca at the head of a large army The Meccans surrendered and accepted Islam en masse Muhammad completely forgave all of his former enemies and persecutors Rededicates the Ka Bah a shrine believed to be built by Abraham and Ishmael Muhammad returned to Medina and died there in 632 but not before giving his last sermon from the Mount of Mercy Within 80 years the Muslims administered the largest empire the world had ever known Prophets Islamic tradition maintains that God sent many prophets into the world including Abraham Moses David and Jesus A prophet nabi is one who conveys a message from God to a specific people at a specific time A messenger rasul is also a prophet sent by God to a specific community but the message he delivers is a universally binding sacred law shari ah Muhammad is understood as a Messenger of God In Islam Jesus is a rasul but he is not God and he does not die on the cross However Islam does believe Jesus was born of a virgin and Mary is highly revered in Islam Respect for Muhammad and other prophets is shown by speaking or writing the phrase peace be upon him every tome his name or title is mentioned Muslims do not worship Muhammad He is revered as the greatest of the prophets but is a human being and not divine The Qu ran The Qur an was revealed to the prophet Muhammad over a period of 23 years The term Qur an is derived from the and Arabic root meaning to rea or to recite first word of Gabriel to Muhammad Muhammad himself was illiterate Muslims believe that the Qur an is an immutable heavenly book contain the eternal Word of God All written though Muhammad and not composite like the Bible s authorship Since it was revealed speci cally in the Arabic language any translation is considered to be an interpretation not the Qur an itself Extremely d cult to translate poetry Many Muslims have memorized the entire Qu ran Not arranged chronologically like the Bible 113 Surahs chapters Mostly alranged by topic Not as much narrative The Word of God made manifest like Jesus in Christianity Muhammad Qu ran New Testament Traditions Jesus The focus is not Muhammad but the Qu ran TEST QUESTION Progression of Revelation Islam sees itself as the culmination of revelation In one sense it views Christianity in the same way Christianity views Judaism l Abraham the truth of monotheism 2 Moses the Ten Commandments and idea of God s Law 3 Jesus the Golden Rule and God s Love 4 Muhammad how to apply the Golden Rule and love of God the Qu ran Questions of Leadership Muhammad s death precipitated a crisis of succession The majority of Muslimsithe Sunni meaning those who follow the surmahtraditions of the Prophet s lifeibelieved that he had not designated a successor Believed in the rule of the Muslim community as a whole ummah A minority community know as the Shi ah short for part of Ali believed that Muhammad had appointed his daughter Fatima s husband Ali to succeed him and they believed that leadership continued though this line Understanding the Quran When the Prophet dies in 632 the only physical records of the Qur an an some fragments written on stones bones palm leaves and parchment or the memories of his followers At first some Muslims wanted to keep the Qu ran oral and in memory but as the first generation died this idea was abandoned The process of producing an official text of the Qur an was completed under the third caliph or representative of the Prophet within 20 years of the Prophet s death Every legal or theological school religious trend or political movement in Muslim history has looked to the Qur an for its primary support and justification which was resulted in a wide range of interpretations The Qu ran and Humanity Righteousness includes faith in God as well as doing good works Also belief in divine grace Muslims should give of their wealth to the needy love their neighbors be patient and have integrity Because all people belong ultimately to one humanity they are all equal before God regardless of seX race color or social status No original sin instead forgetfulness gha a Religious Sciences In Arabic a learned person is termed an alim The religious sciences include theology philosophy literature science and most importantly Islamic Law Islam is a way of life that is to be realized by living within the framework of divine law the shari ah Many interpretations of what Shiri ah means Sources of Law The Sources of Islamic Law The Qur an and hence the shari ah are centrally concerned with relationships among individuals in society and between individuals and God Islam has no priesthood Every person is responsible for his or her own morality as well as the morality of the entire Muslim ummah The Qur an is mostly concerned with moral issues with some emphasis on ritual law The Sunnah Found in Hadith The acts of the Prophet are reported in anecdotes about situations or events to which he reacted or in which he participated Hadith How to live the Sunnah The account of the Prophet s sayings is called the hadith Hadith os the most important component of the sunnah because it is the most direct expression of the Prophet s opinions or judgments regarding community conduct Written down 939h cent CE There are six canonical collections of hadz39ths The term Shari ah means the straight way that leads the faithful t Paradise in the hereafter In Shari ah law action is classi ed in five categories Halal obligatory acts Haram forbidden acts Jurisprudence or qh is the theoretical and systematic aspect of Islamic Law and was developed in various legal schools DAY 2 Rumi Reading and Re ection due M0nday Islamic Philosophy and Theology A part of the science of qhor jurisprudence Caliph alMa mun and the House of Wisdom 9111 cent Early Islamic philosophy was Aristotelian in its logic physics and metaphysics Platonic and its political and social aspects and neoPlatonic and its mysticism and theology Islamic philosophy had a lasting in uence on medieval and Renaissance Europe paiticularly though its use of Aristotle Imp01tant Figures N9Lhl41h cent alKindi early philosopher and defender of Islam alRazi Platonist Denied creation eXnehilo alFarbi a musician Platonist All emanates from God IbnSina Avicenna Developed Farbi s though Denied resurrection of the body and eternal punishment in Hell al Ghazali used philosophy to attack philosophic knowledge 0cassi0nalism G0d causes everything at every instant IbnRushd Averroes commentator on Aristotle Attacked al Ghazali s attack on philosophy Believed philosophy was above religion but that both led to truth Shi sm Shi sm The Muslim community was permanently divided soon after the death of the Prophet when a political party shi ah formed around his cousin and soninlaw Ali in supp01t of his right to succeed Muhammad as leader or imam Characterized by devotion to the Prophet s household The smaller of the two major movements Sunni and 10Shi ah Imami Twelver Shi sm Mainstream Shi is believe that the line of imams connected to Ali continued until 874 when the 123911 Imam Muhammad ianasan al Askari disappeared at the age of four TwelverShi is believe he went into hiding occultation and will return with Jesus at the end of the world as the Mahdi the rightly guided one Isma ili Sevener Shi ism Recognizes the first seven Imams Today led by the Agha Khan Well integrated into much of Western society Su sm Islamic Mysticism Die before you die Not a distinct group but a mystical way of practicing Islam Early Muslim mystics were said to wear a garmet of course wool over their bare skin in emulation of Jesus and were thus called Su s from the Arabic word meaning wool Rumi 133911 cent great Su poet Suhrawardi 121h cent saw the cosmos in terms of divine light and darkness IbnArabi 133911 cent Spanish mystic Saw all religions going to God The most characteristic Su practice is a ritual called the dhikr remembrance of God which may be public or private Another distinctly Su practice is the sama hearing or audition in which devotes simply listen to the often hypnotic chanting of mystical poetry accompanied by various musical instruments The Su traditions as with other mystical movements provided a major outlet for women to be recognized as leaders In the Middle East Islam like Christianity is a missionary religion Ideologically Islam sees itself as one of the religions of the Book which con rms the scriptures that preceded it notably the Torah and the Gospel The Qur an regards Jews and Christians as People of the Book thus Jews and Christians were promised full freedom to practice their faith in return to paying a poll taX After conquering what came to be the historical heartland of IslamiSyria Egypt and Persiaithe Muslim moved into North Africa in the second half of the 7 century The Umayyads est their capital in Damascus The capital shifted under the Abbasids to Baghdad in 762 Contrary to former stereotypes historians and archaeologists have found that Islam did not spread by the sword Empires Arab Muslims arrived on the Iberian Peninsula in 711 Islam may have arrived in subSaharan Africa as early as the 8Lh cent spread rst by traders and then by preachers Under the Samanid dynasty which ruled larger areas of Persia and Central Asia in the 93911 and 10111 centuries Persian culture ourished Early in the 113911 century the Samanids succeeded by the Seljuq Turks in the Middle East and the Karakhanid Mongols in Persia and Central Asia As Turkic tribal populations from Central Asia moved into parts of the Middle Eastern Muslim heartland they were converted to Islam mainly by Su missionaries In 1299 Osman Itook over the caliphate from the Abbasids est a dynasty the ottomans In Asia Islam may have made contact with China as early as the 81h century although the first written sources referring to slam in China do not appear until much later 17 From the beginning Persian and Arab merchants were allowed to trade freely so long as they complied with Chinese rules It was not until the 133911 cent that they began settling in China and est mosques Islam arrived early in India carried by traders and Arab settlers By the 141 cent most of India had come under Muslim rulers from Iran and Central Asia For the first time the majority of the conquered population did not convert to the new faith Tensions between Hinduism and Islam By the 15111 cent Islam had spread widely in Southeast Asia Indonesia the highest Muslim population Practice l To bear witness that thee is no God except God la illahail Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God Muhammad alrasul Allah the Shahada 2 To establish regular worship or prayer slalat 5X a day 3 To pay the zakat alms 25 of total wealth 4 To observe the fast Ramadan Ramadan was the month in which the Qur an was revealed to the Prophet Fasting during the day and a celebration at the end of the month fasting only if physically capable 5 To perform to Hajj pilgrimage This ritual is understood as a reenacting of the expressions of Abraham whom the Qur an declares to be father of prophets and the first true Muslim Only if one is financially and physically able to take the Hajj Practice and Beliefs Islam like Judaism and Christianity sees the world as God s creation There are bad things in the world but ultimately the world is good It is real and it should be enjoyed Basic moral restrictions No Gambling theft No charging interest on other or self no credit cards No alcohol drugs Some Dietary prohibitions no pork No sexual promiscuity Perform good deeds because God commands it hopefully for love of God Muslims not saved by good deeds but neither is there pure justification by faith in the Christian sense Islam believes in a direct connection with God for salvation with no intermediary Selfdefense allowed for in Islam but the Qu ran states Allah loves not the aggressors Therefore only selfdefense Also let there be no compulsion in religion 72 Virgins in Paradise Taken metaphorically by most Architecture Islamic Architecture re ects beliefs The functions of the mosque include not only prayer I plied in the Arabic masjid kneeling place but other community activities Every mosque activities l A fountain for ritual washing of hands face and feet upon entering 2 A large area for kneeling and prostration in prayer 3 a pulpit from which the leader of Friday noon worship delivers a prayer and sermon no Sabbath in Islam 4 An imageless niche in the middle ofthe wall closest to Mecca indicating the qiblah direction of prayer Many mosques also include a minaret the tower from which mu adhdhindelivers the call to prayer Art Islamic Art Three abstract rather than pictorial elements are particularly distinctive l Calligraphy the decorative use of script and units of text often of the Qu ran 2 Geometrical decoration 3 Floral designs Today threedimensional sculpture is mostly prohibited in Islam but the twodimensional representation of living creatures is highly developed Historically images of animals and of people even of the Prophet were allowed but this is eventually came to be avoided as part of the prohibition on idol worship Interaction and Adaptation Islam and Modernity An external impetus for reform and has been Muslim interaction with Western Christendom The rst major Western challenges to Muslim power were the crusades to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim domination Sill a vivid memory in the Arab world Distorted images of Islam and its followers live on in Christian Europe while equally distorted images of Christianity also lived on Muslim lands and have been reinforced and embellished in response to Western imperialism and its aftermath Common to all reform movements has been the call to a return to pristine Islam the Islam of the Prophets society Like in Christianity a return of the rime of Jesus Apostles Like in Judaism a return of the biblical kingdom of David Jihad JihadiArabic for struggle ihas two components Inner jihad is the struggle with oneself internal the most important jihad according to Hadith Outer jihad is the external struggle to defend Islam and make ones society more Islamic With the decline of the Mughal Empire in India in the 17 11 century calls for reform along traditional lines intensified The most important movement of Islamic reform on the Indian subcontinent in modern times was begun Shah Wali Allah of Delhi 170262 As the l9Lh century opened European secularism and nationalism appealed to eastern Mediterranean Muslims and in the end they led to the rise of Arab nationalism An integration of ArabMuslim values and Western education Adaptation Muhammad Iqbal 18761938 the greatest Muslim thinker of modern India Poet and philosopher Wanted to integrate Muslim spirituality with western ways of thinking 20h century Secularism Many of the early Muslim reformers were both liberal modemists and traditional thinkers known as salafrsireformers who sought to emulate the example of the pious forebears Conservative Wahhabi Movement in Saudi Arabia Wanted to purge Islam of impure doctrines Often anti Sufism The importance of equilibrium between tradition and modernity declined around the 1920s after WWI Became more conservative However in very recent times there has been a return of an ideology that wants to integrate Islam with modern western values especially among Muslims living in the West Revivalism Common to many revivalistmovements in the second half of the 20Lh century was the ideal of an allinclusive and selfsufficient Islamic order While most contemporary revivalist movements have been open to modern science and technology many have rejected much of Western values and practicesiincluding capitalist democrat women s liberation and liberal views on homosexuality State Islam and the Islamic Revolution Following a coup in Sudan in 1969 there was a bloody con ict between the Muslim north and the generally Christian south Likewise in Pakistan the introduction of shari ah following a coup I 1977 led to violent social and political con ict The question always remains how much of this violence is Islam and how much is political economic postcolonial social or just plain human Revivalism cont In almost every Muslim country there is at least one revivalist movement advocating some form of Islamic state many moderate some not Throughout the long period of Shi ah secular rule in Iran 15011979 the authority of the religious ulama operated in more or less continuous tension with the secular authorities until the movement of the Ayatolah and Islamic Revolution in 1979 Islam in Western Europe The Islamic presence in Western Europe began with the est of Umayyad rule in southern Spain in 711 Expelled from Spain along with Jews in 1492 In the 20th century some Muslims migrated to Europe from various colonies as students visitors and for work Today there is much and in many places growing Islamophobia in Europe Swiss ban on minarets President of Iran does not have some power as president of the United States the real power is in the hands of the Ayatolah Islam in North America First Muslims came as early colonial slaves About 7 million Muslims in the United States today about same number of Jews Islam is the fastest growing religion in North America esp among African Americans Generally more cultural assimilation among American Muslims than European Muslims Modem Values Beginning in the late 19111 century many AfricanAmericans made conscious efforts to recover their Islamic Heritage In the early 1930s Elijah Muhammad founded the Nation of Islam in America Criticized as extreme by many Muslims Malcom X abandoned his violent response to racism after he went on the Hajj was assassinated for this Women and the Family Ma1riage under Islam is essentially a contractual relationship negotiated between the prospective husband and the woman s father or guardian but primarily between the couple The Qu ran allows polygyny simultaneous marriage to more than one wife but it limits the number of wives to four at a time and demands strict justice and equality in a mans material and emotional support for all his wives The vast majority of Muslim marriages are monogamous Justif1ed historically helpful to widows and orphans in hard times The Qur an allows women to own property and dispose of it as they please Westem Muslims generally advocate sexual equality but many Middle Eastern nations are still highlyconservative Sexual Issues The Qur an does not refer at all to the hijab or veiling of women barqa as we know it today It only demands that women dress modestly In the very next verse it also demands modesty of males Hij ab vs burqa Sexual Diversity In general Muslims born and raised in North America are more open to diversity than those born abroad However the great majority of Muslims in Canada and the United States are still relatively recent immigrants from places where social norms regarding gender and sexuality are starkly conservative Groups seeking to challenge conservative ideas are developing bur homosexual Muslims in particular continue to face condemnation from mainstream Muslim society These issues are only becoming prominent as Muslim immigrants surmount their first obstacles establishing a community freedom of religion equality of worship etc The Future of Islam Muslims who through migration have moved from majority to minority status are being spurred to define the priorities of their faith l979 when the Soviets Union invaded Afghanistan Muslims from around the world volunteered to fight with the Afghans for their liberation and the United States contributed heavily to their training became the Taliban Muslims around the world have repeatedly condemned terrorist activity and pointed our that the use of suicide bombers violets mainstream Islamic teachings that prohibit both suicide and the killing of civilians during war Some other issues today Modemization vs Westemization Muslim brotherhood vs Nationalism Tolerance vs Cultural Relativism Casey Sharp Casharpugaedu On ELC Religiology Due Tuesday Attempts to de ne religion Principles for the study of religion DAY 1 l Epistemology how do we know what we know Answer that you ttust your senses and what people do we trust Teachers Friends Family members Religion bible How do u interpret it Baptist way How do u trust for whatever you trust 2 OntologyDon t write on this What is real What exists a TheologyIs there a god If so who is he and what is he like God is the father son and holy spirit What do u think about god b Cosmology Whether or not u believe different levels of existence Hell Heaven Pergulatory Spirit Ghost Eschatology End times How or when 2 elements cosmic and personal Personal do you believe when u die that you reincarnate heaven hell and how does it work and where you get in 3 Anthropology who we are as people Homo sapiens Made in the image of god Christian sin Animals Something special about being human What makes us humans 4 Teleology Meaning oflife Go to heaven Be a good person Only purpose to have kids and pass genes on Living for pleasure Grand purpose for everyone 5 Methodology How u get to teleology Education Religious community Going to church or prayer practice Studying scripture 6 Geography What places and times are important to you Holy to you Judaism connects to Israel Sense of home Your house with your parents What physical places are important to you What times are important to you 0 Why study Judaism It is by far the smallest of the three religions we will discuss this semester 14 million However its in uence far outweighs its number It has a vast history and has outlived many other nations are there any Hittites or Amalakites in the room Monotheism and most of our Western conception of God Before Judaism Henotheism Know there are other gods but only focusing on one Monotheism One god Polytheism Belief in many gods Much older Judaism radically rejected the religion and culture of its neighbors by worshiping in one god Judaism Christianity and Islam all trace monotheism back to the gure of Abraham First major movement in believing in one god Major Doctrines The Shema Here or listen Rejection of the gods of Mesopotamia Comes from Duet 649 Fundamental statement of Jewish monotheism God is ONE allpowerful benevolent just and the creator of the universe His name is YiH but his name never spoken YHWH Also known as HaShem The name Adonai my lordduring prayer Elohim God in ancient times El God and El Shaddai God The Most high When Reading LORD means YHWH God means E1 or Elohim Lord means Adonai Major Doctrines The Shema God works in History God speaks through history Judaism is founded on its history God freed Jews from slavery in Egypt and est them in ancient Israel Israel destroyed god brought Jews back from captivity in Babylon God s word is moral and he will protect his people Holocaust made people question belief in god when 6 million Jews died It is possible to be a Jew and NOT believe in god Judaism is a religion ethnicity culture and anationality Major Doctrines Homeland Return to Zion Ancient times there were atemple and temple was destroyed twice Holiest place in world for Judaism The Wailing Wall 12 tribes and each had there own land Major Doctrines The Covenant God and the Jews have a special relationship A covenant with one another Does not mean god dislikes other groups ofpeople God loves all and all righteous of the world can be saved according to Judaism Jews are chosen by god for special purpose Given them the law Torah or first five books in the bible Judaism s role as an ethnic group and nation distinguishes it from the Christianity and Islam Special relationship between jews and god affords them to fight with god and argue Israel literally means He struggles with god Abraham Isaac Jacob 12 Patriarchs fathers of the tribe Jacob wrestles with god and that s where we got the name Issreal Abraham argues with god to save Sodom and Gomorrah The Talmud story from first slides The Four Covenants in Judaism l Noaic Covenant Gen 69 Stipulation forbids murder and the eating of meat with blood This covenant before Moses applies to all of humanity not just the Jews Promise God will nit ood the world again Sign the rainbow set in the clouds each time it rains 2 Abrahamic Covenant Stipulation circumcision for all males becoming a part of the community Promise Abraham s progeny will gain the promised land Also all other nations shall be blessed in him or through his offspring Sign the circumcision of all male descendants and the birth of Isaac in Abraham s old age This covenant is reiterated with Isaac and Jacob Idea of Judaism is to bless the whole world 3 The Mosaic Covenant Stipulation Follow the Law Promise I will be your God you will be my people Sign the Torah the law given on Mount Sinai AKA Horeb especially the Ten Commandments This treaty between god and Israelites resembles and ancient Near Eastern Suzerain treaty an ancient legal contract 4 Davidic Covenant 2 Sam 7 Stipulation The kings should be righteous Promise David s dynasty will last forever This is important for Jewish and Christian Messianism Sign The Temple itself built by David s son Solomon 1000 BCE DAY 2 Major Doctrines In the Image of God made them What are human beings All humans are made in the image of god Each person has a spark of the divine We have free will We can choose to follow God or not follow God We are sinful but there is no original sin We have souls but this is not meant in the Christian or Islamic sense Major Doctrines Orthopraxy Judaism is primarily concerned with how to deal with this life Through observance of ritual and law Judaism seeks to Hallow life in this world Ritual and Law can turn even the most mundane actions into sacred experiences Today most movements in Judaism do NOT discuss the afterlife No clear idea of Heaven or Hell in the Old Testament For the most part an afterlife is neither affirmed nor denied Follow the Law but not to go to Heaven or avoid Hell So why follow the Law wo an afterlife Book of Job God said so and contractual agreement The Covenant Love fear respect of god Sheol where death go in Old Testament not necessarily good or bad Jews do not discuss the afterlife TEST QUESTION Observance of the Law includes dietary regulations keeping Kosher dress rules about human relations and the observance of holidays There are 613 commandments mitzvah Much of the Law is ethical and includes the 10 commandments or Decalogue l I am the LORD your god 2 No other gods graven images by YiH 3 Do not swear false by YiH 4 Honor your Sabbath sundown on Friday to sundown on Saturday 5 Honor your parents 6 Do not murder unlawful murder self defense 7 Do not commit adultery 8 Do not steal 9 Do not lie 10 Do not covet 10 COMMANDMENTS WILL BE ON TEST What is a neighbor in Judaism Someone who is not part of the group The Messiah in Judaism Messiah mean the anointed one but what the Messiah iswill be is ambiguous Christians have own interpretation of Messiah in the Old Testament Messiah a person descended from David Son of god Leader who will return to Jews to the promised land Utopian state Messianic Era Perfect state of Israel Perfect world Personal revelation Messiah can be anything Jews don t know Jews are still waiting on some Messiah figure difference between Judaism and Christianity Some Jews believe that it is their duty as the chosen people to suffer for the sake of all humanity In this case the Messiah is Israel itself Keep in mind that the Holocaust was not the first time that the Jews were systematically persecuted and nearly wiped out Jews will refer to this as the world to come The History of Judaism 5 major periods in Jewish History l 1700 BCE Bronze Age to 70CE The Biblical period AKA Ancient Israelite Religion 2 70CE700 Talmudic Period 3 700 l700CE Medieval Period 4 1700 1948 Modern Period 5 1948 PostHolocaust Modern State of Israel Period Early Myths and Legends of Genesis l Creation story Gen l30 God is transcendent and personal two sources a more complete view of god God is the creator of all There is no doctrine of the Fall in Judaism nor a Satan gure some Jews at times have believed in a Satan Cain and Abel the first murder 2 The Flood has parallels in the Epic of Gilgamesh The First Covenant with Noah Before the Flood Enoch and the nephilim Where did the Kenites go descendants of Cain 3 Tower of Babel an etiology for language and the division of nations Etiology a story that makes sense of the way the world is Can be literal or metaphorical EXTRA CREDIT READ EPIC OF GILGAMESH AND WRITE A REFLECTION DUE BEFORE TEST MONDAY 716 The Patriarchs Moses Exodus l God calls Abraham 2quotd Covenant 2 Binding of Isaac 3 Jacob becomes father of the 12 Patriarchs Know the tribes of Judah Largest tribe and royal tribe king David and king Solomon and Levi have no land and they are the priests minister at temple and perform sacri ces 4 Enslavement in Egypt Exodus 5 God calls Moses to free the Israelites The Plagues The Passover The killing of the first born of Egypt 6 The Law at Mt Sinai 3rd covenant 7 The Israelites wander in the desert for 40 years before coming to the promised land Canaan Israel under the leadership of Joshua Tensions between books of Joshua and Judges Some problems archaeologically as well Where did Jews come from From Legend to History Biblical Israel 1700BCE70CE A highlycontroversial are of scholarship It is here that we transition from legendmyth into literal history Many of these dates are tentative l 1200BCE 12 Tribes the Israelites settle in Canaan Israel Promised Land Books of Joshua and Judges 2 10000BCE David unites the kingdom of Israel His son Solomon builds the First Temple in Jerusalem 3 922BCE After Solomon the Northern Kingdom of Israel breaks away from David s Kingdom Judah Southern Kingdom 4 722BCE The Assyrians conquer the Northern Kingdom 10 Lost Tribes The Southern Kingdom Judah remains 5 621BCE King Josiah s religious reforms Most important king besides David and Solomon because of the reforms 6 586BCE The Babylonians conquer Judah and its capital Jerusalem The Babylonian Exile begins Temple is destroyed Assyrians took over the Northern Kingdom and then the Babylonians took over the rest DAY 3 7 538BCE the Edict of Cyrus Persian King allows the Jews to return to Israel Exile ends Second Temple is built Retum to Israel but wo aking or completely independent state 8 l64BCE the Second Temple is rededicated after the Maccabean uprising against Hellenistic persecutions in Book of Maccabees in Catholic Bible Various sects arise within Judaism Sadducees Pharisees Essenes Zealots will matter a lot in Christianity section Sadducees was upper class bends rules of Judaism as long as we get along with rulers Denied the existence of an afterlife Get along with everyone Pha139isees middle or lower class did not control the temple clergy did not get along with romans more puritans in some ways defiantly affirmed and afterlife wanted to stay away from worship of other Gods Be religious Essenes completely left society and went out to the desert to practice their own religion Get away from society and live pure life Zealots Gods on our side so lets go to war we can take the romans Results were disasters NZquotd Cent BCE the latest portions of the Bible are written 15t Cent CE the Old TestamentHebrew Bible is officially agreed upon around the time of Jesus beginning of Christianity Cannon What books are included in the Bible 9 70CE The Second Temple is destroyed by the Romans Masada event Zealots killed a bunch of roman officials and ed to palace near the Dead Sea Killed everyone in palace and took over it and destroyed the snake trail up to it Romans built a mountain to the Palace to get them Zealots picked people to murder each other and the families and then kill themselves Humongous fortress built on mountain and guarded trade routes With no more Temple and with the beginning of Diaspora the religion adapts The Talmudic Period Major Texts The Hebrew Bible Old Testament Tanakh TaNaKh an acronym l Torah Teaching the first Five Books Humashl Pentateuch Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers and Deuteronomy 2 Nevi im Prophets books like Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Habakkuk etc 3 Ketuvim Writings Proverbs Psalms etc The entire TaNaKh was composed between 1200 and lOOBCE Nearly thousand years Torah can refer to Law in general or the first 5 books When Moses receives the Torah is it the Law in general or actual first 5 Books of the Bible Could mean either Oldest Copies of the Tanakh Old Testament Leningrad Codex in Hebrew Oldest complete copy of the Hebrew Bible 1008CE Septuagint Greek translation from Hebrew First copy of the Bible in Greek completed late 2quotd cent BCE by Hellenized Jews Dead Sea Scrolls in Hebrew Portions of most books in the Bible except Esther 2quotd cent BCE to 1st CE By the Essenes in Qumran near the Dead Sea Most scholars think there are 4 main sources in the Torah l J Jawhist 2 E Elohist Genesis 2 3 D Most of book of Dueteronomy 4 P Priestly Source Genesis 1 All of theses sources may have drawn on older texts and traditions They were all combined soon after the Babylonian exile into one cohesive holy work we call the Torah Pentateuch Humash How does this resemble the writing of the Gospels How different Torah Exodus 19 Exodus 1918 Nevi im Jeremiah Jeremiah 2079 Does Jeremiah want to be a prophet No Does prophets only predict the future Explain the present your not right with god here and you need to be doing this and when and how What they need to be doing to get the relationship right with God Ketuvim Psalm 23 Holidays The Two High Holidays Rosh Hashanah Jewish New Year Yom Kippur Day of Atonement w fasting Other Holidays Sukkot Booths remembers time in desert Shavuot Jewish Pentecost revelation of the Law at Sinai Hannukah festival of lights The rededication of the 2quotd Temple under the Maccabees Tishab Ab 9th of Av day of morning for the destruction of both Temples and for other calamities Passover the Exodus Includes special Passover meal and 1 week of unleavened bread Important symbols of Judaism 7 branched Menorah Earliest known artistic symbol of Judaism Star of David Holocaust Remembrance Day Israeli Independence day Purim celebration of the story of Esther today this is often celebrated with costumes and drinking The Sabbath Most important Jewish holiday From sundown Friday to sundown Saturday The day God rested from creation and is a special time of rest ritual and worship The Talmudic Period 70CE700CE l32CE Bar Cochba RevoltLast failed attempt to defeat the Romans Leader claimed to be the Messiah With the Temple destroyed people dispersed and no political power the religion shifts from Temple to Synagogue and from ritual sacrifice to Torah study Writing of the Talmud 220 the Mishnah Hebrew written in center of page of Rabbi Judah ha Nasi 550 the Gemarah Aramaic written around Mishnah of the Babylonian Talmud is completed Commentary on commentary on commentary Halakha legal interpretation using logic and argument Aggadah narratives explaining law like first story The threat of the Karaites We don t need Rabbis or Talmud we just need to get back to the bible itself Karaites were eXcommunicated from other Jews DAY 4 Major Teth Cont The Talmud Contains the Oral Torah Written down between 2quotd cent CE and 63911 cent Traditions and interpretation of the Law believed to be passed down from the revelation of the Law to Moses at Mt Sinai At the heart to the Talmud is the Mishnah teaching commenting on the Torah Circling around the Mishnah is a collection of comments on it called the Gemarah completing And around that more commentary There are two Talmuds the Babylonian and Palestinian but the Babylonian is more important The Talmud Truth through Argument Mishnah Hebrew Gemarah Aremaic Commentary on commentary on commentary Often written as a dialogue with rabbis arguing back and forth over interpretation Deals with theology history ethics customs worship everything Arranged thematically The Talmud is without a doubt one of the greatest intellectual achievements of humankind Other Texts Midrash Midrash are other collections of stories commentary on scripture legal explanations and folklore There are many collections of Midrash Not a speci c text More of a genre The Medieval Period 7001700 The Jewish Diaspora begins to divide among cultural ethnic and geographic lines Sephardis and Ashkenazis largest cultural ethnic groups Sephardim from Arabia Africa and Muslim countries Ashkenazim mostly from Europe and Christian counties Some tensions in Israel today between members of these groups Other groups like Ethiopian Jews pg 126 in book Medieval Jewish Though First Know that the 511141h century BCE classical philosophy of ancient Athens in HIGHLY in uential in Judaism Christianity and Islam Socrates Plato Aristotle This ancient philosophers commentators of Middle Ages Rashi commentator on the Bible of Talmud Maimonides lived in Spain Applied Aristotle to Judaism God is the Unmoved Mover and First Cause of everything Saw religion and Judaism as rational Also atime when Jewish Mysticism ourished largely in Spain The Zohar is written by Moses of Leon and the Kabblah movement begins Zohar contains secretmystical truth Mysticism an emphasis on experience andor union with God in this life which often transcends our senses emotions or intellectual abilities 1492 Christian royal authorities expel the Jews from Spain Texts The Zohar Contains secret wisdom once reserved for few It was said that premature study of the Zohar would make one go insane Describes God s Shekinah indwelling in terms of light and God s mystical body 10 Sefzrot Often describes God in feminine terms God contracts himselfHerself Itself so that creation can exist All of creation including ourselves contains pieces of God s light trying to get back to the Source God The Modern Period 17001948 A second mystical movement begins Hasidism 18Lh cent Based around the figure of the Israel ben Eliezer or The Baal Shem Tov master of the Good Name A charismatic Jewish movement that seeks the presence of God everywhere through love charity and community Chabad cines from this movement 3 Divisions During this period Judaism was defined interms of three major divisions Orthodox Conservative and Reform Zionism begins as a reaction to severe European antiSemitism 1800s Zionism A movement advocating the establishment and protection of the Jewish state of Israel Reform Judaism Roots trace back to Enlightenmentera Germany during a time of relaxed persecution and exclusion by gentles Major concept God The principle of moral conscience that unites humanity Torah Historical record of Israel s discovery of universal morality Revelation is a moral experience rather than a historic event Israel A people bless with unique moral insight The Law and its interpretation must adjust maybe even radically to meet modern needs Bring holiness into life Life cycle moments Popular in USA Orthodox Judaism Became a cohesive movement to counter the radical changes made my Reform Judaism God emphasis on moral and ritual law God is an ethnical being who trains humanity in the principles of virtue It never says in the Torah don t mix meet and dairy but says but do not cook a calf in its mother milk and only law in there 3 times Because it is said 3 times Jews think the shouldn t mix meet and dairy Torah An unchangeable record of divine revelation given to Moses at Mt Sinai Alahah all the commandments Attempts to keep all the commandments including ritualistic ones and their traditional interpretation Israel Biblical story of Israel s closeness is affirmed in all respects There is a stress on Israel s mission to share its moral insights with the nonJewish nations Above all TRADITION Keep Judaism distinct from modern world Most Jews in Israel are members of orthodox and most Jews in USA are reform Haredim an Ultraorthodox sect Radically conservativetraditional in practice This group has many tensions with the Israeli government Conservative Judaism A middle path that developed between Reform and Orthodox Judaism God Takes an evolutionary approach to Biblical and Talmudic views of God and affirms that the Jewish concept of God continues to develop as Jewish moral sophistication increases A careful but define evolution to Law and its interpretation to meet today s needs T0rah Torah is the record of Israel s growing awareness of what it means to live in relation to God IsraelIsrael is a historic civilization that links Jews together in a common community of faith Messiah Belief in a personal messiah and a Messianic Era are both common In siddur they pray for a redeemer andor redemption from God 2 vastly different concepts Both Reform and Conservative Judaism allow women Rabbis DAY 5 DUE MONDAY KABBLAH REFLECTION AND BRING BOOK amp READING GUIDE Jewish Mysticism Not necessarily a distinct group in Judaism though some Hasidic communities are distinct A way of approaching any form of Judaism Reform Orthodox or Conservative etc 2 main forms Kabbalah Judaism mystical textual study The Zohar Hasidism focus on God s hesed lovingkindness Baal Shem Tov AKA Israel Ben Eliezer Ritual and Life Cycle Moments Ritual Recognizes that human beings are creatures of habit Rather than overcome this tendency Judaism transforms it into worship Psychologist Carl Jung contemporary of Freud humans are by nature religious Whether we like it or not Along with moral codes Judaism in various ways emphasizes ritual Some of the most important ritual comes at key life cycle moments major points of change in aperson s life Bi1th circumcision for boys and a special ceremony for girls Puberty Bar Mitzvah for boys and Bat Mitzvah for girls Becoming responsible for yourself as an adult Ma1riage Under a huppah Death sitting shiva7 days of ritual mourning Ritual transforms each moment that one lives into a sacred experience You shall be holy for I your Lord am Holy Leviticus 19 Put into practice the attitude that the world is possessed by God Ritual reminds Jews of God s constant presence and His actions in history Conversion to Judaism Today Jews do not proselytize that is attempt to convert others to Judaism However they are willing to receive converts who truly desire to join There are three conditions l Male circumcision 2 Ritual immersion similarities w Christian Baptism 3 Acceptance of the commandments Converts are given complete Jewish names indistinguishable from those of other Jews Religious Education Though women were often literate in the vernacular language education was confined to men until the modern period The first subject was the Bible followed by the medieval commentators Advanced education took place in Yeshiva where the young men worked with acknowledged Talmudic masters to understand the difficult text of the Talmud Most contemporary North American Jewish Families do not adopt the traditional curriculum and have children attend after school classes three or four days a week to learn Jewish literature Today even more conservative ceremonies 20Lh Century Theology Existentiaism a philosophy that denies an inherent or knowable purpose in life and emphasizes radical free will Began as a Christian philosophy but became more atheisticHowever these two philosophers saw Judaism as approach to eXistentialism Franz Rosenzweig 18861929 The Jewish covenant with God is eternal and timeless because the rules governing Jewish life have served to insulate Judaism Judaism in a way eXists outside of time Martin Buber 18781965 Wrote I and Though All humans have two ways of relating to the world IThou vs Iit Mordecai Kaplan founded a movement known as Reconstruction in the 1930 s Kaplan attempted to de ne Judaism as a religious civilization in which God was important but not essential to the de nition of the group The Holocaust State of Israel and PostHolocaust Judaism 1881 Serve pogroms violent riots against Jewish communities in Eastern Europe Russia being Jewish emigration 1897 Theodor Herzl and the rst Zionist Congress seek a Jewish State to counteract antiSemitism l938 German synagogues vandalized in a prelude to the Holocaust l942 to 1945 Hitler s Final Solution is implemented Nearly 6 million Jews 23 of Europe s Jewish population are wiped out 15 million were children Largest genocide in human history Ton of guilt in Germany over this Fear in Germany of nationalism The greatest fears of the Zionist being realized it became clear to many that Judaism needed a nation to survive l948 The modern state of Israel is founded rst ArabIsraeli war l967 The SixDay War between Israel and many of its neighbors increases Israel s territory The Soul The soul in Judaism Judaism believes that each person has a soul a part of you beyond the physical It is the breath of life breathed into Adam by God Also we are made in the image of God and this is fundamental to our humanity God said that all of creation was good It is to be enjoyed When God made humans he said it was very good Many Jews believe in kind of afterlife a World to Come Some also believe in kind of Hell although the conception of this is not as robust overall as we will nd in much of Christianity or Islam Sheol in the TaNaKh For Judaism the righteous among nonJews can be with God in the World to Come just as much as Jews Jews take on extra responsibilities Still although some Jews hold strongly to views on the soul and the afterlife these views are generalizations The afterlife and soul are not heavily emphasized points of Jewish doctrine Zionism Theodore Herzel and the Dreyfus Trial highlighted European antiSemitism and the need for a Jewish State Why found Israel Secretly 6 million Jews killed in Holocaust Psychology continually being a hated minority reinforced subservience and selfhatred Culture maintain Judaism as a distinct culture Nationalistic Revival of Hebrew as a spoken language Religious the hope of a return to Zion Messianic hope Utopian the Kibbutz socialism Zionism Today the State of Israel is so intertwined with Jewish identity that it can hardly be separated Retum A constant them in Judaism Metaphorical return to God return to The Promised Land Literal return to the physical homeland of Judaism Birth Rite any young Jew can go to Israel for free for 10 days all expenses paid for Law of Return most cases have to serve military and Israel will give you citizenship and 2000 dollars to basically start a new life in Israel Issues Today l Israeli Palestinian Con ict major source of tension What does it mean to support Israel or support Palestine Gaza Strip controlled by Hamas while the West Bank is under the Palestinian Authority The situation is complex and it is not as simple as the clichequot Israelis vs Palestinians presentation in the media 2 Law of Return controversies involving conversion 3 Controversies involving intermarriage 4 In Orthodox Judaism issues surrounding women rabbis and issues surrounding homosexuality 5 How to have faith in God or faith in humanity in a postHolocaust world A Dangerous Stereotype It is often Old Testament God of wrath but New Testament God of love This is a dangerous view and much antiSemitism has come from it Marcion and early Christian heretic held this view and the early Christian church rejected it First it belittles the New Testament and its Justice see Book of revelation verses about Hell and Jesus at the Temple Secondly it ignores much of the Old Testament see Hosea other Prophets and Psalms In the Old Testament TaNaKh God is dynamic torn between His and Justice and His Mercy He shows both


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