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by: Erling Ward


Erling Ward
GPA 3.51


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erling Ward on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELI 1001 at University of Georgia taught by Mulkey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/202111/reli-1001-university-of-georgia in Religion at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Westerners called Islam quotMuhammadanismquot but this is inaccurate because Muhammad didn t create Islam God did sm quotpeacequot Islam quotthe peace that comes when one s life is surrendered to Godquot Background Allah The God God created the world then humans Adam led to Noah who had a son named Shem This is where the word Semite comes from Ishamael went to the place where Mecca was to rise his descendants flourishing in Arabia become Muslims whereas those of Isaac who remained in Palestine were Hebrews and became Jews The Seal ofthe Prophets Muhammad The Seal ofthe Prophets no valid prophets will follow him born in Mecca 570 AD names means quothighly praised father died a few days before he was born mother died when he was 6 ived with his grandfather but died when he was 8 so adopted by his uncle he was always ready to help others especially the poor and the weak The Truequot quotThe Uprightquot quotThe Trustworthy Onequot he took up the caravan business At age 25 met a wealthy widow named Khadija 15 years older than him He frequently went to Mt Hira for solitude The Night of Power day that angel came to him His wife was his first convert Muhammad s message He was not there to perform miracles but to spread the word for God The reactions to this message were very hostile pg 227 Reasons for the hostility 1 Its uncompromising monotheism threatened polytheistic beliefs and the considerable revenue that was coming to Mecca from pilgrimages to its 360 shrines Its moral teachings demanded an end to the licentiousness that citizens clung to Its social content challenged an unjust order In a society riven with class distinctions the new Prophet was preaching a message that was intensely democratic He was insisting that in the sight of his Lord all people were equaL 5 quot The Meccan leaders began their attack with ridicule pinpricks of laughter petty insults but these proved to be ineffective so their words turned uglier to abuse calumny vilification and overt threats These were ineffective also so resorted to open persecution They covered Muhammad and his followers with dirt and filth as they were praying They pelted them with stones beat them with sticks threw then in prison and tried to starve them by refusing to sell to them Muhammad continued to throw heart and soul into his preaching The Migration that Led to Victory the leading of citizens of Yathrib to Mecca s north 280 miles was leading about 70 families when the Mecca leaders found out they tried everything to stop them went with his close companion Abu Bakr the year was 622 The migration known in Arabic as the Hijra is regarded by the Muslims as the turning point in world history Yathrib soon came to be known as Medinat al Nabi the City ofthe Prophet became a stateman master politician in the city of Medina in 632 Muhammad died The Standing Miracle the Koran divided into 114 chapters orsurahs Basic Theological Concepts the words of the Koran came to Muhammad in segments over 23 years through the voice of Gabriel s is directly doctrinal and indirectly historical Basic Theological Concepts 4 main concepts 1 God 2 Creation 3 the Human Self 4 the Day ofJudgment God Allah everything in Islam centers on its religious Ultimate God God is immaterial and therefore invisible Musims are not fond of parental images for God to speak of human beings as quotGod s children casts God in too human a mode God is omnipotent inspires fear Muslims fear Allah but still is compassionate Creation created by a deliberate act of Allah s will this fact carries two consequences 1 the world of matter is both real and important 2 being the handiwork of Allah who is perfect in both goodness and power the material world must likewise be good 2 obligations gratitude for the life that has been received surrendering wholehearted giving of oneself or commitment This is why Abraham is the most important figure in the Koran because he passed the ultimate test of willingness to sacrifice his own son if that was required Human Self Koran stresses self individuality all life is individual there is no such thing as univesallifeGod himselfis an individual individuaity ofa human is everlasting freedom The Day of Judgment predestination individuaity is stress of the Day ofJudgment heaven and a hell The Five Pillars the Koran teaches them to walk the straight path because it is not crooked or corrupt it is also straightforward it is direct and explicit They say God s revelation to humankind has proceeded through 4 great stages 1 God revealed the truth of monotheism God s oneness through Abraham 2 God revealed the Ten Commandments through Moses 3 God revealed the Golden Rule that we are to do unto other as we would have them do unto us through Jesus 4 The Five Pillars the principles that regulate the private life of Muslims in their dealings with God First Pillar Islam s creed or confession of faith known as the Shahadah quotThere is no god but God and Muhammad is His Prophetquot Second Pillar the canonical prayer in which the Koran adjures the faith to quotbe constantquot Muslims are told to be constant in prayer to keep their lives in perspective The Koran considers this the most difficult lesson people must learn They are told to pray five times a day first prayed in the direction ofJerusalem but now towards Mecca the holiest position when your forehead touches the ground because 1 the body is in a fetal position ready to be reborn 2 crouched in the smallest possible space signifying human nothingness in the face ofthe divine Third Pillar charity those who have much should lift the burden of those who are less fortunate in the 7th century the Koran prescribed a graduated tax on the haves to relieve the circumstances of the have nots about 25 gtwhich is on everything that they posses not just income like tithe and to whom among the poor should this money be given to those in immediate need to slaves in the process of buying their freedom to debtors unable to meet their obligations to strangers and wayfarers and to those who collect and distribute the aims Fourth Pillar the observance of Ramadan is a month on the Islamic calendar Islam s holy month because during it Muhammad received his initial revelation and ten years later made his historic Hijrah migration from Mecca to Medina fast during Ramadan unless you are ill or involved in crises like war or unavoidable journeys from the moment of dawn to the setting of the sun after sundown they make partake in moderation Fifth Pillar Pilgrimage once during his or her lifetime every Muslim who is physically and economically in a position to do so is expected to journey to Mecca where God s revelation was first disclosed the purpose is to heighten his or her devotion to God and his revealed will but the practice has benefits too it s a reminder of human equality everyone wears the same thing no distinction of class etc aso provides a useful service in international relations it brings together people from various countries pilgrims pick up information about other lands and peoples and return to their land with better understanding of one another Things they should not do Gambling Thieving ying eating pork drinking intoxicants


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