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by: Erling Ward


Erling Ward
GPA 3.51


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This 97 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erling Ward on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELI 1001 at University of Georgia taught by Martin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/202110/reli-1001-university-of-georgia in Religion at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Judaism It is a religion nation culture and ethnic group Monotheistic shared history Torah instruction to obey godfirst five bookswritten by Moses 0 Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers and Deuteronomy o Synonym for Torah Pentateuchfirst five books 0 Torah can also be referred when talking about the laws of the five books Books revealed to Moses by God on the top of Mt Sinai o Nevi im quotprophetsquot o Ketuvim quotSacred writings Tanakh quotHebrew Bible three sections torah nevi im ketuvim 0 Contains 613 laws or commandments total I Must follow all laws 0 Orthodox Branch keeps laws sacred 0 Reform Judaism keep moving to fit in with current life Judaism is an anthropocentric religion human centered not god centered centered in this world 0 Has very little emphasis on the afterlife focused on how to live life now not live for a reward of afterlife o More defined with what they do rather than what they believe 0 Ritual emphasized and very important Hebrew Bible first written history in linear prose o What distinguishes it from other close by religions o Learned about interactions with their god by a written history I Their history begins with the creation of the world Talmud like a big encyclopedia of history since Tanakh was completed Dates in the Tanakh are not entirely accurate Nation of People group of people with a shared identity lsreal the country or the group of people worldwide Two major groupings ofJudaism o Sephardic Iberian Peninsula Spain Portugal 0 Ashkenazi Biblical Stories of Judaism Judaism is an exile or expulsion from the Garden of Eden God creates the world in 6 days and rests on the seventh o Sabbath day of rest Hebrew word Shabbat quotto restquot 0 God starts creating on a Friday evening and ends on a Saturday Evening 0 7 days are believed to be 7 literal days and 7 metaphorical days 0 Man and Woman created in his likeness quotimage of Godquot 0 All created equally with free will 0 Man AdamWoman Eve 0 No pain hardship not ashamed of nudity I ONE RULE Not eat fruit of tree of knowledge 0 Serpent in garden is considered to be quotSatanquot I EarlyJudaism has no personified Satan serpent just and adversary to human kind 0 God punishes Adam and Eve by expelling them from the garden of Eden angels guard this garden Human is sent to mortal world to work 0 Considered to be a didactic story teaches a lesson 0 Origin of clothing awareness of self death work and violence 0 Cain and Able Sons of Adam and Eve Origin of violence Cain kills Able 0 Two stories of creation in Genesis 0 There is most likely several different authors ofthe Torah I This is called the Documentary Hypothesis 0 The two stories back to back are called a doublet 0 Four Authors composed the Torah I J YHWHistalways referred to God as YHWH I E writer Elohist God referred to as El I The Priestly where to worship I The deuteronomist the book of Deuteronomy 0 Someone put these books together to make a one book everything was put together nothing removed 0 Scholars postulate that there was either on editor or a series of multiple editors o God s Covenant with Abraham 0 God finds human s wicked so sends a flood to wipe them out I Saves one man NOAH 0 God commands Noah to build and Ark and to save to of each creatures 0 God feels sorrow at his destruction promises to not destroy world again 0 Noahic Covenant making promise to world to not destroy I First Covenant 0 Abraham father of sreaites lived between 1900 1700 BC I Believed to have come from a place called Ur moved to a place called Canaan I Known for his unwavering obedience to God 0 Circumcision of himself and all around him for God 0 Willingness to sacrifice his own son Isaac God spares Isaac in place of a ram Defining moment ofJudaism Jews willingness to suffer for God 0 God promises that his offspring will be the leaders of nations 0 Wife Sarah childless Abraham has son Ishmael with Maidservant Hagar and would be considered children of Sarah and Abraham 0 Sarah has Isaac son Sarah jealousbanishes both sons Israelites come from Isaac s nation Ishmael s nation consists of Arabs and Muslims o What is a covenant A contract or agreement to do or not to do something between two parties I Biblical Covenant agreement between god and ancient Israelites ifthey follow and covet his way of life 0 Monotheism only one god most important contribution of Judaism to modern western religious thought 0 God revealed laws for Jews to follow in contract perceived as a loving father I Most hidden of all gods unlike other gods not represented as a particular thing god in all things but nothing can contain god Creator of everything related to everything Whether Abraham considers god as chief of many gods or one single god is debatable o In the 6th century BCE Jews negate existence of all other gods 0 Isaac has two sons 0 His son Esau wrestles with god all night and is named Israel quotthe one who struggles with god I Promised that the nations with be led by him 0 His 12 sons lead the 12 tribes of Israel I Between 1200 and 1300 BCE People from these 12 tribes leave Israel and migrate to Egypt due to a famine 0 They become enslaved by Pharaoh for fear of their large numbers I Not just Israelites enslaved minority group escaped guided by Moses 0 Minority group of mixed ancestry not just son ofJacob o This whole period is the Exodus period leave Israel enslaved escape 0 Moses the most important person in establishing Judaism as we know it today 0 Ten commandments 0 Moses was an Israelite raised as an Egyptian in Pharaohs family 0 God speaks to Moses from a burning bush Moses needs to return to city and free enslaved people 0 First prophet to relay info to populous from God Moses brother acts as speaker for Moses God39s name is revealed as YHWH 0 Name too sacred to pronounce o LORD YHWH being translated o Adonai quotmy Lordquot 0 El Hebrew word for god 0 Elohim plural of El quotgodsquot Moses and Aaron ask pharaoh to release slaves says no 0 God hardens pharaoh s heart God visits Egyptians with Ten different plagues o Aarons staff turns into snake o Plague of blood nile river turned into blood fish die water stink no water 0 Plague of frogs contaminate ovens and cooking surfaces 0 Plague of Gnats dust became gnats o Plague of Flies o Plague on livestock only livestock of Egyptians will die not isrealites o Plague of Boils suit from furnace will make festering boils appear on animals and people 0 Plague of Hail hail will hit and kill people and livestock o Plague of Locusts locusts ate all vegetation o Plague of Darkness dark over Egypt 0 Plague of the Firstborn every firstborn son in Egypt will die 0 Israelites instructed to paint doorway with lambs blood to protect from death 0 Pharaohs son dies Israelites leave Egypt I Go to Canaan stop at Mt Sinai 0 God reveals entirety of Torah to Moses on Mt Sinai 0 Moses presents the new covenant to the people on stone tablets 0 Tablets placed in the Ark of the Covenant I Joshua and followers Arrive at Canaan to other people living there 0 Purpose ofjourney from wilderness to Canaan is a symbol of struggle to obey God and remain faithful through adversity I Revelation of Torah important from this story Broad significance of Exodus period is that most of the Jewish law was revealed to Moses during this time I Commandment quotmitzvahquot Commandments quotmitzvothquot I Every law either a ritual law regulates affairs between humans and god or an ethical law regulates affairs between humans 0 Both types held in 613 laws guides for life 0 Ten Commandments I No murder I No dols I No thievery I Honor mother and father I Adultery I Use the lords name in vain I Observe the Sabbath I Honor thy neighbor I Do not covet or envy anything else I NO other gods DAY TWO Review Questions 0 Ethical Law regulates affairs between humans I Do not covet neighbor I Honor mother and father 0 Ritual Law determine affairs between humans and god I Lords name in vain I Only worship god 0 Judaism distinctions nation culture and an ethnic group 0 Covenant contractual agreement between Jews and god god takes care of Jews if they follow laws obey god I Noah receives covenant from god to not flood world again I Abraham has covenant from god to be the father of nations through his sons Ishmael Arabs and Muslims Isaac Israelites and Christianity 0 Exodus Period Important because Moses receives ten commandments and Torah from god laws are revealed during this time 0 Pure Monotheism worship of god with negating the existence of all other gods 0 6th century BCE scholars believe that pure monotheism is being practiced 0 Period of the Judges 11th century BCE o Represents that Israelites don t have a king they are led by judges 0 Period of the Kings 10th century BCE 0 1st kings are named and crowned 0 Period between judges and kings tribes unite 0 Under King David 1010 970 under his rule tribes are completely united Israel known as United Monarchy 0 Makes Jerusalem the capitol and brings ark of covenant their 0 His son Solomon becomes king 0 In charge of constructing first temple in Jerusalem I Ark of Cov Inside temple inner most sanctum where offerings are made I God considered to be always dwelling in temple I Animals used for consumption have to be ritually slaughtered at temple as a sacrifice to god before eating 0 Early kosher dietary laws observed 0 922 CE rebellion of ten tribes in north they revolt and separate from tribes in the south 0 2 kingdoms Israel and Judah led to two smaller weaker groupings of people I Assyrian Empire comes in 722 bce and conquers the northern people of Israel 0 Israelites taken into captivity I Believed they were being punished by god 0 Prophets I Defend monotheism I Relay messages from god I Perform symbolic actions 0 Ten Lost tribes of Isreal disbursement of tribes because of the Assyrian attack 0 Assyrian empire conquered by Babylonian empire 722 BCE I Judah conquered by Babylonia 586 BCE I King Solomon s temple destroyed 0 Nowhere to worship or follow commandments any more Judaism has to adapt and change 0 The Babylonian Exile prisoners are referred to now as Jews After 50 years of exile babylonia conquered by King Cyrus the Great in the Persian Empire ad set Jews free 0 Jews who stayed behind referred to as The Diaspora quotto disperse o Judaea return to Judaea showing they remained faithful to god 0 Cyrus allows them to rebuild their temple I Second temple served as a symbol of a scattered nation suffering o Ark of Covenant no longer in temple 0 Not exactly like the first temple 0 Priests ofJudaea under guidance ofa lead priest names Ezra final and last additions made on Torah o 430 BCE Ezra reads torah scroll aloud to all people still continued tradition today 0 Jews that returned to Judaea still don t have independence Judaea attacked and conquered by many nations throughout history I Jews come into contact with many cultures particularly Zoroastrianism o Monotheistic founded in 6th entry BCE in Persia 0 One supreme god created twin spirits of light and darkness 0 Good and evil adapted in Judaism 0 Western world becoming more like Greeks Hellenization 4th century BCE I Tension between traditional Jews and Hellenization Jews I Rabbinic Judaism after 4th century BCE 0 Period Judaism is in today 0 Rulers of Greek empire forced Jews to Hellenize I Could no longer follow Torah as main constitution o No circumcision or death 0 Altar to Zeus in temple and pig slaughtered in temple 0 Broke two commandments pigs unclean forbidden cannot worship any other god I Revolt breaks out because of this Maccabean Revolt o 164 BCE Maccabean revolt succeeds o Rename Judaea Israel Jerusalem capitol temple holy again 0 Results in 3 societies I Pharisees group of citizens that come from all classes of society study the Torah first rabbi s working in synagogues and teaching citizens o Synagogues places of study to be taught about Torah not worship I Sudducees upper class priests rich preserving the law and keeping it the same I Essenes Initiate only adult males agree to share property focus on ritual purity o Qumran Essenes left srae built compound here near dead sea had a very extensive library known as dead sea scroll collection of Hebrew and text book of ester only book missing 0 Three groups in conflict 63 BCE romans take advantage of instability and take over Israel I Leads to 4 centuries of Roman rule in Israel I Jews hope for a Messiah or Messianic Age to come better times period of peace where world is under gods laws I Mashiach quotAnointed Onequot someone has been chosen 0 Encouraged by their faith of the Messiah the Zealots led a revolt against the Romans The great Jewish revolt 66 70 CE I Crushed by Romans in Masada 70 CE 2quotd temple destroyed I Western Wallis the remains of the temple quotwailing wall 0 132 CE and 2nd rebellion occurs due to oppression I Bar Kochba Revolt gains 3 years of independence for jews but leads to a mass killing ofJews by Romans 0 Jews that were spared had to adhere to a strict lifestyle 0 No longer go to Jerusalem o Romans rename Israel quotPalestinequot I Jews found new traditions 0 Study the Torah learn more 0 RabbinicJudaism o Rabbi quotmy great one or quotmy master 0 Function of Rabbi teachers religious decision makers creators of liturgical prayer and study ofJewish tradition I Liturgy form a public worship ritual a collection of formularies for public worship or a particular arrangement for worship 0 Focused on law and worship away from the temple I Led to three things 0 New respect for learning 0 Unites Jews 0 Acceptance of the doctrine ofthe two Torah o Doctrine explains that the 1St Torah is the written Torah the 2nd is the oral Torah Oral law becomes separate from written not considered the five books 0 Leads to a rich textual tradition o Halakhah legal information o Aggadah o Midrash rabbi process of study the formulation of stories to explain certain laws The Mishna 200 CE written by Judah ha Nasi The Gemara 500 CE The Talmud o Palestinian 400 CE 0 Babylonian 700 CE originated in Babylon more developed than palestinian The Siddur last book developed major prayer book multiple versions can be changed used in public worshipa minion must be present 10 males 200 CE Judah ha Nasi proposes to write all changes down to not forget o Writes the Mishna the oral Torah and all discussions about it Six Categories 500 CE The Gemara commentary on the Mishna o Anti Semitism racism towards Jews Kabbalah and Hasidism o Mysticism becoming one with god during this life Esoteric Interpretation hidden meaning within a religious text Exoteric Interpretation outer or apparent meaning of a text literal meaning 0 Kabbalah medieval mystical following of god by looking at the creation story in Genesis Hidden meaning is that god is breathing in and out creates space where god put creation Believe that humans have ten different attributes created by god called the Sefirot Sefirot act as filters to understand how to interact with god All energy in universe originates with god energy flows through attributes to world and flows back to god in a large cycle I Human souls also go through cycle when our souls flow through sefirot it picks up pieces of his wisdom understanding mercy One of the ways that humanity can be in the image of god 0 Story of Adam and Eve breaks cycle purpose of kabbalah life is to repair the rupture in the cycle and return to the Garden of Eden and tree of life I Can be done by doing good deeds repairing the world known as tikkumolam repair the world 0 Hasidisma in Judaism and spiritual movement founded in Poland in the 18th century Jews oppressed during this time living in ghetto s 0 Ball Shem Tov healer rabbisee Jews oppression Teaches that people should find the hope joy happiness in Judaism despite hard times Pure hearted prayer is more important than going through the motions of prayer with an empty heart God can be felt anywhere and to rejoice under all circumstances o Judaism and Modernity o The Enlightenment a period ofa rise of science reason individualism A new focus during the 18th century I Anti Jews opposed to enlightenment bc they will replace Jewish values and traditions Jews must strictly observe Jewish law and separate selves from new values Begins the Orthodox Jewish Sect I Pro traditional law will keep Judaism from adapting to modern world reform Jews First reform group changed language from strictly Hebrew to location languages France Germany Russia 0 Jews believe that God is in everything therefor is connected to this world 0 The Holocaust 0 Jews gypsies Africans gays and communists targeted by Nazi Hitler that lead to world war two I Number of fatalities was 13 of world population I AntiSemite prejudice against Jews genetic component in Jews that makes them dangerous and inferior race 0 AntiSemitism in the Middle ages I Jews blamed for death of Christ 0 Christians persecuted Jews for Blood Libel Jews murder Christian children for their Passover rituals 0 Jews blamed for the plague 0 14801492 high fear of Jewish takeover in Europe during the Spanish Inquisition Conversos Jews who converted to Christianity were not trusted 0 Goal to suppress Judaism Islam 0 18th Century Russia Jews found safe refuge in Poland and Ukraine later in 18th century Empress Catherine M designated ghetto s for Jews Jews only allowed to live their o In 1880 s pogramswere killings destruction of property and killings in Jewish ghettos About 70000 people killed 0 World War 1914 1918 0 Germany Austria Hungary Russia economic collapse led to end of WW1 o Franz Ferdinand Arch Duke of Austria assassinated by a Bosnian nationalist led to WW1 Characterized by long bloody stalemates Total casualties in WW1 10 million 0 Economic depression in Germany blamed Jews for problems theory to get rid ofJews and strip of positions to gain back power 0 Holy Days WW2 axis powers vs allies Axis Germany Italy Japan Allies Britain Soviet Union US Jews forced to wear a star of David 1942 large scale death camps to achieve genocide 0 Jews starved tortured gassed worked to death experimented on o Sabbath quotShabbatquot day of rest Begin at sunset and ends at sunset the next day Friday evening Saturday evening 0 This is because God started creating in the evening Commemorated by public service worship in synagogue family meal challah bread eaten reminiscent of Manna bread provided by god while they were in the wilderness traveling from Egypt to Canaan Rosh Hashanah and the days of Awe o Festive meal bread and honey 0 Days of Awe ten days of repentance Yom Kippur September 25 26 day of personal atonement for ones sins o Fasting prayer no work 0 Day before a meal is made for fast preparation 0 Fast begins on sunset and lasts until sunset 0 Time when heaven is considered to be open for everyone I Sukkot Tabernacles o Lasts from sept 30th Oct 7th 8 day festival 0 Commemorates God protecting Jews in the wilderness 0 Last day is called Simchat Torah the joy of the torah 0 Finished reading the torah scroll start from the beginning the next daY I Hanukkah Dec 8th 16th I One candle is lit everyday rekindling ofJudaism o Pesach Passover April 6th 14th I Commemorates trials that they experienced in Egypt and their emancipation I Shavout Feast of weeks May 26 28 0 50 days after Passover sader o Tishab Av I The 9th of Av commemorates destructions of both temples 0 Three Major Branches ofJudaism o OrthodoxJudaism Anti Enlightenment I Stand by the Torah Talmud is legitimate oral law I Must follow the law least accommodating towards any other branch I Haredi Jews most detached 0 Reform Judaism Pro Enlightenment Judaism I Open and revolving religion 0 Conservative Judaism I Maintain traditional Jewish law while using modern scholarship to study themcritically Jews have always searched and added to laws to keep them accurate and meaningful o Reconstructionism movement Review 0 Judaism is anthropocentric orthopraxy Judaism s Distinctions 3 Judaism can be seen as m Areligion X23 Obey God39through the Torah instinction X3 Religion ofLaW flaw pervades life 7 3 Omit y X23 Religion oinstory 7 rst Written history is the Hebrew Bible A religion and a nation I 3 A religion and a39tradition ethnic religionquot 33 3 main pn39nciples God Torah Israel at Meaning in Creation 3 God is Good God created the World so the world must be good Nature is the dwelling place of thebdivine God creates world in 6 days rests on 7quot1 3 Pattern for weekly Sabbath shabbat t Exile of Adarn and Eve 3 Humans get dominion over the Earth 1 We have e w 1 God beloved n Meaning in History Where did the Israelites come from 3 Biblical history begins with Creation 3 The history of thelsraelites begins with CE Abraham c B X History is Where God displays 39hims elf Historical context is important flsife39 s opportunities are unique 33339 Collective action is important History illustrates what God wants 3 53 Q i WW u Meaning in Morality Revelations of the Torah to Moses on Mt Sinai MIZVah pl mimic X3 Laws of Leviticus Priestly a S x Leyi icus11kosi conecuve kashmt who Ritual andlEthical Law a L 5 t 10 Commandments ethical aWS 0 39eu emnom precepts 7 5 areasz ofliie gm Email Togah39 Tr itioh e i e 7 Moses PIEserved compued tHeToralL x Modem scholarship Documentary Hypothesis 4 sources I EP amp D Covenant Code Exodus 21 r 139 These 4 sources camecobe compiled into one book by a roar redaccorxeduor wow u y Meaning in Justice Roles played bythe prophets tug revelation Performed sy rnb qlic 39 acts 39 3 Political X3 Defender cf the Faith X3 Ethical amp M Oral39 mmr u Meanmg 1n Suffering XX God s call for 3 LessOns learned X23 Events Came from God 3 2 main themes 33 Remain Faith il t destructionand egg ew XX Events to learn from 10 Destruction of Israel Vicarious Suffering 3 20 11 C 7 Holocaust X23 AntiJSemitism 722 BCE a N 39 10K Destruction of 1st L all Oppressmn Temple 585 BCE Can we nd meaning gt in the Holocaust J mhmmih mm a 2mm a Halaicahaegal material gt x3 Mi39shnaGemax39a gjmdd x Tyhe39Miydrashbooksinew 1 mm 39 tbbliy al mg rial Hallowing Life 1 3 Sacred Spaces 39 39 X23 The Temple X23 The synagogue 3 The Axk x Alibrary X23 The home 1 mzzuzah mach217 the cunzm that sepamlesmen and vmmEn m the synagugue Jewish Mysticism 3 What is mysticism X23 Esoteric Vs exoteric 3 Kabbalah Tradition X23 Mystical Ontology 7 God and the se rot God39 5 atttibutes 3 Tzkkun 01am repair the world 3 Hasidism amp the Baal Shem Tov Hlush atlon ofthe Tree of Ile The Chosen People 3 History of the idea the Covenant 3 Doctrine of Eleetion 2 Leading Viewpoints a Usefulness tof th39erdo trine no longer applicable 5 a Will beneeded until the redemption of the i world is complete Judaism in the 21St Century 334 primaly nsections of Jewish Identity x3iFaith XDKObserVance Culture 3 L39 s xzxLore Language and Land XZiiNation security betterment preservation and utopia Return and Zionism 3 Return to Zion recurring theme 3 Zionism movement X3 3 major types x Political x Religious x AntiZionists X3 In the modern World x AlfredDreyfus trial 1895 x End ofWWI 1917 x Creation ofIsrael 19478 3 Law ofRetum 1950 Ontology 3 Question What is the nature of reality 3 Judaism39 s Responses God is ultimate reality Ontology Eschatology 3 Question Whatis the nature of the end of 2 created existence and the afterlife U Judaism s Respon Ses afterlife not zemphasize d lt 3 Sheal underworld 5 Some rabbinic and modern Jews X3 Heaven pergatory like Version of hell nonSpeci c ideas Teleology 3 Question What is the purpose of life 3 Judaism39 s Responses 3 Repair the world kkun Glam 3 Maintain relationship with God 3 Have Jewish children 3 Maintain and protect Israel Zionism CHRISTIANITY Q An Introduction 4 World Signi cance v Size v History 4 Complexity v Diverse manifestations v Diverse lifestyles 4 World In uence 4 Perception of Time Similarities to Judaism v Monotheistic v Exoteric v The Covenant Distinctions from Judaism v Belief that Jesus is divine v Monotheism becomes more complex 4 God is one entity with multiple parts Histori the life of Jesus Primary texts about his life The New Testament 4 Biography e Birth Luke 12639 amp Matthew 1 1825 4 Born around 4BCE in Palestine Lower socioeconomic status 4 The Annunciation 4 The Incarnation Born in Nazareth or Bethlehem 4 39v a1 Jesus a 4 Little historical proof for Family 4 Jesus siblings 4 Childhood 4 Little material in Gospels Hohn the Baptist 4 Jewish prophet 4 Conducted baptisms Beheaded perceived as threat to authority PBaptism Announce the Messiah Historical Jesus Wilderness Retreat Fasting and prayer Temptation by Satan 4 Fall parallels that of humanity PAdult life and ministry r Worked as carpenter t Known as rabbi Itinerant minister PDeath of Jesus cruci xion The Jesus l Jesus Charisma ofFa h The 12 disciples Orientation to the Spirit Realm Sense of urgency for the coming Kingdom of God 4 Miracles and healing 4 Channel between humans God 4 Appealed outcasts and the marginalized members of society Challenges F0 Authority a E x 4 Sadducees Pharisees Essenes 4gtZealots PJesus took a fifth path How did these groups react to Jesus The Jesus of Faith 4 What did the disciples see him do What did the disciples hear him say gigantesque Sermon on the Mount 4 Lord s Prayer and Beatitudes Invitational tone amp parables Focus on 2 facts God s love and accepting it Who did the disciples W think he was Major themes PKingdom of God How when and what 4 Jesus relationship to God Christ from Christos t Ethical Obligations Love Humility Repentence The End and Beginning Resurrection amp Ascension 4 4 According to Gospels Appearance of the risen Christ The Great Commission 4 New level of being Turned defeat into victory 4 Goodness triumphs Basis for hope of salvation 4 Strengthened belief in Jesus divinity a l xv Ascended into Heaven 40 days after resurrection event Gives rise to belief in life after death 4 Closely related to idea of God s salvation The Good News all t 4 The triumph Ofthe gOOd Xeva IXG Y Z of Jesus over death lt i ch th u 8 gospel gOOd news 1110011 XDIGIO 921 I m ulrlp Jesus Christ God39s Son Savior ltP Spreading the message Fish symbol 1X6139JQ gt ichthys Jesus Christ Son of God Savior 4 How did the Good News I moons Jesus X XpLOT g Christ 39 9 9 986g 2 God affect early Christians 1 quotmg 30 4 Had mutual love and joy OUTTp SaVlor Free of fear guilt amp ego The Early Church 4 The Synoptic Gospels esus a Vital force for Hypothetical source Q believers quelle 4 The Church as a body l MattheW 4 Perfect vs Fallible Mark Church uke Invisible vs Visible The Gospel of John Church Canons of the New Testament 4 No universal agreement Apocrypha ian History Early Christ 36 CE Paul converts to Christianity 5060 CE Paul s travels and teachings Topics liturgical blessings amp theology Message to Gentiles and Jews Salvation achieved through faith live in spirit vs life in esh c 6595 CE Gospels composed 85 CE Book of Acts composed 200 CE Christianity throughout Roman Empire 313 CE Edict of Toleration passed by Constantine 381 CE Christianity of cial religion of Roman Empire Early Church Doctrines t ill J theology the systemizgtion of thoughts about the symbols that religious experience gives rise to The Incarnation of cial in 325 CE 4 Incarnatio The preeXistingeternal Son of God assumed a human body Preexistent Word of God Logos 4 The Atonement 4 Closing of gap between God and Man legalistic Middle Ages 4 Original Sin Modern Interpretations The Trinity Sets Christianity apart EXperience of Jesus disciples Pentecost POne in 3 Persons 4 Christology 4 ecumenical councils Council of Nicea 325 i Discussed God s roles amp the nature of Jesus existence 4 Arius and Athanasius 4 Council of Chalcedon 451 Creeds amp Heresies would put on a coat The essence of God remains unchanged Addition ofhumanity did not subtract from the Godhead God the ween became Son H wno esh WHO God the Father God puts on humanityas you GOD God the HS WHO Christian Diversity it 4gtEarly Example Gnosticism Gnosis The Gospel of Thomas Nag Hammadi Duality of the universe Emphasis on spiritual maturity 3 Main Denominations Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox Protestant hristian Diversity ATLAS 0F FAITHS BELIEVERS as percentage of global population 2002 125 7 gment w mm 130 Oma r bellman 35 o hm ch mamas I n m 39 y 1M Mulllmr 3200 n scuo 28ED BELIEVERS BY RELIGION 4330 in millions 44m a 2zco l um I Majomyof population J 39 B 4010 I comprised of 480 I Roman Catholics mnlms Buddhists dam I Japanese Shinloists C Istlansfmm a Buddhis39S 39JBUUUS churches J H d m us I Olthadox Chlistians I SAM ms 39 I Churches of Eastern I I quotMM Christianity I Indigenous rehglons 3m 5 r no damlnam religmn 39 BONED I nonreigxous gfif gama 39m I us ms ibunms mm A 1 4m I Muslims 5 tea El unoopmmd WNW W m c n 0 Jews 7 1590 L a a3 2 25 Pumas Roman Catholicism in y PCatholicos universal r PChristendom the domain of Christianity Teaching Authority importance of Jesus teachings 4 New Testament not enough Potential dangers 4 Solution Church as new teaching authority e The Pope from papa successor of St Peter 4 Of ce the Papacy 4 Papal infallibility on faith and morals 4 The Papacy and Secular Government P Sacramental Agent correct methodology amp spiritual sustenance The 7 Sacraments Sacramentum an oath of allegiance E I Baptism child enters spiritual community Con rmation conscious and personal commitment to live Christian life The 7 Sacraments Marriage contractual in nature 4 Declaration of consent Rings 4 Nuptial Mass Ordination Dedicate life to God Sacrament of Sick puri cation for afterlife Confession atoning for sins Mass amp the Eucharist Context Alternate Names Eucharisto Central Features Reenactment of Christ s Last Supper Symbolic Meal Eucharistic Prayer Host amp Chalice Closed Communion Holidays P Liturgical Calendar Advent Christmas amp Epiphany Lent Ash Wednesday through Holy Saturday day before Easter Fasting Holy Week 4 Palm Sunday amp Good Friday 39 Easter 4 Pentecost Mary amp Sainthood i 4 Very high status Saints extraordinarily 4 Virgin mother hOIY people Theotokas Special areas of concern Immaculate Conception 4 Intercession PMother of the i Patronage ChurchGod Veneration of Saints 4 Hail Mary amp use of Saint Days Rosary 4 Icons Visions Of Mary 4 Differences between churches Eastern OrthOdOXy fa Historical background 4 Schism in 1054 4 Crusades Nth 13th c 4 Cause of schism claims about papacy and smaller doctrinal disagreements General Information 4 2I101 Largest Denomination Churches are self governing Diversity Similarities to the Roman Catholic Church Eastern Orthodoxy PExtent of Teaching Authority r Complete agreement necessary less often PMeans used to officiate doctrine dogma Through the conscience of the Church Exceptionally corporate View of the Church More emphasis on the Church as a collective body Difference in administration and church hierarchy 4gtMore active emphasis on mysticism theosis In Middle Ages renew spiritual heart of Church r Today differences between denominations The Protestant Reformation Movement of churches that developed over time Martin Luther 1483 1546 Sale of Indulgences 4 Purchasing forgiveness 4 Avoid purgatory Sale of Relics 4 Lots of fakes Profit off the faithful 4 contributions Luther s Beliefs Indulgences and Relics J ustification by Faith 4 A person is right with God by completely trusting the work of Christ and not making human effort to appease God 4 Chief article of Protestant faith 4 Restores one s relationship with God 95 PropositionsTheses amp Luther s excommunication In his writings 4 Seeks to raise the authority of faith to a higher level than the clergy i Clergy should not have spiritual authority over laypeople 4 Only necessary sacraments baptism amp the Eucharist Early Protestant Denominations Lutherans 4 Follow teachings of Martin Luther 4 Focus on God s grace Calvinists amp John Calvin l 5 09 l 5 64 4gt Extension of salvation by faith alone predestination 4 Protestant Work Ethic 4gt Calvinism in Europe 4 Reformed Churches 4 Presbyterians Anabaptists 4 Tradition of baptizing adults emphasize choice 4 Heavily persecuted Mennonites and Amish Anglicans Church of England Henry VIII r 15091547 History of Split 4 USA Episcopalian Methodists amp John Wesley 4 Personal holiness 4 methodological devotions American Protestantism The Puritan movement 4 Calvinist theology 1 Migrated to New England in 16205 amp 16305 a Baptists 4gt The Great Awakening 4gt Emphasize individual spirituality 4 Baptism of mature believers a Quakers CC39 4 Focus on Christ s inner light 4gt Combines intellectual and spiritual re ection Evangelical Churches Born again experience 4 points of emphasis 4 Personal faith in Jesus 4 Personal conversion 4 Importance of Christian Bible 4 Preaching instead of ritual 4 J ehovah s Witnesses 7th Day Adventists Later Evangelicals i Fundamentalists mainline Protestant evangelicals the Holiness movement Pentecostals The Protestant Principle Don t absolutize the relative What this means in practice 4 Don t accept papal infallibility How to contact God then 4 Read the Bible with an open soul Challenges misunderstanding amp individualism Counterpoints to challenges More unified than fragmented Not differing theologies Diversity might be good Episternology Textual Sources Old Testament NeW Testament Christian Bible 4 NT Synoptic Gospels John Acts Epistles Revelation Ecumenical Councils amp Creeds ex Nicene Creed Jesus as Logos his teachings and actions for Christians in general Roman Catholic 4 Apocrypha 1 Church as teaching authority pope and priests Saints Protestants 4 Personal faith 4 Reason amp Experience 4 Intuition Religious leaders Eastern Orthodox 4 Conscience of the Church Saints Ontology God is ultimate reality Theology Trinity God the Father God the Son amp God the Holy Spirit Cosmology W H I i Spirit realm including Heaven Hell amp Purgatory for Roman Catholics Profane world 4 For Gnostics duality 9 good vs eyil 4 Early Christians Kingdom of God on Earth 4 Creation In 7 Days 4 Adam and Eve cause of Original Sin need for redemption Via Christ Eschatology Q 4 The 2nd coming of Jesus 4 Judgn1ent Day Modern Christians Heaven Kingdom of God Hell PRC Purgatory Anthropology 4 Human Nature 4 Made in image of God Beloved children of God 4 Stained With Original Sin 4 Human Identity 4 Members of Visible or Invisible Church Part of the mystical body of Christ Saints amp Martyrs Apostles 4 Mary theotokos Psychology E ixqu PFaculties of Consciousness Mind Understandinterpret scripture and teachings Soul immortal punished or rewarded in the afterlife 4 Heart stained woriginal sin but purified Via acceptance of Jesus Flesh weak can be tempted bodyphysical senses Conscience serves as a moral compass States of Consciousness Before accepting Jesus fear especially of death guilt for sinning egotism After accepting Jesus love for God amp fellow man and joy Teleology P39Attain salvation in Heaven P39Love serve amp know God Serve mankind PMysticisni connect with God in this life RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 1 Tuesday January 18 2011 Introductory Material hermeneutics system for understanding a person s religion or beliefs What if there were no system stereotyping fear displacement or projection of fear violence hermeneutical circle Religiology analytical method developed by Dr Alan Godlas professor of Islam UGA coherent systematic amp interconnected relativ1ely objective study of spheres of human belief total gt sum of parts YouTube I heart huckabees part 1 message for the masses view religiology as web of interconnected ideas do not view as linear can t get rid of bias just recognize them amp put them aside What is the significance of having such an analysis absence leads to misunderstandings amp unnecessary violence in the world offers creative solutions to today s problems don t compare have security in your own beliefs b4 you enter the insecure realms of other beliefs emotional intelligence Spheres of Belief or World Views 1 Epistemologyinquiry into knowledge answers What should be the basis for valid knowledge ie tv books intuition experience science God 2 Ontologyinquiry into the nature of ultimate reality answers what is really real ie what we can experience what we can prove logically God emotions what authority figures tell us is real sub categories theologywhat do you believe about God or gods casmoogycharacteristics of the creative world what is the nature of creative existence eschafoogy questions about the afterlife when the world as we know it ends 3 Anthropologyphilosophical inquiry into human nature amp human identity answers what are we as human beings ie superior primates free beings individuals victims of circumstances beyond our controls servants of God mirrors of God RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 2 4 Psychologyinquiry into the nature of consciousness what are the faculties amp states of consciousness answers what does human consciousness consist of Le electrochemical impulses in the brain emotions the heart the ego multi leveled centers of intuitive thought 5 Teleology answers what is the purpose of human life ie to nd your own purpose find out who you are develop your potential no purpose serve god 6 Methodologyhow you do things answers what is primary method of actualizing the purpose of human life ie go to UGA travel follow the teachings ofyour religion acquire power and influence strive to know what is real Ritual ritual is a part of methodology no one definition relates to latin word cura gtmedical cure important classical ritual studies scholars Arnold Van Gennep old identity dies when you start ritual Mircea Eliade Victor Turner general characteristics ritual marks transitionrites of passage ie bar mitzvah Turner s 2 Stage Model 1 Separationfrom society 2 Liminality limin gtinbetween state action of the ritual happens 3 Reaggregationexit of ritual amp entrance into society wnew identity Thursday January 20 2011 The action of Ritual informs new social rolesidentities guidance through death and rebirth communfas bond between initiates get from being in the experience together ritual vs sacredthe role of sacred elements of ritual refer to Realms of Rituals pg 24 amp Ritual in Theory and Practice pg 23BP The role of ritual in religion creating a blank slate RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 3 ritual sometimes considered wceremony difference ritual gives connection to sacred not necessary in a ceremony ritualtool used to connect wsacred there are different realms of ritual sacred space rituals are performed at a sacred place or a place becomes sacred bc rituals are performed there sacred ob39ects symbologythe objects used in rituals used to represent something religion dictates the use of these objects sacred time ritual removes people from time ritual slows time down for people with allows them to come face to face with the present ritual helps connect people with the past sacred sound includes music sounds hymns etc sacred language used to direct and inform the initiates language is the guiding tool for ritual glossolaliaspeaking in tongues action ofthe ritual dictated by religious leader priest rabbi pastor inaam etc person does not have to be ordained embodimentuse of your body in acting out the ritual body memory body will rememberthe actions you are doing ritual serves to maintain religion it is a building block religion means to bindto one s faith Mysticism union with the Sacred Other God fheoss seeking a direct experience in THIS life not the other helps inform intuition instinct insight through direct experience Dualistic vs NonDualistic Union Dualisticgtyour identity will remain distinct from the other stigmataphysical representation of marks of cruci xion NonDualistic gtone identity you become completely identified with the other you are connected to God ie alHallaj muslim mystic RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam believed there was nothing left inside of him except for God Stated he is Truth people thought he claimed he was God since God is truth role of mysticism in religions mysticism not always accepted in religion Judaism Abrahamic descending from Abraham religion and culture religion and ethnic group religion and Nation not a physical nation though can cause identity issues for Jews religion of Law law pervades all aspects of life 613 commandments in Judaism not considered theocentricgtGod at the center considered anthropocentricgtactivities centered around this world religion of History 1st written history is the Bible write things down if things are linear history is learning about your ancestors 3 Principles of Judaism God Torah Israel fellow man not necessarily the geographic location Orthopraxy what you practice orthodoxygtwhat you believe ritual is important An introduction views of Ancient Judaism have had a profound influence over Western Values viewed as religion and tradition ethnic religiongttraditions viewed as part of your ethnicity vs part of religion Were the Jews an important people not particularly Were their lands extensive not really Did they have a great history not really either For them yes but no compared to Romans Greeks Egyptians etc history characterized with suffering 800 why do we study them RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 5 KeyJewish culture was in uential because they sought meaning in life s areas 1 God covenant idea one Godgtchose Jewsgtmessenger viewed that there was an Other ltwith a capital 0 The origin of the Jew s search for meaning was their understanding of God there had to be an Other amp it is meaningful not unconcerned chaotic amoral or hostile not prosaic impersonal not inanimate and mechanical not chaotic God is One amp has One supreme will humans will never understand the fullness of God Psalm 19 Monotheism most important contribution of Judaism probably began in the 5th amp 6th century allows human beings to focus on the will of God idea of monotheism epitomized by The Shema THE SHEMA Hear O Israel the Lord Our God the Lord is One Deuteronomy 64 other gods exists but they are under God not on the same level God is Moral and Just if the ultimate reality is not just there is little to motivate humans to act justly God is Benevolent and loves us if ultimate reality were hostile to creation life would be reduced to a vain effort to hide from a cruel oppressive Supreme dictator Yahweh freed the Jews from Pharaoh Yahweh consoled the Jews in Babylon in Ezekiel s visionGod embodied lovingkindness Yahweh God in Hebrew 2 Creation God is Good God created the world so the world must be good What does Godcreatedquot mean the world was created by God whatever he created is good First 12 Chapters of Genesis latin world ex nihilo gtout of nothing contradictory details 4 Key Assertions about Nature i material aspects are important RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 6 ii God has granted humans the right to be in control of the world amp to work good deeds in it iii the earth becomes a means of salvation iv nature is a dwelling place ofthe Divine God created nature but is distinct from and transcends it do not confuse with pantheismgteverything has a divine quality Thursday January 27 2011 3 Human Existence Jews asked who are we what does it mean to live a human life 5 traits of human nature we have limitations we are frail we are also great dust and divinity we are sinful miss the mark we are free we are God s beloved children humanity dust divinity 4 History When did history begin Abraham no way to know for sure Abraham is known as the rst Hebrew hasn t been given the law so cannot technically be called Jewish didn t worship idols like the rest of the world at this time Abraham begat Isaac Isaac begat Jacob amp Esau Judaism started around 12th century stelaegtan upright stone slab or column typically bearing a commemorative inscription or relief design often serving as a gravestone Theories for where the Israelites came from 1 Canaanite Iowlanders 2 Peasant revolt less accepted idea 3 Israelites Canaanites most accepted History in linear time is sacred was more than just an event dates to the Jews History is where God displays himself History is sacred not an illusion History is important to Judaism for 4 reasons 1 One s historical context is related to one s life 2 History shows that social or collective actions can affect change collective memory RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 7 3 History is an open book to learn from History is the theatre of God s glory John Calvin 4 Once an opportunity is lost it is gone Jewish form of carpe diem cease the day In Judaism there is a sharp tension in history humans are responsible for deviation from God s will 5 Morality Teleology methodology epistemology psychology Establishment of Law Exodus Period very important for the Jews lasted 40 years little archaeological evidence God makes 4 revelations during the Exodus 1 God reveals himself as Yahweh 2 Ten commandments Exodus 20 3 Elders Exodus 24 4 Moses Exodus 34 tabernacle priesthood established Moses is most important figure in emergence descendant of Abraham chosen person burning bush hierophanygtphysical manifestation of God Tuesday February 12011 Ten Commandments given to Moses on Mt Sinai division ethical precepts5 areas of life preserved religion forcelife wealth sex speech above everything love God 1 no other gods 2 sabbath 3 honor parents 4 don t steal 5 don t murder 6 Lord s name in vain 7 no adultery 8 no idols 9 covetingenvy RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 8 10 lyingbearing false witness Commandments for Jews and Gentiles Noachic Commandments Covenant Code Exodus 24 Exodus 20192333 Laws of Leviticus Ethical Laws amp Equivalence how to treat members of your community ch 19 how to treat the poor laws on agriculture Jubilee law Leviticus 25 your landdebts can only last for 49 years Priestly Laws Leviticus 11 tell peoplethe priest how to interact with God dietary laws referred to as kosher from hebrew word kashrut Ugaritic texttablet wbiblical law found in Syria the tabernacle was the only place to sacrifice an animal later on The Temple was the location life and holiness of animal recognized Laws of Deuteronomy Laws ofWar how to fight amp behave when in war can t go if you just get a house someone may steal it you had to be married can t go if you re afraid heremGod s commandment of total destruction Levirate Marriage brother of deceased husband must marry the widow if deceased never had a child All laws in Judaism are broken into ethical laws and ritual laws ethical laws are between people and people ritual laws are for the actions between you and God Thursday February 3 2011 6 Justice Western ideals gained from the Prophets 1 Just societies survive better 2 The wellfunctioning of the society as a whole must be the concern and responsibility of each member of that society Who the prophets were prophet from prophefesGreek profor phetesto speak RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 9 navi prophet in Hebrew nabi prophet in Arabic navinabi also means to call Huldaonly female prophet in the bible Amoscow herder worked for someone else was poor God chooses who is worthy not society Law ofthe Prophets Oral Formulaic Poetry prophets able to speak poetically on the spot use symbolic acts to show people what was going to happen ie prophet Hosea married a prostitute prophecy is miracle book of Isaiah 1st Isaiah Chapters 134 King Hezekiah comforting Jews will be redeemed Chapters 3539 scholars think is out of place 2nd Isaiah Chapters 40end focuses on talking to Jews comforting aspect more critical bc criticizing idol worship Three Stages of Prophecy Moses does not fit in these 1 Prophetic Guilds gain identity and ecstasy form the group divine intoxication best example of Guilds ending is Samuel amp Eli Samuel is 1st of prophets to receive individual prophecy from God 2 PreWriting Prophets 2 main differences from Guilds revolt against injustice of social power King Ahab vs Naboth Elijah gt Elisha Elijah was part of prophetic guilds Elisha is a prewriting prophet revolutionary societal phase where a layman can challenge the King and still be right because they were backed by God 3 Great Writing Prophets Ethicsfocus on social problems ofthe world challenge problems as whole not just individual acts 2 threats to social health moral delinquency danger from within other empires danger from without Prophecy seen as a warning RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 10 The Prophetic Principle social stability political stability injustice will not endure enjoy the good and prevent evil Amos and Isaiah 7 Suffering Events to learn from destruction of Northern Kingdom 722 BCE destroyed by Assyria where the 10 lost tribes come from destruction of 1st Temple 586 BCE destroyed by the Babylonians sacrifice each moment to God true worth of freedom Psalms 11337 Redemptive values taught by the Prophets lack of righteousness produces suffering faith helps lift suffering the Jews suffered in the stead of others 8 Messianism meshash the anointed one translates to messiah modern definition developed after 70 CE Akiba haNasi man who started revolt named Barkochba the messiah The Messiah came to signify 1 Hope set stage for Western ideal of progress 2 The reestablishment ofthe nation 3 The spiritual and ethical improvement ofthe condition of world 3 Key Questions about the Messianic Age 1 How did it arrive Godgtmessianic expectation human Messiah 2 Will it be restorative or utopian Davidrestorative 3 WhatHow is the relationship to early ages people thought as apocalyptic RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 11 Tuesday February 8 2011 Hallowing Life Importance of Ritualaim to hallow life ease tension and give guidelinesLife Cycle Rituals 1 Birthgtberit Hebrew word 2 pubertygt barbat Mitzvah 3 marriagegtAramaic language contract written in 4 Deathgtshiva kaddish prayer if you lose a spouse 11months 30days Intensify experience and raise joy Living piouslyput into practice the attitude that the world is possessed by God ManualTorah what is the Oral Torah conversation wGod passed down orally after Moses Doctrine of 2 Torot written amp oral sets out ritual guidelines Sacred Spacethe synagogue and the home sacred space used to only be the Temple bet Keneset the synagogue Mezuzah marks your home as an entrance to sacred space Hallowing LifeHolidays Sabbath shabbaf have meal with family amp do no work starts sun down on Friday and ends sun down on Saturday Rosh Hashanah Jewish New Year signifies the beginning of Fall 10 days of repentance Yom Kippur Day of Atonement 10th day of Rosh Hashanah day of fasting and prayer Sukkot means tabernacles five days after Yom Kippur holiday lasts for eight days celebrates conclusion of fall harvest Simhat Torah last day of Sukkot Pesah passover first month of the full moon in spring matzah breadgt made with no yeast seder mealgt eaten on 1st day of passover RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 12 Shavout Feast of Weeks 50 days after seder meal represents God giving Moses the Torah on Mt Sinai Hannukah means dedication remembers the time when Greeks besieged the Temple Tisha b Ab 9th day of Ab remembrance of when 1st and 2nd Temple were destroyed Modern Holidays Holocaust Remembrance Day amp Israel Independence Day The Tanakh or Hebrew Bible TorahPentateuch Law 1200400 BCE first 5 books Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy ultimate source of Jewish knowledge every week a section of the Torah is read section parashah Who wrote the Torah Documentary Hypothesis Jean Astruc pointed out the different names for God in Torah 4 authors J E P D J called the YHWHist 20c BCE oldest source we have primarily refers to Judah E Elohist 9c BCE primarily referto northern kingdomgtlsrael refers to Mt Sinai as Horeh says Elohim was revealed to Moses on Mt Sinai D Deuteronomist 6c BCE King Josiah reigned at this time focused on destruction of high places credited with writing book of Deuteronomy P Priestly late 5c BCE focused on what the priests do offers a plan for reconstruction of the Temple refers to God as Yahweh amp Elohim Uses Yahweh more focus on ritual Final Redactor person who put the 4 sources together in one book The Nevi im Prophets 800500 BCE second part of the Hebrew bible Ketuvim Sacred Writings 1000300 BCE plural of Hebrew word Ketuv writing RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 13 consider this the wisdom literature Psalms Proverbs Job etc The Tanakh s History 1400 BCE Egypt plagues 12801440 BCEExodus 1200 BCEPeriod of Judges firstjudge Deborah Song of Deborah one of oldest parts of the Bible 1000 BCEDavid takes Jerusalemdynasty begins Samuel and SaulJudah Significance ofthe Law ofthe King Deut 1715 David unites Judah and Israel Davidic Covenant God assures David that Jerusalem and the tribe ofJudah would belong to him no matter what 922 BCESeparation of Kingdoms 722 BCEAssyrians conquer North and 1st Diaspora begins 10 lost tribes of Israel terminology changes from Israelites to Jews 621 BCEJosiah s reforms based on Deuteronomy King Sennacherib destroyed the high places Josiah nished the reforms started by King Hezekiah made worship place the Temple 586 BCE1st Temple destroyed and Babylonian Exile begins Hezekiah and Isaiah Sennacherib amp high places YHWH no longer viewed as national deity 538 BCEPersian Empire conquers Babylonia amp exile ends 457 BCETemple and Ezra at Watergate Copies ofthe Tanakh Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls 15070 BCE believe to be composed oldest copy found in 1947 by a goat herder written in Hebrew Aramaic and Greek Septuagint or LXXgt70 300132 BCE First translation into language otherthat Hebrew into greek Lenigrand Codex 1008 CE oldest complete copy RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 14 Other Texts The Midrashgtto investigate to study oral traditions Haahahn Legalistic explanation Aggaa hah narrative explanation sometimes called the Legend ofthe Jews The Mishnacomposed in 200 CE means teaching in Hebrew collection of material from Midrash sources the 6 Orders with 63 Tractates Judah haNasi Categories of Laws 1 seeds 2 HolidaysFestivals 3 Women 4DamagesTorts 5 holiness 6purifications The Gemara means to complete in Hebrew expansion and continuation ofthe Mishna The Talmudlays out explanation for why you do things Mishna Gemara Talmud The main text of Rabbinic Judaism Babylonian Talmund 5th Cen CE Palestinian Jerusalem Talmud 4th Cen CE the fence for the Torah Comprised of theological Elements Personal Morality and Social Ethics Pharisaic Tradition Thursday February 15 2011 Revelation revelation God s disclosure gave Jews insights into finding meaning not primarily verbal often revelation was through God s actions the Exodus and God s nature revealed conclusions made from Exodus 1 God is powerful 2 God is good thus he wants people to be good 3 Involved with humanity suffering must be meaningful led to covenants made wGod Noahic Covenant Covenant Code Exodus 21gt Covenant wAbraham Davidic Covenant RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 15 The Chosen People Why make these covenants Jews chosen to suffer Doctrine of the Chosen PeopleDoctrine of Election explainstells why the Jews were chosen success is because of God serve and suffer God s trials observe morals more demanding than others suffer in the stead of a wider range of humanity What led the Jews to believe they were chosen once oppressednow a free nation God was beyond other gods because of morality over 3000 years of survival against tough odds Rabbinic Judaism World History before the Rabbinic Period Greeks and Alexander the Great 356323 BCE Ptolemy receives Egypt Seleucus receives Syria Hellenization of Israel Antiochus IV tried to put a statue of Zeus in the Temple Maccabean Rebellion amp Hasmonean kings 164 BCERededication of the Temple Hasmonean kings ruled from 164 to 63 BCE Greek influence Josephus amp the word synagogue Art and Architecture in synagogues 70 CERomans destroy 2nd Temple Pharisees Rabbis are successors of Pharisees Rabbi teacher Sadduceesgroup of priest in the Temple Essenes group of lower priest that were pushed out of power Rabbis become the guiding light of Judaism Yabneh school Hillel and Shammai two schools of thought Hillel is more liberal Shammai is more conservative two models to how Judaism developed h model and y model Rabbinic Judaism came form h model The Pharisaic Tradition RELI 1001 Judaism Christianity Islam 16 1 new respect for learning 2 following law 3 acceptance of the Doctrine of 2 Torot 135 CE was last rebellion Rabbi Akiba led the rebellion The Diaspora Community Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews Sephardic were in Iberian peninsulaSpain Europe developed closely with muslims Ashkenazi were from Germany Poland etc wiped out in Holocaust Judaism in the 21st Century What constitutes a Jewish identity 4 Primary sections Faith monotheism one God Chosen people one history Observance rituals and celebrations how rituals are conducted great differences between different groups emphasis the samemake life sacred Reform Orthodox Conservative mysticism Culture Na on Denominations of Judaism Reform Judaismmost liberal developed 1789 in Europe God the principle of moral conscience that unites humanity Torah the historical record of Israel s discovery of universal morality revelation is a historic event Israel a people blessed with unique moral insight Focus on bringing holiness into life life cycle moments Popular in USA Orthodox Judaismmore conservative response to reform movement God ethical and seeking to train humanity Torah the unchangeable record of divine revelation given to Moses at Mt Sinai Aa7ah all the commandments Israel affirm all aspects of biblical version stress Israel s mission to share its moral insights with the nonJewish nations above all TRADITION


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