JUDSMCHRSTNTYISLM RELI 1001
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Things to Know for the Judaism Exam REL1001 Fall 2011 Karla E vans Carter Multiple Choice 1 What is a Bar Mitzvah a An initiation ritual What does the Sabbath mean a rest When and where did synagogues as places of assembly study and prayer appear a After the destruction of the first Temple What is the Pentateuch a The Five Books of Moses According to Jewish law at what age does a boy attain adult status a thirteen 6 What are the three majorJewish denominations in the United States and Canada a Reform Conservative and Orthodox 7 What does documentary hypothesis see textual inconsistencies in the Bible as a As indicators of differentsources of the text What was thefruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil a It is unspecified For the ancient Hebrews what was the ultimate rewardfor being obedient to God a A long life with many descendants 10 What does the Hebrew version of the flood story explain a Why God had to choose a specific people 11 What is the festival of Passover a commemoration of a The Exodus story 12 Aaron Moses brother was the archetypal what i iquot 2 2 3 a priest 13 Where was the Ark of the Covenant kept a The Tabernacle 14 Who built thefirst Jerusalem Temple a Solomon 15 What name was usedfor the southern kingdom a Judah 16 Who was thefirst Temple destroyed by a Babylon 1 7 What did the prophets metaphorically describe the people s worship of the Canaanite gods as a Adultery 18 The term yehudi meant belonging to a particular quotwhatquot before the first centuries CE a territory 19 What was the Septuagint thefirst Torah translation the product of a Hellenistic Judaism 20 Who were the kings of the Hasmonean dynasty the descendants of a Maccabees 21 Who were the two major first century Jewish groups a Sadducees and Pharisees 22 Name of a first century communal council with juridical functions a Sanhedrin 23 When did the Romans destroyJerusalem and the second Temple 70CE a 24 WhatAlexandrian Jewish philosopher tried to harmonize the Torah with Greek philosophy a Philo 25 Where do Jewsface when they pray a Mount Sinai 26 What famous rabbi in the first century CE helped Judaism transition to a religion based on prayer and acts of loving kindness a Yochanan ben Zakkai 27 What are the three sections of the Hebrew Bible Tanakh a The Law the Prophets and the Writings 28 What is rabbinic interpretation of the Bible following the sequence of the biblical text called a Midrash 29 What is the rabbinic codification of the Jewish legal heritage in six topical orders called a Mishnah 30 What is oral law according to rabbinic tradition a It is passed down from Moses 31 What were the rabbis who compiled the Mishnah and the Tosefta called a Tannaim 32 What is the Gemarah a commentary on a The Mishnah 33 What does the Jerusalem Talmud consist of a Mishnah and Palestinian Gemarah 34 What are the languages of the Talmud a Hebrew for the Mishnah and Aramaic for the gemarahs 35 Which text became the more authoritative version for the Jewish community a Babylonian Talmud 36 What does halakha mean in rabbinic literature law 37 What does aggadah mean in rabbinic literature a story 38 Who was the mostfamous commentator on the Bible and the Talmud a Rashi 39 What are the most accepted codes of Jewish law called a Shulhan Arukh 40 What does the Hebrew term teshuvah literally mean a returning 41 What is the Hebrew word for commandment a mitzvah 42 How many commandments were given to Moses at Sinai according to rabbinic tradition a 43 Sephardim is a designation for descendants of Jews from where a Spain 44 Ashkenazim is a designation for descendants of Jews from where a Germany 45 Who was the most famous medieval Jewish philosopher who authored The Thirteen Principles of Faith a Maimonides 46 What is the central concept of Kabbalah a spherot 47 What is tikkun according to Isaac Luria a Rectification of the universe 48 Who is the founder of Hasidism a Baal Shem Tov 49 What was the movement that wanted Judaism to have a part in modern European life a Reform 50 What was the religious existentialist who authored land Thou a Kaplan True and False H How does the Book of Genesis describe creation a It describes creation out of nothing 2 Does the Bible explain the conditions of human life through philosophical argument a no What is the most sacred day in the Jewish calendar a The Sabbath 4 When does the Sabbath begin and end a It begins atsunset on Friday and continues until sunset on Saturday According to Jewish tradition what is the Eden story an account of a A wide variety of phenomena from why snakes crawl on the ground and why women have pain in childbirth to why people have to work for a living and why we die It offers to explain the causes or reasons behind our present circumstances Pain and evil are the consequences of human disobedience and lack of moral discernment 6 What is Minyan a The quorum of ten individuals necessary to begin group prayer In Rabbinic traditions what are the conditions for conversion a Male circumcision ritual immersion baptism and acceptance of the commandments 8 According to the Torah were men allowed several wives a Yes 9 How long were the Israelites allowed to enslave their debtors a The Israelites were forbidden to enslave their debtors for any more than a fixed term 10 What is a Rabbi a A teacher and legal specialist 11 What is Zaddik a A title of a Hasidic leader 2 L V Judaism s Distinctions w Religion and Culture C Religion anciLEthnic Group w R zligion Nati0n Cg Religion of L39aW39 w Religion ofVHistory Principles of Judaism Judaism an Introduction w The Views of Ancient Judaism have had a profound in uence over Western Values w were the Jews a n important people wiWere their l39an ds extensive w Did they have a great history Judaism an Introduction w Key to theirrin uencetis thus neither in the at degree of theirlancientness as a people nor W in their land nor in their history The keV to quot 1 39 m is in the de ree to which the Jews sought and were concerned39with the guestions of E quotquot mean1ng The Jews Found Meaning in 8 Areas 03 1 In God 03 2 In Creation 03 3 In Human Existence 03 4 In History 03 5 In Morality 03 6 In Justice 08 7 In Suffering 03 8 In Messianism Meaning in God Covenant Idea legal contract promise between God and his people The origin of the J ew s search for meaning was their understanding of God 4 points 0 There had to be an Other something beyond this world amp it is meaningful I Humans came into existence by a cause beyond humans an Other no one 1s self created I Human power is limited 0 Not unconcerned chaotic amoral or hostile Jge wishthought Equestin God eliminates these concerns avoids heresen quot Meaning in God God was not prosaic impersonal God was not inanimate and mechanical God had feelings and purposes God was anthropomorphic A more human quality of God animate not just a force more like a person than a thing More like a mind than a force Ultimate reality was like a person but without the defects God had all the good human qualities and thus personal God was not chaotic God was One and has One supreme will msiquot 397 I39 R rmament showeth H Vnhumh xmq gnnrpmp nver all nther onrlq Meaning in God continued God is Moral and Just If ultimate reality is not just there is little to motivate humans to act justly God is Benevolent and loves us If ultimate reality were hostile to creation life would be reduced to a vain effort to hide from a cruel oppressive Supreme dictator Yahweh freed the Jews from Pharaoh Yahweh consoled the Jews in Babylon in Ezekiel s vision r p 710 too zm mom 1310 MONOTHEISM Monotheism is the most important contribution of Judaism M0n0theismthe belief that there is only one God Monotheism allows human being to focus on the will of God THE SHEMA the creed of Israel Heal O Israel the Lord Our God the Lord is One Deuteronomy 64 Meaning in Creation 1 I1 Go fixas Good God created the world the world was d What does Godcreated mean st an explanation for how the world came into being or a 3Fat the character of who created it lfe ifs not oan good it is verv good and to be enioved physical existence is not an illusion A Worldly life is not inherently awed or sinful V st 12 Chapters of Genesis ontradictory details tIFault is in fate I1 Humans can t change 1 Fault lies win ourselves I1 Humans no longer helpless 1 Meaning in Creation fhas granted humans the right to be in itrol of the world amp to work good deeds in it should be relished in 7 Lthem have dominion over all the earth Genesis 126 i The Fall from Grace earth becomes a means of salvation fNature is a dwelling place of the Divine Meaning in Human Existence 9 Jews asked Who are we What does it mean to live a human life 9 5 traits of human nature gt We have limitations we are frail gt We are also great dust and divinity 39 In the face of Heaven we are dust amp can e crushed like moths Job 19 39 We are more special bc we were created in the image of God 39 Mud infused with God s breath gt We are sinful miss the mark I We have ability to be great but sin comes from us39notliving39 up to that ability 39 gt We are free We ah angel n r awn m riiiw 11 2amp2 15an wk j Meaning in History When did history begin Where did the Israelites come from Canaanite lowlanders Peasant Revolt lower group of peasants revolted amp formed their own communlty 0 History is where God displays himself The question of if there s meaning in history could be detrimental to life Reveals himself in unique and unrepeatable events History is sacred not an illusion A History is important to Judaism for 4 reasons 1 One s historical context is related to one s life 0 What you do has effect on what will come 2 History shows that social or collective actions can affect change 0 Sometimes the only way to change things is by working together 3 History is an open book to learn from 0 God s hand is at work in every event shaping it into a lesson to be learned 4 Once an opportunity is lost it is gone j Meaning in History 0 What allowed the Jews to see that history has these 4 meanings o God created nature but is distinct from it 0 Since God transcends nature God s will may even be different that What goes on in nature 0 In Judaism there is a sharp tension in history Things are not alwayS as they Should be SO a Change is a necessary Humans are responsible for deviation from God s will Biblical History 0 Period of the Judges12th cent BCE Weren t full kingsqueens but enforced God s law 0 One of the 1st leaders was a woman named Deborah Song of DeborahJudges 5 oldest song of the Bible 0 Deborah known as the Mother of Israel 0 Role of judge was similar to that of a military leader 0 Israel gains leadership as a nation O Davidic Dynastyl lth cent BCE Philistines were attempting to control iron 0 Judah the southern portion of kingdom demanded a king instead of priest or judge Believed they could fight Philistines if they had a king Biblical History 0 Samuel Major prophet amp l of the judges Asked to nd the chosen one nd the messiah o Saul First chosen king Tribe of Benjamin smallest but warlike tribe 0 Was chosen bc he came from a war like tribe so he could lead them against the Philistines 0 He can t make his tribe the superior tribe bc it was the smallest lo Law of the King Deut 1715 Given to God by Samuel First example of a constitutional monarchy 0 Religious figure must point a king Children of kings were not guaranteed to be the next ruler 0 King is governed by laws ngin must not be forei n i w 07 mg W1 not mu tip y is orses and leadfthem back to Egypt I Blbllcal Hlstory 0 David All of Saul s sons died Forced to battle Ishbal the leader of the northern kingdom to be king Assassins were sent to kill David but he killed all of them 0 David sends assassins to kill Ishbal He captures Jerusalem O Brings the arc of the covenant with him 7 Moves center of the worship into the political center Considered the most brilliant king in Israelite history no archaelogical ev1dence to prove his existence 0 David Judah Israel Tel Dan Davidic Covenant O Establishes David and his descendents as the rightful kings of Judah from whom also the Messiah comes Separation of northern and southern kingdom in 922 v Biblical History O 722 Fall of the northern kingdom Israel Assyrians defeat Israelites 0 Wanted to conquer Egypt and Israel happened to be in the way Rebelled against Assyrians and were slaughtered Survivors relocated 10 Lost Tribes of Israel 0 Judah grows bc ppl ee from north to south Name changes from Israelites to Jews j Biblical History 0 After the destruction of Israel in Judah Hezekiah annointed by Isaiah to be 1St king of Judah 0 Southern kingdom worshipped in high places 7 Specific centers of worship 7 Assyrians destroy these only leaving central temple in Jerusalem 0 Centralizes worship How did Sennacherib help Jewish monotheism o The defeat of Sennacherib shows that God is superior to Sennachenb s gods wh1ch falled h1m o Destruction of the 1st Temple 587 BCE Judah conquered by Babylonians Prophecy of Jeremiah o Tells ppl who killed ruler not to go back to Egypt They went anyway End of YHWH Yahweh as a national deity Biblical History 0 45 7 BCE Rebuilt the Temple Ezra Jewish scribe amp priest 0 Still under Persian rule but is the new leader 0 First read Torah to the Jews Start of a religious reform Torah was central amp important Worship is no longer centered on speci c place but on teachings o Biblical period ends around 450 BCE w the reading of the Torah at Watergate 7 r V o 1400 BCE enslaved in Egypt 0 Exodus 1440 BCE or 1280 BCE o 1200 BCE arrive in Canaan Period of the Judges 390 1000 BCE David takes I Jerusalem makes it his capital 0 922 BCE Northern kingdom separates from southern upon Solomon s death 722 BCE Assyrians conquer northern kingdom and disperse its people I o 622 BCE Josi based on Deut 586 BCE 1St destroyed by theB deport its leaders 538 BCE Persians con Babylon permitting ex return 164 BCE Rededica tion Temple after Maccabea uprising 70 CE 2nd temple destroyed by the Romans 1L 0 200 CE the Mishnah is written by Rabbi Judah ha Nasi 500 CE completion of the Babylonian Talmud 1105 Rashi commentator on the Bible and Talmud 1305 Moses ofLeon Zohar o 1492 expulsion from Spain 15203 Printed edition of the Talmud produced in Venice 0 1917 Balfour declaration o 1938 German Synagogues emigration 1889 Conservative I separates from Reform f the United States vandalized Kristallna the Night of Broken 193345 WWII amp The Holocaust 1948 Foundation of State of TG I OD 7 Categeries 39dments 6 Ten Commandments a6ki ing W in a group not allowed ea1h no stealing from others also at fannlyl no contamination of blood of and human dignity speech no lies messes up troy soci ety if unmanage d orJeWs and Gentiles 2 oachic COmmandments I Covenant W Noah n Drnmidnh mar 1 nnr Aaliwany 7 nll 14 vvvv nihy 4 empfffom ghtingwhat to do in battle E L6 Irate Marriage traints social relationships arbari39c interactions a 7 us free lie has 613 mandments g he 10 commandments are the i oral comportment Inmandments are universal and r 7 and must be observed if a IS tarbe built and not fall apart MEANING IN JUSTICE all l ozo Two deeply held behefs in Western worl it it I If a society is just it has a better chance of if l 4quot l 5 fl surV1val The wellfunctioning of the society as a Vquot must be the concern and responsibility member of that society f it We have the prophets of the Hebrew Bibl ii El it thank for these two beliefs 3 ll 2 Law of the Prophets i A A ll MEANING IN JUSTICE st Who were the prophets amp what was their prophecy oz Oral formulaic Poetry oz The Three Stages of Prophecy 1 Prophetic guilds No prophet identified individually Engage in collective ecstatic dance 0 Spiritual intoxication overcome by the Spirit No ethical teaching involved The Good is intuitive though the spirit MEANING IN JUSTICE quotilk if oz The Three Stages of Prophecy i 2 The PreWriting Prophets if Ecstatic individuals emerge from the Guilds Elljah Nathan Ellsha and others I 39 Two main differences from the Guilds Could receive the divine while alone 3 l Divine spoke thru them to demand justice I I la Story of Naboth and King Ahab Elijah j39 ll Holy revolt against injustice l M w 1 No written works no books in the Hebrew in ll l MEANING IN JUSTICE Jul 71 oz The Three Stages of Prophecy it i 3 The Great Writing Prophets if f Amos Micah Jeremiah Isaiah and others Ecstasy of an aspect 0 their experience nil if Ethics of the prewriting prophets also The prophets however call attention to social in viii problems as a Whole not just individual injustices f At this time two threats to social health j Moral delinquency inequity exploitation 1391 Other empires Assyria Babylonian Phoenicians If MEANING IN JUSTICE l lquot z The Jewish rulers saw prophecy as 3 Warning fimjl ii i God to either create a just society or be destro I d i z The Prophetic Principle fir ll Social stability political stability j Injustice will not endure j God has high standards and will not put up with Iii iii explo1tation corruption mediocrity f 0 Therefore enjoin the good eschew evil to prospegr 3 law spiritually amp in the world I l Stories of Amos and Isaiah ll MEANING IN SUFFERING I From the 8th to the 6th century BCE the Jews were taught by God through their suffering Events U 721 BCE Assyria destroyed the Northern part of the Jewish realm called Israel 10 tribes D 586 BCE Nebuchadnezzar conquered the southern kingdom of Judah and eXiled the living as prisoners to Babylon MEANING IN SUFFERING I What meaning could there be in suffering and being eXiled from the land D Had the God of the Jews lost the war U The Prophets had another response D The Jews had to learn two things Lack of righteousness produces suffering and faith in af iction ultimately lifts suffering The Prophets taught the redemptive value of the suffering of the Jews lVlEANIN G IN SUFFERING I The Babylonian Exile D No temple for sacri cial atonement D Sacri ce becomes a personal choice D Sanctify life sacri ce each moment to God U Rabbis become important Carriers of the Oral Torah Compile the Babylonian Talmud Taught how to sanctify life Follow the Law 613 commandments 5 l 34 MEANING IN MESSIANISM o Messiah The Anointed One a The Messiah came to mean the one who would bring the Jews back to their homeland From Babylon To the land of Israel after 7 0 CE when the temple was destroyed and the Jews were dispersed in the Diaspora o The Messiah came to signify 1 Hope 2 The reestablishment of the nation 3 The spiritual and ethical improvement of the condition of the world MEANING IN MESSIANISM o 3 Divergent Opinions How would the Messianic Age Begin Would the Messianic Age be restorative or utopian How would the Messianic Age be in relationship to the early ages in humanity o Messianism s hope set the stage for western civilization s belief in progress In Christianity this hope appeared in the belief in the Second Coming of Christ In the 17th century it emerged in historical progress In the 19th century as a classless Marxist society In Judaism it came as the Zionist promise of a new homeland and a reuniting of the Jewish people in one land again CONCLUSION 0 To sum up the past lectures we can state brie y that were it not for the Jews passion for seeking meaning they would have remained an obscure people lost in history But because they sought and found meaning in God creation human eXistence history morality justice suffering and Messianism they achieved a religious greatness that has not only sustained them though out their history but has also determined to a large degree the nature and values of western civilization as we know it today Rituals are important in two s2 1 Rituals ease the tension of 16 75 Rituals of introduction 7 Rites of passage Lifer C I 7 Birth Circumcisin s73 Puberty BarBat mitzvah is a rite of passage to adulthood and entering the community for girls and boys 73 Marriage betroth al and marriage contract 2 Death In Judaism of mnnrning aF rpr f hp nnpml helps us to grieve y our goodbyes to those Whom we loved LL 0 WING 0 LIFE als also intensify our joy ppiness 2 The ritual of the wedding intensi es married couple 539 2 The ritual of saying grace increase one s happinesv able to eat with those quot 0 even give one a sense of the sacredness of that moment 2 THE PRACTICE OF RITUAL IN JUDAISM IS BASED UPON THE IELIEF THAT ALL LIFE IS A REFLECTION OD jquot allowing life means seriVing all life as if it were 21 ref re ection of God seriety prepares the 7 a ioming of the Kingdom of God serverything will be redeemed and the holiness of God s creation will be clearlyquot seen 39 1 The key to piety is not just to practice the attitude that the Whle A of God s grace 2 2 Tradition means Piety I only become constant k 7 Attention to of r and history are inseparable 39 rig that holiness s2 3 The Torah is the manual for maintaining the sacredness of life 75 The Torah or Pentateueh the rst 5 books in the Hebrew Bible Old Testament 7 The Doctrine of the HQLIDA Y S 2 Sukkot 27 Pesah 27 Shavout 6 Hannukah szr Tisha b Ab J udaism s Textual Heritage gt Hebrew Bible Tanakh o Torah Law 1200 400 BCE NeVi im Prophets 800500 BCE 0 KetuVim Sacred Writings 1000300 BCE gt Torah 0 Who wrote the Torah Not Moses 0 Documentary Hypothesis 5 different authors gt Midrash 0 Halakhah legal explanation of the Law for correct conduct 0 Aggadhah explanation of the narrative passages of the ah like expository sermons rather than commentary J udaism s Textual Heritage gt The Mishna teaching in Hebrew 0 Collection of material from Midrash sources 39 Seeds Agricultural Laws Festivals Women marriage laws Damages Civil and criminal laws 39 Holy Things ritual Puri cations gt The Gemara to complete in Hebrew 0 Expansion and continuation of the Mishna amp J udaism s Textual Heritage gt The Talmud o Mishna Gemara Talmud o The Main text of Rabbinic Judaism Babylonian Talmud 5th Cen CE 39 Palestinian Jerusalem Talmud 4th Cen CE 0 The fence for the Torah O Comprised of Theological Elements Personal Morality and Social Ethics amp Theological Elements There is little concern in the Talmud with proofs for the existence of God or speculative metaphysics It is more practical talk about God and is of the analogical form but goes beyond this for God is personal the creator the King of the universe He is the source of morality of compassion and loving kindness towards His creatures He has revealed His will in the Torah and wants humankind to love Him freely He sees everything but freedom of choice is granted amp Personal Morality Personal morality is characterized in the Talmud by a liberal outlook and a humble spirit and a moderate appetite It stressed having goodwill towards all the hero is the one who converts an enemy into a friend Benevolence truthtelling moderation cleanliness the imitation of God are all key facets of Talmudic comportment amp Social Ethics The Talmud teaches the uniqueness and sanctity of human life He who destroys one person has dealt a blow at the entire universe and similarly he who makes life livable for one person has sustained the whole world Equality in sight of God The Talmud stressed fair trials all equal before God some rabbis wanted the abolition of capital punishment Social welfare and personal freedom democracy and family life education for all the nation and community are central elements of Talmud amp Copies of the Text Hebrew Bible gt Leningrad Codex Oldest copy of the Bible gt Septuagint 0 First copy of the Bible in Greek gt Qumran amp the Dead Sea Scrolls 0 Copy of the Bible missing only Esther amp R39EVFLATTON 0 What produced the insights into meaning that the Jew s achieved 0 These insights were revealed to the Jew s by God 0 Literally revelation means a disclosure lifting a veil Theologically revelation is the disclosure of the nature of God and God s Will for humankind Revelation was not primarily verbal I God s revelation was in His actions Bringingthe Jews out of bondage God revealed Himself in the Exodus What was the nature of God revealed in the Exodus t l Yahweh was supremely power al t 2 Yahweh was a God Qf goodness amp love 0 3 God was deeply involved in the lives of humans anEXodus human life was so npo ant that God took decisive action to change their condition Co rotlaties of the 3 D tSCIOSUfCS God is good thus hewants people to be good 0 God established the 10 Commandments 0 Suffering must be meaningful Since God has saved his people it proves he would not let them suffer for nothing By Suffering you atone for the sins of humanity There is alWays alight at the end of the tunnel 0 God made a covenant with the Jews on Mt Sinai 39 Covenant with Abraham Covenant Code 39 Davidie Covenant The Chosen People Why was this covenant made with the Jews The doctrine of the Chosen People seems to be religious chanvinism The Jews were not chosen however for privileges but to suffer serve and be an example for human kind r Doctrine of the Chosen People Chosen to serve and suffer God s trials Had to observe morals that were more demanding than others Jews chosen to suffer instead of a wider range of humanity What led the Jews to believe they were chosen Three stages of realization l The Jews were miraculously freed from oppression and became a free nation 2 They were shown that God was beyond the gods of the nations abound them Their standards of morality were higher than other nations 3 They survived over the course of3000 years Their survival is unique Still Chosen People Does credit go to the Jews or God 5 Jews have said their survival was from God thus being chosen is What made them special rToday Jews differ about the doctrine of being chosen which is also known as the doctrine of election Some believe that it was necessary to believe this in Biblical times but today it is not use Others believe that the chosen people will always be necessary to ful ll His commandments until the entire World is redeemed by God Rabbinic Judaism a 70 CE Romans destroy 2nd Temple El Rabbis teachers become the guiding light of Judaism Two Schools Hillel and Shammai a Judaism s focus shifts to Phariseic Tradition El Rabbis kept Judaism alive for 2000 years Rabbinic Judaism El DIASPORA COMMUNITY E Sephardic Jews The Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean Basin Muslim lands Ashkenazi Jews The region of the Rhine Germany Poland Russia Europe El Other communities I Yemen I Ethiopia I Persia Iran I Morocco r 39 i39Judaism in the 2 0th Century 1 39 i fJudaism calls for preserving the identity of the ews as a distinct people with a distinct history What constitutes Jewish Identity 0 Uniqueness or Cultural Pluralism 0 No doctrine no one thing makes a Jew 0 If Judaism is a circle divided up into pie shaped sections the more sections one has the more Jewish they are 0 Faith 0 Observance 0 Culture 0 Nation 39 Judaz39sm in the 2 0th Century One God Chosen People One history 2 Observance ritual and celebrations Great differences between different groups Emphasis the same make life sacred Reform Orthodox Conservative Mysticism Reform Judaism The principle of moral conscience that 3 4 quotquotunites humanity Torah Historical record of Israel s discovery of universal morality Revelation is a moral experience rather than a historic event Israel A people blessed With unique moral insight Bring holiness into life Life cycle moments Popular in USA Orthodox Judaism 77 Believing the laws given as security God is ethical being who trains humanity in the principles of virtue Torah An unchangeable record of divine revelation given to Moses at Mt Sinai Alahah all the commandments Israel Biblical story of Israel s closeness is af rmed in all respects There is a stress on Israel s mission to share its moral insights With the nonJewish nations 4 Above all TRADITION Haredi UltraOrthodox Conservative Judaism Takes an evolutionary approach to biblical Talmudic views of God and affirms the 0 Jewish concept of God continues to develop as Jewish moral sophistication increases Torah Torah is the record of Israel s growing awareness of what it means to live in relation to God Israel Israel is a historic civilization that links Jews together in a common community of faith Messiah Belief in a personal messiah and a Messianic Era are both common In Siddur they pray for a redemptor andor redemption from God 2 vastly different concepts Jewish Mysticism r A girl on God s human form Merkabah chariot Judaism Vision of Ezekiel 4 Central Aspects Kabbalah Judaism The Zohar Hasidism Baal Shem TOV quot Judaism in the 2 0th Century 39 A total way of life 3 elements 0 2 A language 0 3 An af nity for a land hope to return 4 Nationhood 0 State of Israel established in 1948 for 4 Reasons Security 6 Million Jews killed in the Holocaust Psychology Being a minority reinforced subservience and selfhatred Culture without Judaism as the dominant culture in a land it would die Utopian Society needed to construct a society that would be an example to all Return and Zionism r A girl theme IsraeliPalestinian Con ict Zionism Herzel and the Dreyfus Trial Political Religious AntiZionists Law of Return Epistemology Revelation D WRITTEN TORAH and ORAL TORAH TEXTUAL SOURCES Rabbbinic Judaism 39 Mishna 39 Talmud study of the Talmud replaces revelation D PROPHETS and PROPHECY 39 God s message to humankind U HISTORY GOD involved in the world Reason amp experience Messiah coming Ontology God Creator and Mover of the Universe U Personal Manlike anthropomorphic B One supreme will one plan B Moral wants humankind to be moral U Benevolent amp Just God s attributes Spiritual amp Physic realms Creation U Where God dwells star of David as a symbol B Good to be enjoyed a means of perfection U Where God s plan becomes manifest Anthropology Human beings have 5 traits U Frail limited physical beings like dust Mortal like the animals U Great a blend of the divine and dust 39 Created in the image of God can communicate With God U Sinful miss the mark can be misled U Free God gave us choice we need guidance U God s beloved children nourished in God s home God s chosen people The Covenant U Chosen to serve God U Be a model for all humankind Teleology Hallowing Life U make each moment sacred be pious Live the Tradition remember God s acts in history 39 Conserve the community do not loose your identity Remember the Covenant 39 Selfsacri ce amp service acts of loving kindness Be like God re ect God be moral and just Serve God U Atone for sin U Redeem humanity U Prepare the world for the Kingdom of God Be one Who cleaves to God Hasidism l l Methodology Study Torah amp its commentaries Follow the Law listen to the Rabbi Live the tradition protect your community U Practices amp ritual orthopraxy Prayer Festivals amp celebration remember who we are 0 Live an ethical moral life in community U Practice loving kindness to all creation U Practice patience and talk to God ii gi6IO gy Chart Islam 7 A o requot 39 E piste d source kmngad 0 AJJah JVJonothea c 0 JVJLJ39nammadJ r 9mm Qur am JVJraam t n 1 0 a am am Mwmmma is mm o 1 rquot G3 A 399 Ontolog y J S B LJJDMJEJ EQJV 0 Alla39rrcerrtarad reality 7 o Muslima behave in aw me my 0 T heel09 y What God ISAJJah Al ldmigh y Al a kmwuing Fgrg wmg unezmzawa grw Eil fquEmp A H 0 Cwmolggw WM a f mm Hm magnum Wmld dmrs ahy wh wwm mm u w 111mg 0 HJCQW WW w mg m I y mmm h O IT Arit riro hiuirrian being 0 Original Sin Figirgeib wiiinira5 Tendency its i grgia oui r39 mm whim igiii i 0 Orginaiiy irrigmigiir i ni ig i o Igjgf ppi g g wim miainma ig and 0 Mi iiiiiwi i i i Wiiigiim g iiiiiuigsiiimam Whig fan if Wiii T el 30 09V 14 mg purpose of fe 0 To serve to 0 To Jove others 0 Find Emmy ham 0 Um 11mm 1 CHRISTIANITY 1 An Introduction L World Signi cance Similarities to Judaism Size Monotheistic exoteric Hist0ry observant and mystical ecOmpleX y Distinctions from Diverse Manifestations JUdaism Lifestyle Differences M0n0thei5m beCOmGS more complex World In uence Perception of Time Jesus 1 o Little is known about the historical Jesus what we do know is that Born a Jew in Palestine gtk4 BCE Grew up in Nazarath Baptized by John the Baptist Taught in Galilee Was cruci ed at the age of 33 Jesus 4 General Characteristics 4 The Spirit World of About Jesus 1 Great charisma J 631133 Preached to poor amp Spirit World not women in separate from the earth publicfrowned upon superior to it 2 Similar to the Prophets of C0uld be accessed by JUdalsm humanity i oriented to both physical world and the spirit world 3 A channel for the Divine to humans and for humans to the Divine 4 Jesus acted for other neonle Maj or ThemesMessages The Kingdom of God Messianism The reality of the Kingdom would causes a reversal of the people s thinking Jesus sees himself in some capacity bringing the Kingdom 4 Relationship to God 4 Some believed Jesus saw himself as the son of God or even God only mentioned by Jesus in Gospel of John 4 Ethical Obligations Worst sin selfrighteousness Kindness and compassion highest virtues love is key Jesus amp the Spirit Realm P The Jews accepted that the spirit was superior to the natural world 4 The spiritfilled prophets could heal and work miracles P Scholars state that Jesus was a healer and exorcist 4 Jesus was extraordinary because he aspired to heal humanity The Sadducees Relatively welloff 4 Accepted the status quo 4 Other three groups wanted change and worked for it N 1Reactions to Roman Occupation L The Essenes 4 Believed society was too corrupt separated Lived communally ltl Held piously disciplined lives 4 Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls N 1Reactions to Roman Occupation L vThe Pharisees Stayed in society fl Renew it from within with passive resistance Held strict adherence to the Law l Seen as the religious representatives of the Jewish community The Zealots Favoured armed revolt Sought recruits from among the youth of the Jewish community Assassinated Sadducees 6670 CE Great Jewish Revolt l Led to 2nd Temple Destruction 1 Jesus Took a Fifth Way ltl Unlike the Sadducees he wanted change ltl Unlike the Essenes he worked within society with the people ltl Unlike the Zealots he advocated peace ltl Jesus was most like the Pharisees 4 Both accepted the compassion and holiness of YHWH s Where did they differ Jesus sought to break social barriers i The Christ of Faith PBased 0n the Disciples descriptions in the Gospels 4 What they saw him do 4 What they heard him say i Gigantesgue See the Beatitudes in Matthew 5 0r Luke 6 k The Teachings of Jesus a Jesus invited people to believe used down to earth images e His teachings challenged the paradigm of his society subversive ltgt Jesus focused on two facts God s absolute all inclusive love of humanity 4 People need to accept that love and give it 4 God s love in unconditional and not limited to the pious who follow the law a The Christ of Faith Wh0 the disciples felt Jesus was Jesus lived his teachings Jesus was so egoless that his disciples felt he seemed like God in the form of a man We have seen his glory full of grace and trut L The Good News Cruci xion only the beginning Jesus now on a new level of being 605196 translates as Good News 4 The triumph of the good of Jesus The sh symbol 4 Safe house of worship 4 Jesus Christ Son of God Savior 4 The teaching became even more paramount than the other teachings of Jesus PHow did this Good News affect the rst Christians The Early Community L Their faith had removed three burdens 4 The burden of fear especially death 4 The burden of guilt Jesus forgave them PThe burden of the ego Burdens removed because PUnconditionally loved by God 4 The strength of this love showed them Jesus was God incarnate L The Synoptic Gospels 4 The Synoptic Gospels Syn0ptic Greek for Viewing together Mark lti Luke Matthew The Synoptic Gospels have a shared perspective 4 The Gospel of John is a work of a different nature 4 The Question of Q Q Quell German source Luke and Matthew may have worked from different manuscripts of Q N 1 Mark L Earliest of the Gospels before gt39lt7O CE First and shortest the ministry of Jesus SemiChronological order nteraetion of 3 stories about Jesus 4 No mention of trinity ltPNO mention of the Virgin birth Theme lack of understanding Luke L 4 21 Oldest Gospel gt39lt7O CE Af rms Christianity as having Jewish roots for a Gentile audience More details than Mark on baptism amp ministry amp trial Birth of Jesus in Bethlehem Blessings of poverty dangers of wealth and the need for generosity and repentance 1 Matthew 5 3M Gospel written gt39lt80 CE Presupposes Messianic community Scriptural references to a Jewish audience Opens with the genealogy of Jesus as a descendant of King David More teaching material and 5 major discourses Many references to Prophecy N 1 John L Many differences Location exorcisms miracles kingdom of God 1 1 am Jesus as Son and God as Father Jesus as Logos incarnation of the divine Word Major theological treatise 4 No Virgin birth baptism temptation Movement away from Judaism For the law was given through Moses grace and truth came through Jesus Christ Other Gospels J John and the Synoptic Gospels were canonized around gt 367 CE Books that were not included in the New Testament s The Gospel of Thomas s The Gospel of Judas s The Gospel of Peter s The Gospel of Mary s The Gospel of The Nazareans L 1 The Mystical Body of Christ Jesus provided the Holy Spirit 4 Gave life to the Church 4 Christians Messiah Folk I am the Vine you are the branches Holy Spirit 3rd Person of Trinity 4 Paul s image of the Church Like the human body We Who are many are one body in Christ Romans 125 1 The Mystical Body of Christ L 4 For the early Christians the Church was the Mystical Body of Christ Christ was completing his mission through a new body the body of the Church What did the Mystical Body of Christ consist of 4 Christ was the head The Holy Spirit was the soul The individual Christians were its cells 4 Church Viewed in 2 ways perfect and fallible The Church ltl No salvation outside the Church Sorne Protestants have opened the gates for non Christians PChristians have opt for either The Visible Church The Invisible Church The Mind of the Church The foundations of Christian Theology lies in three doctrines The IncarnationJesus is fully human and fully God PAtonement The Trinity These three doctrines developed over several centuries into a series of creeds agreed upon over time at a series of ecumenical councils L L The Incarnation Means that Christ is God in human form 4 Became of cial dogma in 325 CE at the 1st Ecumenical Council of Nicea Christ is both truly God and truly human 4 Became of cial dogma of the Church in 451 CE a the 4th Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon 4 A result of the doctrine of Incarnation was that Christ was the link between God and humanity That Christ was Divine made his life fully normative an ideal to live up to Atonement Root meanin to g recover wholeness Gap between God and Man mostly closed 2 Understandings ltl To compensate for Adam s sin ltl To release humanity from the bondage of sin The Trinity L God is One and Three Distinct but identical Foundation in experiences of the Disciples 4 Believed in YHWH the Creator 4 Saw Jesus a YHWH s extension in the world 4 Came to believe in the Holy Spirit experience of Pentecost Creeds and Heresies The Apostles Creed 4 Sometimes titled the Symbol of the Apostles P Liturgical churches of the Western tradition 4 Traditionally diVided into 12 articles Gnosticism aka Christian mysticism 4 Spirit good Matter eVil Not everyone can fully understand J esus message Jesus was of pure spirit not a man 4 Opposed by the Apostle s Creed 1 Creeds and Heresies L Ebionism vJesus Christ is only a good man amp prophet not divine 4 The Arian Heresy 320 CE or The Trinitarian Controversy 4 Arius was an Egyptian priest eventually eXiled to Illyria vClaimed that Jesus was not of divine substance but a creation of God vBelieved in one indivisible God vDestroys the mediating function of the Logos vln uenced Christianity until the Middle Ages L Creeds and Heresies The Creed of Nicea Written at the Council of Nicea in 325 CE but corrected into its current form in 381 CE 4 Declared Arius and his followers heretics Declared that Christ the Son was cosubstantial sharing the same substance With God Arianisrn rernained continued to in uence Christianity until the Medieval period L Creeds and Heresies i The Creed of Chalcedon 451 CE Responded to continuing questions concerning the nature of Christ how could Christ be both God and human Declared the Jesus Christ is coessential with God and With man One and the same Christ in two natures Without division and Without separation Creeds and Heresies lt1gt Christological Doctrine 5th cen to today Three principal options The incarnate Christ could be 4 Two separate persons one divine one human 4 Nestoriana Middle East across Asia One person with a divine nature 4 Monophysites Ethiopia Egypt Syria and Armenia One person with both divine nature and a human nature 4 The Greek and Latin speaking churches 1 Timeline of Church History gt39lt36 CE Paul is converted on the road 313 CE Edict of Toleration gtquot325 CE Council of Nicea 381 CE of cial religion of Roman Empire gt39lt451 CE Council of Chalcedon 1054 CE Schism East and West 10951187 CE Crusades 16th Century Protestantism develops Paul J Born in Tarsus Roman Citizen status Vision of Jesus While on road to Damascus Apostle to the Gentiles Letters of Paul liturgy 2 main themes 4 Code of Conduct s Life in the spirit vs in the esh 1 Historical Outline 4 CATHOLICISM in 381 CE became Of cial religion of the Roman Empire EASTERN ORTHODOXY split with Rome in 1054 CE PROTESTANTISM 16th century with Martin Luther THE WORLD S RELIGIONS ATLAS 0F FAITHS BELIEVERS as percentage ol global population 20cc n5 asnas cs 130 Liliwrlieiimns ii 24AIJIeisis 35 Drillinn c r 1 39l E BELIEVERS BY 39 RELIGION A 4330 14 M u in millions am 50mm 2 9 w El 2 Maloniycgpopulatbn 7 7 V 7 JK gquot 40 comprise of I Jews 430 I Roman Catholics V Muslims I Protestants BUddMStS le39Y cl u f I Japanese Sliintoists Am ins ans ram I 1 various churches and BL mm 4200 m I Orthodox Christians cm I Churches of Eastem W Wis3mm I I Indigennusreligans 3 I Monmns I no lei lillal39lT religion an I l39usl39ms 39Sunnisl quot quotO39VBI39E39WS 39 l n i in I Muslims Shiites D Unpnpmmd V39 Buddhist v wwwmmum 203 J 0 ms 990 2m 2025 20331 F0 The Catholic Church of Rome Only representation of Christianity for 1000 years catholicos means universal Christendom Domain of Christianity 4 Teaching Authority preserves faith r Jesus teachings opened the door of salvation r Why wasn t the Bible enough 4 The Church is needed for correct interpretation The office of the Pope 4 Papal infallibility faith amp morals L k The Catholic Church of Rome Sacramental Agent channels of divine grace 4 Help us live lives above the average 7 Sacraments sacramentum Baptism 4 Con rmation r MarriageHoly Matrimony OrdinationHoly Orders lt1gt Sacrament of the Sick r Confession L The Catholic Church of Rome MassEucharist 4 Alternate names Central Feature reenactment of Christ s last supper ltI Differences in E0 and RC churches vs Protestant church Other features of a church service 1 The Catholic Church of Rome Features of a church 1 Mary in Roman Catholicism T heotokos bearer of God 4 Immaculate Conception 4 Mother of the Church Use of the rosary 4 Hail Mary prayer Visions of Mary France Ontario Croatia and Conyers Georgia The Eastern Orthodox Church 4 Maj or differences between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church s Extent of teaching authority s Means by which doctrines are reached s Emphasis on the church as the body of Christ 4 Resulting in a difference in administrationchurch hierarchy 4 Emphasis on mysticism 4 Art Architecture and Music Iconography 4 Is iconography idolatry L Sainthood J Origin of sainthood in Christianity Criteria to become a saint 4 Intercession 4 Saint Days 4 Imagery in the Middle Ages 4 Patronage 4 Roman Catholic and Anglican sainthood Reformation Era Protestant Reformation P Martin Luther 16th Century 4 Sale of indulgences and relies 95 Propositions of 1517 4 Redevelop the Christian understanding of sin and redemption 4 No need for confession Lutherans Anglicans and Calvinists Reformed Churches 4 Henry VIII and the Act of Supremacy 4 John Calvin and the Swiss Reformation P Puritanism 17th amp 18th Century 4 Baptists Quakers Methodists Revivalists Holiness Churches The Great Awakening Protestantism L 3M major branch of Christianity Enduring themes that set Protestants apart Justi cation by faith The Protestant Principle 4 Protestant vs Roman CatholicEastern Orthodox worship Status of Clergy Sacramental rituals in Protestantism Mass Unique methodology in Holiness Churches charismatic Christians E t l 1 p1s emo ogy Textual Sources Earlier Scriptures Hebrew Bible incorporated as Old Testament Synoptic Gospels John Writings and Letters of Paul Noncanonical Gospels Thomas Jesus as the Logos The teachings of Jesus parables acts Disciples What they saw heard and felt Church as Teaching Authority Catholic Pope infallible amp Church representatives priests Creeds of the church nature of Christ 1 Epistemology continued Personal faith Protestantism Justi cation by faith PReason Experience 4 Intuition Saints and Holy men and women Orthodox PCultivated intuition Plllumination of the heart by God 4 Icons as Windows onto Heaven Ontology God is ultimate reality Protestant Principle do not make the relative absolute only God is real Theology God is One and Three Father Son and Holy Spirit Triune Godthe Trinity Cosmology l Matter and Spirit mediated by the Logos The natural amp the supernatural worlds l Good and Evil Gnostics Eschatology Heaven Kingdom of God This world and the Hereafter The second coming of Christ Hudgment Day 1 Anthropology Humans made in the image of God Concept of original sin Beings in need of restoration out of balance With being God s beloved children Branches of the Church Visibleinvisible Members of the Mystical Body of Christ Servants of God and Jesus P Faculties of Cons010usness 4 Minds ltigtUnderstanding scripture Luke 2445 Hearts lti Can be pure and aware of God Matt 58 4 Souls ltPLove of God in varying degrees Matt 2237 can be restful sorrowful and destroyed in Hell or not 4 Flesh ie physical senses ltl Tends to be weak and succumb to temptation Psychology States of Consc10usness 4 Fear lti Especially of death Guilt ltl For sinning for not living up to Christian ideals 4 Egotism lti Being focused on self love 4 Love ltigtFaith in Christ s unconditional love relieves them of the first three burdensome states Teleology J Justify one s faith in God personally Becorne one with God theosis Orthodox Accept Christ as Savior 4 Achieve salvation through Jesus 4 Serve one s sisters and brothers 4 Be like Jesus Participate in the Body of Jesus the Church 4 Know the Truth of God intimately Gnostics L Methodology Study the Bible Attend Church Spread the Good News Accept Church doctrine Catholic amp Orthodox Participate in the 7 Sacraments Catholic Justify yourself through faith 4 Follow Christ s and his disciples example 4 Serve the poor and marginalized 4 Love everyone unconditionally
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