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by: Erling Ward


Erling Ward
GPA 3.51


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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erling Ward on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELI 1001 at University of Georgia taught by Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/202102/reli-1001-university-of-georgia in Religion at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Iudaism Meaning in Human Existence 0 Jews asked quotWho are we What does it mean to live a human life 0 5 traits of human nature 0 We have limitations we are frail 0 We are also great dust and divinity I We are more special because we were created in the image of God We are sinful miss the mark We are free I Have the ability to make choices 0 We are God s beloved children 00 Meaning in History 0 When did history begin 0 Were did the Israelites come from o Canaanite lowlanders o Peasant revolt lower group ofpeasants revolted and formed their own community History is where God displays himself 0 The question ofif there s meaning in history could be detrimental to life 0 Reveals himselfin unique and unrepeatable events History is sacred not an illusion History is important to ludaism for 4 reasons 0 One s historical conteXtis related to one s life 0 History shows that social or collective actions affect change I Sometimes the only way to change things is by working together 0 History is an open book to learn from I God s hand is at workin every event shaping it into a lesson to be learned 0 Once an opportunity is lost it is gone What allowed the Jews to see that history has these 4 meanings God created nature but is distinct from it Since God s will transcends nature God s will may even be different than what goes on in nature In Iudaism there is a sharp tension in history 0 Things are not always as they should be so a change is necessary 0 Humans are responsible for deviation from God s will Biblical History 0 Period of the Judges 0 Weren t full kings or queens but they enforced the law of God I One of the firstleaders ofIsrael was a woman 0 Song of Deborah judges 5 I quotMother of Israel Davidic Dynasty 0 Samuel and Saul Iudah 0 Law of the King I Significance 0 David Iudah Israel I The Arc of the covenant o 10 commandments God s throne I Tel Dan I Davidic Covenant 0 Separation ofnorthern and southern kingdom in 922 Davidic Dynasty 11th century BC Philistines were attempting to control iron Iudah southern portion of kingdom were demanding a king instead ofa priest or judge o Believed they could fight Philistines if they had a king Samuel 0 Major prophet and one of the judges o Asked to find the chosen one find the messiah Saul 0 First chosen king 0 Tribe of Benjamin smallest and most warlike tribe 0 Was chosen because he came from a warlike tribe so he could lead them against the Philistines 0 He cant make his tribe the superior tribe because it was the smallest Laws of the King 0 Given by God to Samuel 0 First example of a constitutional monarchy 0 Children were not guaranteed to be the neXt ruler David All of Saul s son s died 0 Forced to battle Ishbal 7 The leader of the northern kingdom to be king 0 o Assassins were sent to kill him but David killed all of them including the head general 0 David sends assassins to kill Ishbal 0 He captures Ierusalem brings the arc of the covenant with him I Moves center ofworship into the political center 0 Considered the most brilliant king is Israelite history but there is no archeological evidence that he eXisted Solomon 0 David s son 0 David had immoral actions with Bathsheba I They are punished by God 0 Dispute about who would be Solomons heir I Rehaboam his son or Ieraboam another man I North was scared that R would be corrupt and chose I I South chose R o orthern kingdom was defeated by Assyrian Empire I Wanted to conquer Israel because they want Egypt and Israel is in the way 0 Rebelled against the Assyrians and are slaughtered o Survivors are relocated o Israelites become the 10 lost tribes I Iudah grows because people ee from the North to the South 0 Name changes from Israelites to Jews 0 Hezekiah anointed by Isaiah to be first king ofudah I Southern kingdom worship in quothigh places 0 Specific centers for worship 0 Assyrians destroy these only leaving the central temple in Jerusalem o Centralizes worship Iosiah 0 Wanted religious reform completes destruction of high places 0 Babylonian empire wants to go through Iudah to get to Egypt I Iosiah chooses to fight instead of side with Babylon I Killed by an arrows I Iosiah was quotgood in the eyes of the Lord 0 Put greater emphasis on monotheistic values o Iudah is conquered by Babylonians Zedekiah 0 Last king 0 Babylonians kill his family in front of him and then blind him 0 To reinforce the destruction ofudah the temple was destroyed 0 Many people were exiled to Babylon I Those who remained stayed under Babylonian rule I They assassinate the ruler Ieremiah o Tells the people who killed the ruler that they should not go back to Egypt 0 People returned to Egypt anyway Cyrus the Great 0 Persian leader after Babylon was defeated o Allows Jews to return to Iudah 0 People didn t return because it had been 50 years 457 BCE rebuilt the temple 0 Ezra Iewish scribe and priest 0 Still under Persian rule but Ezra is their leader 0 First read the Torah to the Jews I Start of a religious reform I Torah was central and most important thing I Place is no longer centered on a specific place but on the teachings Biblical Period ends around 450 BCE with the reading of the Torah at Watergate Timeline 1400 BCE Enslavement in Egypt 1280 Exodus 1200 Arrive in Canaan Period ofudges 1000 David takes Jerusalem and makes it the capital 922 Northern kingdom separates from the South upon Solomon s death Assyrians conquer the Northern kingdom population increase in Iudah 621 Iosiah s reforms reforms were based on Deuteronomy Temple is destroyed by Babylonians begins Babylonian eXile 538 Persians conquer Babylon and end eXile 164 Rededication of temple after the Maccabean uprising r Second temple is destroyed by Romans 1917 Balfour Declaration issued by British govt recognizes that Palestine should be a Jewish state and says that the British govt would help achieve this goal 1928 The Night of Broken Glass when the synagogues start being destroyed Iews began to be beaten 19331945 WWII and Holocaust 1948 The State ofIsrael is founded Meaning in Morality What are the 10 Commandments o No gods before God 0 No images ofGod Idols 0 Don t take the Lord s name in vain I Not swearing an oath on the Lord s name and taking it lightly 0 Honor the Sabbath llonor your parents Don t murder out of malice OO 0 Do not commit adultery I A man and a married woman 0 Do not steal 0 Do not lie bear false witness 0 Do not envy How would you divide up the 10 Commandments 0 Ethical Laws interaction of human beings o Ritual Laws interaction with God What are the ethical precepts that make up the 10 Commandments o Preservation of religion life force property wealth family lines and human dignity speech 0 Serve as social order 0 Minimum standards to make life possible I Religion one God and his commandments I Wealth you can obtain things how you want except for taking from others I Force do not kill inside the group blood wars will destroy society I Sex not outside of marital bond I Speech severe penalties for lying messes up judicial system Commandments for Jews and Gentiles o Noahdic Commandments o Covenant with Noah I Promises mercy and delivery to all humanity Meaning in ustice Two deeply held beliefs in Western world 0 Ifa society is just it has a better chance of survival 0 The wellfunctioning of the society as a whole must be the concern and responsibility of each member of that society We have the prophets of the Hebrew Bible to thank for these two beliefs Prophet someone who speaks for someone else 0 Moses first prophet I Aaron was Moses prophet he spoke for him 0 One who speaks for God Moses 0 Does the most interacting with God I Radiates light I Wears veil Three Stages of Prophecy o Prophetic Guilds I No prophet identified individually o Travelled in groups I Engage in collective ecstatic dance I Spiritual intoxication overcome by the Spirit No ethical teaching involved The Good is intuitive through the Spirit 0 The PreWriting Prophets Ecstatic individuals emerge from the Guilds o Elijah Nathan Elisha etc No written works No books in the Hebrew Bible Two main differences 0 Could receive the divine while alone notjust in guilds o Divine spoke through them to demand justice Story of Naboth and King Ahab Elijah 0 God uses these prophets for social justice Holy revolt against injustice o The Great Writing Prophets Amos Micah Ieremiah Isaiah etc Ecstasy is an aspect of their experience Ethics of the of the prewriting prophets also The prophets however call attention to social problems as a whole not just individual injustices At this time two threats to social health 0 Moral delinquency inequity exploitation o Other empires Assyria Babylon Phoenicians o The Iewish rulers saw prophecy as a warning from God to either create a just society or be destroyed o The Prophetic Principle 0 Social stability political stability 0 Injustice will not endure 0 God has high standards and will not put up with exploitation corruption mediocrity 0 Therefore enjoin the good eschew evil to prosper spiritually and in the world 0 Stories ofAmos and Isaiah Meaning in Suffering 0 From the 8th to 6th century BCE the jews were taught by God through their suffering 0 Events 721 BC Assyria destroyed the Northern part of the Iewish realm called Israel 586 BC Nebuchadnezzar conquered the southern kingdom of Iudah and exiled the living as prisoners to Babylon 0 What quotmeaningquot could there be in suffering and being exiled from the land Had he God of the jews lost the war The Prophets had another response The Iews had to learn two things 0 Lack of righteousness produces suffering and faith in af iction ultimately lifts suffering 0 Those who remain faithful in adversity will be vindicated o The Jews suffered so others wouldn t have to The Babylonian Exile No temple for sacrificial atonement Sacrifice becomes a personal choice Sanctify life sacrifice each moment to God Rabbis become important I Carriers of the Oral Torah I Compile the Babylonian Talmud I Taught how to sanctify life I Follow the Law 613 commandments I Acts ofloving kindness OOOO Meaning in Messianism The Jews could not be satisfied with the status quo Hope for a better future Change for the better by ordinary human means seemed impossible Divine intervention was called for Messiah The Anointed One The Messiah came to mean the one who would bring the Jews back to their homeland 0 From Babylon 0 To the land of Israel after 70 CE when the temple was destroyed and the Jews were dispersed is the Diaspora The Messiah came to signify 0 Hope 0 The reestablishment of the nation 0 The spiritual and ethical improvement of the condition of the world 3 divergent opinions o How would the Messianic Age begin I Messiah God 0 Would the Messianic Age be restorative or Utopian o How would the Messianic Age be in relationship to the early ages in humanity Messianism s hope set the stage for western civilization s beliefin progress In Christianity this hope appeared in the belief in the Second Coming of Christ In the 17th century it emerged in historical progress In the 19th century as a classless Marxist society In Iudaism it came as the Zionist promise ofa new homeland and a reuniting of the Jewish people in one land again The Jewish People A Story of Survival Abraham 0 First monotheistic religion 0 Circumcision Enslavement and 10 plagues o Passover Soviet Union 0 Modern day exodus Mt Sinai 0 Moses and Ten Commandments amp Torah David 0 Captured Jerusalem and made it the capital I Religious and political center I Arc of the Covenant Solomon 0 David s son 0 Built temple in Jerusalem Observance of the laws of the Torah allowed them to maintain their identity and religion after the second destruction of the temple Oral traditions o Talmud Access God s will through the scribe o No priests no temple and no more prophets Legalization of Christianity made Iudaism difficult 0 Never outlawed Iudaism but tried to restrict its expansion 0 Prohibited from politics reading Bible in Hebrew owning land and intermarrying Conversion to Judaism was also not allowed Islam 0 Muhammad I God s final prophet 0 Early 7th century 9th century move to northern and central Europe Germany and France 0 Given settlements and work Crusades o 1096 0 Christian soldiers battling with Muslims 0 Many Jews were attacked en route to the Holy Land Accused of bringing black plague to Europe Accused of kidnapping Christian children 14th century invited into Poland and Russia 0 Developed communities Restricted where they could live but allowed them to govern their own communities 0 Yiddish developed unifying feature of the communities udaism s TeXtual Heritage 0 Hebrew Bible Tanakh o Torah law 0 Nevi im prophets o Ketuvim sacred writings Torah 0 Who wrote the Torah I Documentary Hypothesis Midrash quotThe legends of the Jews 0 Halakhah legal explanation of the law for correct conduct 0 Aggadhah explanation of the narrative passages of the Torah like expository sermons rather than commentary Talmud is a text on laws more in Aramaic than Hebrew o Mishna Gemara Talmud I Mishna Center I Gemara completion 0 The main text of Rabbinic udaism I 2 Talmud o Babylonian Talmud 5th century CE 0 Considered more authoritative o Palestinian Jerusalem Talmud 4th century CE 0 The Talmud has been added to over the centuries and there is still room for addition 0 The Talmud is the fence to the Torah The rabbis pictured the basic elements of the religion and morality as a kind ofvineyard that must be fenced in against violators Basically it is comprised of I Theological Elements I Personal Morality 0 Liberal outlook humble spirit moderate appetite 0 Good will towards all convert enemies into friends 0 Imitation of God I Social Ethics 0 Uniqueness and sanctity to human life 0 Equality in the sight of God 0 Mishna quotteachingquot I Breaks into six sections quotordersquot 0 Orders break into 63 quottractatesquot I Collection of material from Midrash sources Seeds agricultural laws Festivals and holidays Women marriage laws Damages civil and criminal laws Holy things rituals o Purifications o Gemara quotto complete I Expansion and continuation of the Mishna Revelation 0 O Literally means disclosure I Revelation is the disclosure These insights were revealed to the Jews by God Revelation was not primarily verbal I God s revelation was in His actions I God revealed himself in Exodus What was the nature of God revealed in Exodus I Supremely powerful I God of goodness and love I Deeply involved in the lives of humans 0 Human life was so important that God took decisive action to change their condition Corollaries of the 3 Disclosures O O God is good thus he wants people to be good I 10 commandments I God s requirements for virtue extended to individuals ad the social sphere of life Suffering must be meaningful I Since God saved his people it proves he would not let them suffer for nothing By suffering you atone for the sins of humanity I God made a covenant with the Jews on Mt Sinai o 10 commandments o Davidic Covenant o Covenant with Abraham The Chosen People 0 0 Why was this covenant made with the Jews I The doctrine of the quotChosen People seems to be religious chauvinism I The Jews were not chosen however for privileges but to suffer serve and be an example for human kind Doctrine of the Chosen People I Chosen to serve Go and suffer God s trials I Had to observe morals that were more demanding than others I Iews chosen to suffer instead of a wider range of humanity Still Chosen People 0 0 Does credit go to the Jews or God I Jews have said their survival was from God thus being chosen is what made them special Today Iews differ about the doctrine ofbeing chosen which is also known as the doctrine of election Rabbinic Iudaism O O 70 CE Romans destroy second temple Rabbis teachers become the guiding light ofudaism I Two schools Hillel more liberal and Sammai more conservative I Iudaism s focus shifts to Pharisaic Tradition I Rabbis kept Iudaism alive for 2000 years I Pharisees Saddusee Essenes o P religion beings with Bible interpret and add on to it o S priests o E archived Dead Sea scrolls I Development of Rabbis signaled end of Biblical period and started the Rabbinic period Bar Kochba and R Akiba led second revolt Religiology o Epistemology What is valid knowledge 0 Revelation I Written and oral Torah I Talmud and Mishna teXtual sources I Prophets and prophecies I History gives insight about God s interactions with the world I Personal reasons and experiences I Hope has purpose coming Messiah o Ontology what is ultimate reality 0 God creator and mover of the universe I Personal manlike I One supreme plan I Moral I Benevolent and just 0 God s attributes Spiritual and Physical realms 0 Creation I Where God dwells star of David I Good to be enjoyed a means ofperfection I Where God s plan becomes manifest 0 Anthropology what are human beings o 5 traits I Frail 0 Limited physical beings mortal like animals I Great blend of the divine and dust 0 Image of God I Sinful I Free we can make our own choices but need God s guidance I God39s beloved children 0 Chosen people I Chosen to serve God March 3 2011 Religion 1001 World 0 O O O 0 World 0 0 Christianity Significance Size History Complexity Diverse Manifestations Lifestyle Differences In uence Perception of Time Similarities to Judaism Monotheistic exoteric observant and mystical Distinctions from Iudaism Monotheism becomes more complex Houston Smith Christianity is a historical religion central focus is Jesus Jesus 0 O O O O 00 00000 O O O O O 0 Little is known about the quothistoricalquot Iesus what we do know is that Born a Jew in Palestine 4 BCE Grew up in Nazareth Baptized by John the Baptist I May have been related Taught in Galilee In ministry 1 3 years Was crucified at the age of 33 I Between 29 and 33 CE Likely spoke Aramaic might have known Greek andor Latin Lower class carpenter or mason Itinerant Minister traveled Theorized that he came out of the Pharisee movement Had brothers unsure about specifics halfbrothers close friends or relatives Iames Ioseph Simon Iude Albert Schweitzer Quest for Historical Iesus Probably did not exist If he did exist he was wrong 4 General Characteristics About esus 1 Great charisma performed miracles I Separated himself from other preachers Spoke to women in public Preached to poor and lower class 0 Tension between Jesus and the rich Had specific audience Jews 2 Similar to the Prophets ofudaism I Oriented to both physical world and the spirit world I Felt that the Lord was upon him 0 3 A channel for the Divine to humans and for humans to the Divine I Parallels Moses 0 4 Jesus acted for other people 0 Jesus was a man of the spirit 0 The Spirit World oersus 0 Spirit World not separate from the earth superior to it I They interacted and the earth was full of God s glory I Were not separate but they were not equal I Spirit world was above the earth perfect and superior to creation I Connection to spirit world was opened with his Baptism by John the Baptist 0 40 days in the desert comes out empowered and his ministry begins 0 Could be accessed by humanity Major Themes Messages 0 The Kingdom ofGod 0 Earth would return to a perfect state Garden of Eden 0 The reality of the Kingdom would cause a reversal of the people s thinking at the time I Those who think they are Holy are the least Holy I Gentiles and Jews would enter into the kingdom 0 Jesus sees himselfin some capacity bringing the Kingdom I His death is the catalyst that will start the coming of the kingdom 0 Relationship to God 0 Some believed Iesus saw himselfas the son of God or even God only mentioned by Jesus in Gospel of John 0 Calls God quotFatherquot 0 Ethical Obligations 0 Worst sin selfrighteousness I Not having compassion for others 0 Kindness and compassion highest virtues love is key I LOVE IS THE HIGHEST COMMANDMENT Jesus and the Spiritual Realm o The Jews accepted that the spirit was superior to the natural world 0 It could intervene in a dramatic way 0 The spiritfilled prophets could heal and work miracles I Iesus healed with the spirit 0 Scholars state that Jesus was a healer and exorcist 0 Jesus was extraordinary because he aspired to heal humanity o Demons were aware ofwho Jesus was Reactions to Roman Occupation o The Sadducees O Relatively welloff 0 Accepted the status quo O Other three groups wanted change and worked for it I Others wanted God to intervene but the people had to do something to get him to o Antagonists to Jesus 0 I His message con icted with theirs Seen as coconspirators with Romans 0 The Essenes O OO O O Believed society was too corrupt separated I Yahweh would never allow renewal in the current society so they dropped out Lived communally Held piously disciplined lives Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls I Collection of 900 documents Discovered between 19471956 Religious and historical significances 0 Not biased to one group Written in Hebrew Aramaic Greek on parchment and papyrus I 150 BC 70 CE Similar teachings to Jesus prayer and rejection ofimmorality I Support the fact that Jesus eXisted at this time Differ from Jesus in that He didn t drop out of society the world could be changed 0 The Pharisees O OO Stayed in society I Scribes and officials of the temple I Renew it from within with passive resistance Held strict adherence to the Mosaic Law I Piety Evolved into Rabbis Seen as the religious representatives of the Jewish community Taught the Jewish understanding onahweh I Chose Jews to make world holy and they had not fulfilled their end of the covenant o The Zealots OOOOO Jews were to bring about a new world Favored armed revolt Sought recruits from among the youth of the Jewish community Assassinated Sadducees 6670 CE Great Iewish Revolt I Led to 2 101 Temple Destruction 0 Thought they could bring about the Messianic Age through their own actions 0 Terrorists Iesus took a Fifth Way 0 Unlike the Sadducees he wanted change 0 Unlike the Essenes he worked within society with the people 0 Unlike the Zealots he advocated peace 0 Jesus was most like the Pharisees 0 Both accepted the compassion and holiness onaHWeH 0 Where did they differ Iesus sought to break social barriers March 7 2011 Christ of Faith 0 Based on the Disciples descriptions in the Gospels they thought he was Divine because of o What they saw him do I Acts of goodness I Miracles 0 Usually performed quietly and apart from crowds I Sought to help all people clean and unclean I Claimed to have the authority to forgive sins I If God interacted with the world in human form he would act like Jesus did 0 What they heard him say I Preaching out loud 0 Parallels between Tanakh and Talmud 0 Overall had a sense of urgency I Simple yet eXtreme manner simple but full of passion I Taught not to judge I Gigantesgue 0 See the Beatitudes in Matthew 5 or Luke 6 I Series of blessings He made before the Sermon on the Mount I Those who know their need of God sorrowful gentle spirit show mercy The Teachings of Jesus 0 Jesus invited people to believe used down to earth images 0 Invited them to believe did not order Spoke to people s imagination Used examples that involved things in people s every day lives Used stories parables Taught to turn the other cheek love your enemy and bless those who curse you O O O O 0 His teachings challenged the paradigm of his society subversive o Uprooted social values 0 Jesus focused on two facts 0 God s absolute all inclusive love of humani 0 People need to accept that love and give it to others I God s love in unconditional and not limited to the pious who follow the law Christ of Faith 0 Who the disciples felt Jesus was 0 Jesus lived his teachings 0 Jesus was so egoless that his disciples felt he seemed like God in the form of a man I Put more emphasis on what people felt about God than how they felt about Him 0 quotWe have seen his glory full of grace and truth The Good News 0 Crucifixion only the beginning 0 Matthew 27 0 Jesus now on a new level ofbeing o Appeared to them as the same person but was different 0 Had the same physical body but was more to his spirit no longer limited by human means 0 Gospel translates as quotGood News 0 The triumph of the good oersus basis of Christianity 0 The fish symbol I Safe house ofworship I quotJesus Christ Son of God Savior o The teaching became even more paramount than the other teachings of Jesus 0 How did this quotGood News affect the first Christians 0 Had peace and joy that others did not have and could not understand 0 Gave them two basic qualities I The sense that they were called to share a mutual love for all people 0 Everyone was equal in the eyes of God I lay beyond all bounds The Early Community 0 Their faith had removed three burdens o The burden of fear especially death I quotFear not I am with you 0 The burden of guilt I Iesus forgave them sins were washed away o The burden of the ego I Need of an ego is removed because God loves you Burdens removed because 0 Unconditionally loved by God 0 The strength of this love showed them Jesus was God incarnate TIMELINE 33 CE Crucifixion 36 CE Paul converts to Christianity 5060 CE Paul composes his letters 6470 CE Great ewish Revolt 70 CE Destruction of the temple 7080 CE Gospel of Mark is composed 90100 CE 4 books are created Matthew Luke Iohn Acts 0 Luke and Acts two volumes of the same work 90CE Council onavne believed to have taken place where the Hebrew Bible is put together as it is today The Synoptic Gospels Synoptic Greek for quotviewing together 0 Matthew 0 Mark 0 Luke The Synoptic Gospels have a shared perspective The Gospel ofohn is a work ofa different nature 0 Major theological work 0 Does not follow the events of Iesus life as closely as the three I Tries to find the significance The Question of quotQquot 0 quotQquot Quell German source I There is a lot of info in Matthew and Luke that aren t in Mark 0 Not sure what it is 0 Collection of stories that they knew 0 Book of quotes from Iesus Luke and Matthew may have worked from different manuscripts of quotQquot 0 Luke quotLquot source 0 Matthew quotMquot source Marcan Priori theory that Mark was composed first dominant theory March 10 2011 Mark Earliest ofthe Gospels before 70 CE First and shortest mainly focuses on the ministry of Jesus Peter s secretary Semichronological order Luke Interaction of3 stories about Jesus 0 Iesus authority and His identity of the Messiah and son ofGod 0 Jesus as the son of man who will suffer and die 0 Jesus as the son of man who will rise from the dead and come again in judgment Harshest criticism of disciples No mention of trinity No mention of the virgin birth Theme lack of understanding Simple straight forward some grammatical errors Matthew and Luke are based off of Mark 0 Only 60 verses from Mark are not found in Matthew 2 endings 0 He ended it 0 Original ending was lost 2 101 Oldest Gospel 70 CE Longest Gospel Affirms Christianity as having ewish root for a Gentile audience More details than Mark on baptism amp ministry amp trial Birth ofesus in Bethlehem Blessings ofpoverty dangers ofwealth and the need for generosity and repentance Omens miracles healings Iesus wanted people to understand the destruction of social barriers Great need to repent Sequel in Acts Luke Acts 1A of the New Testament Follower of Paul Two chapters are not found in Mark tell the story before Iesus baptism Good Samaritan and Prodigal Son are only in Luke Contain visions anticipating the birth ofohn the Baptist and Jesus No wise men Gentile Does have shepherds Iewish Matthew 3ml Gospel written 80 CE Presupposes Messianic community Scriptural references to a Jewish audience Opens with the genealogy ofesus as a descendant of King David More teaching material and 5 major discourses Many references to Prophecy Often scolds Iews john Other Gospels Iesus compared to Isaiah and Moses Thinks that Iesus fulfills the prophecies Includes birth and resurrection narratives Contains more ofesus teachings 5 major discourses O O O O 0 Ch 57 Sermon on the mount Ch 810 Mission Sermon Ch 13 Sermon in Parables Ch 18 Sermon on the Church Ch 2425 Eschatological end of times Nicer about disciples but does talk about them not understanding Iesus Constant references to Iudaism and their prophecies 0 Claims that Iesus fulfills the prophecies Many differences 0 Location between Galilee and Ierusalem no exorcisms fewer miracle stories but they have a more dramatic impact kingdom of God john puts more emphasis on the concept of eternal life 4 Gospel quot1 amquot 0 O O Iesus referred to as Son and God as Father No Messianic secret Iesus is the means for all salvation Iesus as Logos incarnation of the divine Word Major theological treatise No virgin birth baptism temptation Movement away from Iudaism O O quotFor the law was given through Moses grace and truth came through Iesus Christ Trying to start a new religion not just a sect ofudaism john and the Synoptic Gospels were canonized around 3 67 CE Books that were not included in the New Testament 0 000 O The Gospel of Thomas I Usually considered most authentic I Sayings ofesus The Gospel ofudas The Gospel of Peter The Gospel of Mary The Gospel of The Nazareans Usually deemed less authentic because they were so much later than the others The Mythical Body of Christ 0 Jesus provided the Holy Spirit 0 Gave life to the Church Places ethics ahead of ritual The Kingdom ofGod is at hand Christians quotMessiah Folk quot I am the vine you are the branches Holy Spirit 3ml Person of Trinity Paul s image of the Church 0 Like the human body 0 quotWe who are many are one body in Christ Romans 125 For the early Christians the Church was the Mystical Body of Christ Christ was completing his mission through a new body the body of the Church o What did the Mystical Body of Christ consist of o Christ was the head 0 The Holy Spirit was the soul 0 The individual Christians were various parts of the body I All had different jobs but were all one in the function of Christ 0 Worked in service to keep the church alive 0 Church viewed in 2 ways perfect and fallible 0 Perfect divine element Christ and the Holy Spirit dwell within the people and putinto them grace and love 0 Fallible human element it will never be perfect mistakes come from human error and are not part of God s plan March 22 The Church o No salvation outside the Church 0 Some Protestants have opened the gates for nonChristians o Christians have opt for either 0 The Visible Church I Claim Christianity practice it together etc I Conservative concept no one can receive salvation outside of the Christian church 0 The Invisible Church I People who live pious lives but don t confess to be Christians I Liberal concept notion that salvation can come outside of the Christian faith The Mind of the Church o The foundations of Christian Theology lies in three doctrines o The Incarnation o Atonement o The Trinity 0 These three doctrines developed over several centuries into a series of creeds agreed upon over time at a series of ecumenical councils 0 Ethics way to test individuals The Incarnation 0 Means that Christ is God in human form 0 Became official dogma in 3 25 CE at the ls t Ecumenical Council of Nicea I Called to counteract the Arian Heresy o Said Jesus was only human 0 Christ is both truly God and truly human 0 Became official dogma of the Church in 451 CE a the 4th Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon o A result of the doctrine of Incarnation was that Christ was the link between God and humanity 0 That Christ was divine made his life fully normative an ideal to live up to Atonement 0 Root meaning quotto recover wholeness o Gap between God and Man mostly closed 0 Through Christ s death 0 2 Understandings 0 To compensate for Adam s sin 0 To release humanity from the bondage of sin The Trinity 0 God is One and Three 0 Distinct but identical I Water ice steam liquid 0 Separates Christianity from the other monotheistic religions 0 Foundation in experiences of the Disciples o Believed in YHWH the Creator 0 Saw Jesus a Yahweh s extension in the world 0 Came to believe in the Holy Spirit experience of Pentecost I 50th day after Easter I Means fifty in Greek I Coincides with Jewish She bat I Holy spirit is seen as giving languages to disciples so the religion can spread Creeds and Heresies o The Apostles Creed 0 Sometimes titled the quotSymbol of the Apostles o Liturgical churches of the Western tradition 0 Traditionally divided into 12 articles 0 Gnosticism aka Christian mysticism 0 One with knowledge Gnosis Greek for knowledge 0 Elitist Christians who claimed to have secret knowledge about Christ 0 School ofinterpretation o Recruited from within other Christian churches 0 Spirit good Matter evil 0 Not everyone can fully understand Iesus message I Only certain people could achieve the enlightened state 0 Jesus was of pure spirit not a man 0 Opposed by the Apostle s Creed 0 Divine good vs demonic evil I Spirit is in a constant struggle with matter 0 Abstinence and Celibacy 0 Jesus didn t touch the ground Ebionism 0 Jesus Christ is only a good man amp prophet not divine O The Arian Heresy 320 CE or The Trinitarian Controversy Arius was an Egyptian priest eventually eXiled to Illyria Claimed that Jesus was not of divine substance but a creation of God Believed in one indivisible God Destroys the mediating function of the Logos In uenced Christianity until the Middle Ages The Creed ofNicea 0 Written at the Council of Nicea in 325 CE but corrected into its current form in 381 CE 0 Declared Arius and his followers heretics o Declared that Christ the Son was cosubstantial sharing the same substance with God Arianism remained continued to in uence Christianity until the Medieval period The Creed of Chalcedon 451 CE 0 Responded to continuing questions concerning the nature of Christ how could Christ be both God and human Declared the Jesus Christ is coessential with God and with man One and the same Christ in two natures without division and without separation Christological Doctrine 5th cen to today Three principal options 0 The incarnate Christ could be I Two separate persons one divine one human 0 Nestoriana Middle East across Asia I One person with a divine nature 0 Monophysites Ethiopia Egypt Syria and Armenia I One person with both divine nature and a human nature 0 The Greek and Latin speaking churches 0 00000 00 Timeline of Church History Paul 36 CE Paul is converted on the road to Damascus 313 CE Edict of Toleration 325 CE Council of Nicea Dealt with Arian Heresy 381 CE Becomes the official religion of Roman Empire 0 Constantine 0 Christian symbols were placed on coins 451 CE Council of Chalcedon 1054 CE Schism East and West 10951187 CE Crusades 16th Century Protestantism develops Born in Tarsus Roman citizen status Iew who holds Roman citizenship 0 He can travel 0 Receives education 0 Traveled to Jerusalem to study Not an original follower of Christ Vision ofesus while on road to Damascus 0 Direct connection with the spirit through Jesus Apostle to the Gentiles o Equality of humanity o Disregarding social barriers Established and fortified churches 0 Through letters Letters of Paul liturgy Died in 65 CE Salvation was through faith in Christ 0 Personal experience with the Spirit 2 main themes 0 Code of Conduct 0 Life quotin the spirit vs quotin the esh March 24 Historical Outline CATHOLICISM in 381 CE became official religion of the Roman Empire 0 Dominant in Southern Europe France Spain Italy Ireland South America EASTERN ORTHODOXY split with Rome in 1054 CE 0 Greece Slavic Bulgaria and Romania former Soviet Union W PROTESTANTISM 16th century with Martin Luther 0 Northern Europe England Scotland North America The Catholic Church of Rome 0 Only representation of Christianity for 1000 years 0 13 billion Catholics o catholicos means quotuniversalquot o Centered in Rome 0 Thinks ofitself as the universal church 0 Christendom quotDomainquot of Christianity 0 Unique synthesis of religion government social structure 0 Teaching Authority preserves faith epistemology central point of knowledge Iesus teachings opened the door of salvation 0 Why wasn t the Bible enough I Slight differences between books The Church is needed for correct interpretation The office of the Pope I Papacy his office I Seen as successor to Peter I Earthly continuation of Peter Matthew 618 I Earthly head of the church Papal infallibility faith amp morals I Pope s inability to error in certain circumstances I Infallible in matters about faith and morals and only when speaking officially as the lawgiver of the church 0 Sacramental Agent channels of divine grace 0 Points the ways in which we should live and empowers its people to live accordingly 0 Guide people to actions that are necessary for Iesus call 0 Help us live lives above the average 0 7 Sacraments sacramentum oath of allegiance o Baptism I Child is permitted to enter into the spiritual community I Rite ofpassage I Child is seen to be in a new condition 0 Confirmation I Accepting religion as your own I Rite ofpassage I Adulthood o MarriageZHoly Matrimony I 3 primary aspects 0 Declaration of consent made by both parties I Do 0 Priest authorization 0 Physical representation of consent 0 Prayer 0 OrdinationZlloly Orders 0 OO O I Someone decides to become a priest nun etc o Sacrament of the Sick I Last Rites I Performed on seriously sick I Prepare ones soul for passage into afterlife o Confession I Repeated many times throughout life I Confess sin to one ofGod s delegates on Earth 0 Eucharist MassEucharist 0 Alternate names Holy Eucharist Holy Communion Lord s Supper 0 Mass repeated weekly 0 Central Feature reenactment of Christ s last supper 0 Differences in E0 and RC churches vs Protestant church 0 Other features of a church service 0 Features ofa church Mary in Roman Catholicism o Theatokos 39bearer of God 0 Wasn t held in such high regard until after Constantine s reign o Immaculate Conception 0 Mary was born without sin 0 Virgin mother 0 Mother of the Church 0 Model ofpurity 0 Use of the rosary o 58 beads and crucifix 0 Hail Mary prayer 0 Visions of Mary 0 Many places become pilgrimage centers and places to receive healings 0 France Ontario Croatia and Conyers Georgia 0 Why did it split 0 Geographical and cultural issues 0 Languages Houston Smith 250 million members Second largest of Christian denominations after Catholicism Albania Bulgaria Georgia Greece Romania Russia Siberia Selfgoverning churches Hold onto the same 7 Sacraments March 25 Eastern Orthodox Church 1054 CE o 4 Major differences between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church o Extent of teaching authority I Church is teaching authority but disagree on the extent and on what to teach I Both think authority to interpret the Bible should rest with the church I EOC thinks the church is a successor to Peter not a single person I EOC Don t put as much emphasis on putting a unified message out I EOC Church can interpret but not initiate doctrines I Stresses continuity on tradition I Development of doctrine is risky 0 Means by which doctrines are reached I Pope can initiate dogma in Catholic church I EOC no Pope o Consciousness of the Church I Exceptionally corporate view of the Church places more emphasis on the church as one collective body 0 Emphasis on the church as the body of Christ Resulting in a difference in administration church hierarchy I EOC has no hierarchy o Emphasis on mysticism I EOC more accurate approach I Mystic partaking or attempting to communicate directly with the supernatural while still on earth I Theosis trying to reach being in direct union with God I RCC these are seen as a gift of grace and not a right I EOC not all members are mystics but the church is more open and encourages mysticism 0 Art Architecture and Music Iconography 0 Icons portraits ofesus and other characters I Two dimensional painting often on wood I Can be found in the church and in homes and pocket sized icons for traveling purposes I Focal point for meditation worship and devotion o Is iconography idolatry O Sainthood 0 Origin of sainthood in Christianity 0 Became a reserved title that was placed on people by the church 0 Usually for people who lived after Christ I Except for John the Baptist 0 Angels Gabriel and Michael are viewed among saints Criteria to become a saint o Contemporaries ofesus disciples martyrs gospel writers theologians prominent bishops o Developed over centuries performing miracles special degrees of piety channels of divine grace 0 People become saints by Papal decree in RCC I First person to become a saint by Papal decree was a German bishop in 993 CE 0 Intercession o Collectively came to be thought of the elite of Heaven 0 Possess merit or virtue act between humans and God 0 Pray to saints or make pilgrimage to their shrines so they will intercede on your behalf Saint Days Imagery in the Middle Ages 0 People recognized saints visually 0 Saints began to be portrayed on stained glass 0 Patronage 0 Saint became associated with a specific condition or occupation 0 Roman Catholic and Anglican sainthood Reformation Era 0 Christianity was mainly European 0 Spread through colonialism and missionaries o Protestant Reformation o Developed from a difference of Christian opinions within Roman Catholicism 0 Series of events 0 Martin Luther 16th Century 0 Sale of indulgences and relics I Burial clothes pieces of the cross body parts of saints etc I People sold and traded relics I Became another corrupted market 0 95 Propositions of1517 I Seen by the church as a challenge I Pressure was put on Luther and he was excommunicated from the church I Many people who agreed with him supported him 0 Redevelop the Christian understanding of sin and redemption I No need for confession I esus saves based on faith regardless of works 0 Lutherans Anglicans and Calvinists Reformed Churches 0 Lutherans Martin Luther I Germany and Scandinavia I Stressed authority of scripture and guidance of the Holy Spirit I God is seen as friend and companion I Deep sense ofpersonal piety I Worshiped in the common tongue not Latin 0 Anglicans Episcopal Church of England I Split from Catholicism during Henry VIII I Henry wanted a divorce from Catherine so he created his own church I 15 34 Act of Supremacy makes the king the head of the church I Elizabeth I brought protestant principles 0 Calvinists I God is absolutely sovereign 0 Controls and initiates all actions I Two key principals o Humans are dependent of divine grace and are sinful and powerless 0 God is omniscient and omnipotent predestination he decides who receives salvation and who receives damnation 0 France Scotland Netherlands Hungary quotReformed Churches England Presbyterians No bishops regional representatives AntiBaptists baptize adults who make the decision to join the church not babies I John Calvin and the Swiss Reformation o Puritanism 17th amp 18th Century 0 Baptists Quakers Methodists Revivalists Holiness Churches 0 The Great Awakening March 31 Protestantism o 3ml major branch of Christianity 0 Enduring themes that set Protestants apart 0 Justification by faith 0 The Protestant Principle I Do not absolutize the relative I Not committing idolatry 0 Make sure focus is on God and take away symbols 0 Protestant vs Roman CatholicEastern Orthodox worship 0 Status of Clergy o Sacramental rituals in Protestantism Mass 0 Unique methodology in Holiness Churches charismatic Christians April 5 Epistemology o Textual Sources 0 Earlier Scriptures Hebrew Bible incorporated as Old Testament I Have to understand Old Testament to get New Testament o Synoptic Gospels John 0 Writings and Letters of Paul 0 Other letters not written by Paul 0 Jesus as the Logos 0 The teachings oersus parables acts I Social teaching strike down social barriers o Disciples what they saw heard and felt 0 Church as quotTeaching Authorityquot Catholic 0 Pope infallible amp Church representatives priests o Creeds of the church nature of Christ Personal faith Protestantism o Justification by faith 0 Reason 0 Experience 0 Intuition 0 Saints and Holy men and women Orthodox o Cultivated intuition I Development of oneself in terms of orientation to the divine mysticism o Illumination of the heart by God 0 Icons as quotwindows onto Heaven Ontology 0 God is ultimate reality Protestant Principle do not make the relative absolute only God is real 0 Theology God is One and Three Father Son and Holy Spirit Triune Godthe Trinity 0 Cosmology o Matter and Spirit mediated by the Logos 0 The natural amp the supernatural worlds 0 Good and Evil Gnostics o Eschatology 0 Heaven Kingdom of God 0 This world and the Hereafter I This life and an afterlife o The second coming of Christ 0 Judgment Day Anthropology Humans made in the image of God Concept of quotoriginal sin Beings in need of restoration out of balance with being God s beloved children 0 This is why he sent Iesus Branches of the Church Visibleinvisible Members of the Mystical Body of Christ Servants of God and Jesus Teleology Metho O Iustify one s faith in God personally Become one with God theosz s Orthodox Accept Christ as Savior Achieve salvation through Iesus Serve one s sisters and brothers Be like Jesus Participate in the Body oersus the Church Know the Truth of God intimately Gnostics dology Study the Bible Attend Church Spread the quotGood News 10 Commandments Accept Church doctrine Catholic amp Orthodox Participate in the 7 Sacraments Catholic 0 2 in Protestantism Baptism and Communion Iustify yourself through faith Follow Christ s and his disciples example 0 Serve the poor and marginalized 0 Love everyone unconditionally 0 Love for your neighbor what you love for yourself Join a monastery Catholic amp Orthodox 0 Holy Orders for men amp women 0 Work amp Prayer Become one with God theosis Orthodoxy o Meditate on icons 0 Withdraw from mundane life to the life of the spirit Key D ates 70 CE Fall of second temple 0 When Mark wrote his gospel 325 Council ofNicea


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