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by: Quentin Kiehn


Quentin Kiehn
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quentin Kiehn on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INTL 3300 at University of Georgia taught by Freeman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/202120/intl-3300-university-of-georgia in International Affairs at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
INTL 3300 Study guide for nal exam Review session Tuesday May 3 600700 PM MLC room 207 Key readings and videos for which youwill be responsible Chapters 89 from the O Neil text Marx amp Engels The Communist Manifesto Cold War The Wall Comes Down Stiglitz Who Lost Russia Lewellen Modernization amp Dependency PowerPoint slides for which you will be responsible o Marxism o Communism in Practice Concepts and people to be familiar with o Communism 0 Shock therapy 0 Marxism o Hegel 0 Mode of production 0 Karl Marx 0 Relations of production 0 Lenin 0 Labor theory of value 0 Stalin o Necessary labor time o Nikita Khrushchev o Surplus labor time o Leonid Brezhnev o Surplus value 0 Mao Zedong 0 Base 0 Deng Xiaoping o Superstructure o Mikhail Gorbachev 0 False consciousness o Erich Honecker o Dialectical idealism 0 Less developed countries LDCs o Dialetical materialism o Newly industrializing countries 0 Proletariat NICs o Bourgeoisie 0 Asian tigers o Petit bourgeoisie 0 Taiwan 0 Lumpenproletariat 0 South Korea 0 Dictatorship of the proletariat 0 Singapore 0 Vanguard of the proletariat 0 Hong Kong 0 Nomenklatura 0 Imperialism o Politburo o Colonialism 0 Central committee 0 Neocolonialism 0 Central planning 0 Microcredit micro nance o Glasnost 0 Modernization paradigm o Perestroika 0 W W Rostow o Marketization o The Stages of Economic Growth 0 Privatization 0 Traditional society o Preconditions for takeoff o Semiperiphery o Takeoff 0 Import substitution industrialization 0 Drive to maturity 131 0 Age of mass consumption 0 WaShingtOIl COIlsenSllS o Dependency paradigm 0 Neoliberalism 0 Core 0 Exportoriented industrialization o Periphery 0 Structural adjustment 0 Worldsystems theory 0 Immanuel Wallerstein Questions to consider Marxism o What is the distinction between socialism and communism in Marxist theory 0 0 Where do the pro ts of capitalists come from according to Marxism o Surplus labor 7 exploitatin of the proletariat 0 Be able to distinguish between instrumental and structural Marxist perspectives on the state According to each perspective what is the role of the state in relation to the capitalist system and how autonomous is the state 0 Instrumental state is the Exec Which is run by ruling class which is cohesive o The state is an instrument of those in power 0 Policies serve the interest of the dominant class 0 Structural AKA neomarxism o the state is relatively independentautonomous and should maintain the cohesion of the capitalist system Carrying out this task may at times require the state to take actions which certain segments of the bourgeoisie oppose EX The Keynesian social democratic welfare state The ruling class does not rule Communism in Practice 0 What was the anarchist critique of Marxism communism as expressed by Bakunin the theory of Marx recommends to the workers as the immediate aim the founding of a people s state which as they explain it will be nothing other than the proletariat organized as the ruling class The question arises if the proletariat is ruling over whom will it rule According to the theory of Mr Marx the people not only must not destroy the state but must strengthen it amp place it at the complete disposal of their benefactors guardians amp teachersithe leaders of the Communist party namely Mr Marx amp his friends who will proceed to liberate mankind in their own way And they ll start looking down on all ordinary workers from the heights of the state they will now represent not the people but themselves amp their claims to govern the people 0 In what ways did the realworld implementation of communism depart from both communist ideals eg perfect equality and Marxist theory It was put in place in largely feudalistic developing countries not developed capitalist ones What kinds of problems were inherent in communist political economy Corruption not enough goods scarcity lack of incentive gt lack of innovation Modernization vs Dependency What are the causes of underdevelopment What kinds of obstacles or problems do LDCs face in their efforts to develop What kinds of factors do different theorists emphasize Are these factors internal modernization or external world system dependency What kinds of solutions or strategies do different theorists offer for achieving development Be familiar with the basic characteristics of Rostow s five stages of economic growth How are dependency theory and worldsystems theory similar How do they differ Communism a political economic system in which all wealth and property are shared so as to eliminate exploitation opression and ultimately the need for political institutions such as the state and ideology that advocates this system Marxism Begins with the observation that humans are capable of creating objects of value by investing their time amp labor in the production of such itemsThis capacity to manipulate nature is what distinguishes humans from animals Mode of production fuedalism capitalism socialismMarx The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social political and intellectual life technology is the mans of production When the mode of production changes the superstructure may remain intact for a time creating a contradiction Eg when the mode of production changed from feudalism to capitalism the superstructure of absolutism did not immediately change Relations of production class relations part of the base Labor theory of value It is this surplus labor time which allows the factory owner to accumulate capital in the form of profit Necessary labor time work time required to cover ones wages Surplus labor time Each worker is producing 700 worth of toasters 7 hours x 10 toasters 70 toasters x 10 700 But is not getting paid for it This is what Marxists refer to as surplus labor time or surplus value Surplus value profit Base economic mode of production technology and class relations Superstructure politics ideology culture religion are determined by the base False consciousness Dialectical idealism Marx s perspective on history was heavily in uenced by Hegel who adopted a dialectical view of history Dialetical materialism Marx argued that historical progress was ultimately the product of technological change amp class struggle These struggles are the results of shifts from one mode of economic production to another Proletariat wage laborers Bourgeoisie own and control the mans of produciton Make money from investments not labor Petit bourgeoisie upper middle class doctors lawyers small business owners teachers Lumpenproletariat bottom of society unproductive criminals homeless etc Dictatorship of the proletariat Vanguard of the proletariat Nomenklatura politically sensitive or in uential jobs in the state society or economy Key administrative amp executive positions Staffed by people chosen or approved by the Communist party An example of clientelism Politburo The top policy making exec of the communist party Central committee the legislaturelike body of a communist party Central planning a communist economic system in which the state allocates resources by choosing p amp q as well as distribution Glasnost openness the policy of political liberalization implemented in the USSR in the late 1980 s Gorbachev thought it would keep the Baltic nations loyal to Russia Perestroika restructuring the policy of political and economic liberalization implemented in the USSR in the late 1980s Marketization the creation of the market forces of supply and demand in a country Privatization the transfer of state owned property to private ownership Shock therapya process of rapid marketization Hegel Hegel believed historical progress resulted from the struggle of ideas Dialectical idealism Karl Marx German philosopher political economist amp socialist revolutionary The CommunistManifesto 1848 Das Kapz39tal 1867 Perhaps no other thinker from the 19th or 20th centuries has had as profound and lasting an impact on world history Lenin 22 April 1870 7 21 January 1924 was a Russian revolutionary author lawyer economic theorist political philosopher creator of the Soviet Communist Party leader of the 1917 October Revolution and founder of the USSR As head of theBolsheviks 191771924 he led the Red Army to victory in the Russian Civil War before establishing the world s first officially socialist state As a theorist his extensive theoretical and philosophical contributions to Marxism produced Leninism Stalin 18 December 18781 7 5 March 1953 was a Georgian bom Soviet politician and Bolshevik revolutionary who held the position of rst General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union39sCentral Committee from 1922 post Lenin until his death in 1953 After Vladimir Lenin s death in 1924 Stalin managed to consolidate more and more power in his hands gradually putting down all opposition groups within the party This included Leon Trotsky the Red Army organizer proponent of world revolution and principal critic of Stalin among the early Soviet leaders who was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929 Instead Stalin39s idea of socialism in one country became the primary line of the Soviet politics Central planning 5yr plans Nikita Khrushchev April 15 1894 7 September 11 1971 led theSoviet Union during part of the Cold War He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 Khrushchev was responsible for the partial deStalinization of the Soviet Union for backing the progress of the early Soviet space program and for several relatively liberal reforms in areas of domestic policy Khrushchev39s party colleagues removed him from power in 1964 replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier Leonid Brezhnev was the General Secretary of the Central Committee CC of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union CPSU presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982 His eighteenyear term as General Secretary was one of the lengthiest second only to that of Joseph Stalin During Brezhnev s rule the global in uence of the Soviet Union grew dramatically in part because of the expansion of the Soviet military during this time but his tenure as leader has often been criticized for marking the beginning of a period of economic stagnation overlooking serious economic problems which eventually led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 Mao Zedong was a Chinese revolutionary guerrilla warfare strategist poet political theorist and leader of the Chinese Revolution He was the architect and founding father of the People s Republic of China PRC from its establishment in 1949 and held authoritarian control over the nation until his death in 1976 His theoretical contribution to MarxismLeninism along with his military strategies and brand of political policies are now collectively known as Maoism Deng Xiaoping post Ma0was a Chinese politician statesman theorist military leader and diplomat As leader of the Communist Party of China Deng was a reformer who led China towards a market economy While Deng never held office as the head of state head of government or General Secretary of the Communist Party of China historically the highest position in Communist China he nonetheless served as the Paramount leader of the People39s Republic of China from 1978 to 1992 Mikhail Gorbachev leader of the USSR until collapse in 1991 Gorbachev s attempts at reform as well as summit conferences with United States President Ronald Reagan and his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the Cold War ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCPSU and led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 Erich Honecker German communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic from 1971 until 1989 Serving as Head of State as well from Willi Stoph s relinquishment of the post in 1976 Honecker was ousted by the party in late 1989 and after the German reuni cation successfully evaded prosecution for widespread human rightsabuses nally settling down in Chile in 1993 where he died in exile Less developed countries LDCs a country which according to the United Nations exhibits the lowest 39 J39 of 39 39 J 39 l with the lowest Human Development Indexratings of all countries in the world Newly industrializing countries NICs are countries whose economies have not yet reached First World status but have in a macroeconomic sense outpaced their developing counterparts Another characterization of NICs is that of nations undergoing rapid economic growth usually exportoriented Asian tigers Hong KongSingapore South Korea and Taiwan rose to global prominence as NICs in the 1970s and 80s with exceptionally fast industrial growth since the 1960s all four regions have since graduated into advanced economies and highincome economies Taiwan South Korea Singapore Hong Kong Imperialism a system in which a state extends its power to directly control territory resources and people beyond its borders Colonialism an imperialist of physically occupying a foreign territory using military force business or settlers Neocolonialism An indirect form of imperialism in which powerful countries overly in uence the economies of less developed nations Microcredit micro nance a system in which small loans are channeled to the poor through borrowing groups whose members jointly take responsibility for repayment Modernization paradigmasserts that as societies develop they take on a set of common characteristics including democracy and capitalism W W Rostow United States economist and political theorist who had a prominent role in the shaping ofUS foreign policy in Southeast Asia during the 1960s he was a staunch anticommunist and was noted for a belief in the ef cacy of capitalism and free enterprise He strongly supported US involvement in the Vietnam War He wrote extensively in defense of free enterprise economics particularly in developing nations Wrote a book The Stages of Economic Growth A non communist manifesto 1960 which was used in several elds of social sciences The Stages of Economic Growth Traditional society societies which have prescienti c understandings of gadgets agriculture is predominant and society has a hierarchical structure The norms of economic growth are completely absent from these societies The society has a low ceiling on per capita output because of the backwardness of the technology Preconditions for take off the society begins committing itselfto secular education that it enables a degree of capital mobilization especially through the establishment of banks and currency that an entrepreneurial class forms and that the secular concept of manufacturing develops with only a few sectors developing at this point This leads to a takeoff in ten to fty years At this stage there is a limited production function and therefore a limited output Take off when sector led growth becomes common and society is driven more by economic processes than traditions At this point the norms of economic growth are well established After takeoff a country will take as long as frfty to one hundred years to reach maturity Globally this stage occurred during the Industrial Revolution Drive to maturity the need for the economy itself to diversify The sectors of the economy which lead initially begin to level off while other sectors begin to take off This diversity leads to greatly reduced rates of poverty and rising standards of living as the society no longer needs to sacrifice its comfort in order to strengthen certain sectors Age of mass consumption the period of contemporary comfort afforded many western nations wherein consumers concentrate on durable goods and hardly remember the subsistence concerns of previous stages Dependency paradigm propose that the poverty and backwardness of poor countries are caused by their peripheral position in the international division of labor Since the capitalist world system evolved the distinction among the central and the peripheral nations Core are the industrialized capitalist countries on which periphery countries and semiperiphery countries depend Core countries control and benefit from the global market They are usually recognized as wealthy nations with a wide variety of resources and are in a favorable location compared to other states They have strong state institutions a powerful military and powerful global political alliances Periphery are those that are less developed than the semiperiphery and core countries These countries usually receive a disproportionately small share of global wealth They have weak state institutions and are dependent on 7 according to some exploited by 7 more developed countries These countries are usually behind because of obstacles such as lack of technology unstable government and poor education and health systems The periphery countries are crucial to this theory because they are how the core countries remain in power World systems theory stresses that worldsystems and not nation states should be the basic unit of social analysisWorldsystem refers to the international division of labor which divides the world into core countries semiperiphery countries and theperiphery countries Core countries focus on higher skill capitalintensive production and the rest of the world focuses on lowskill laborintensive production and extraction of raw materials This constantly reinforces the dominance of the core countriesNonetheless the system is dynamic and individual states can gain or lose the core semiperiphery periphery status over time For a time some countries become the world hegemon throughout last few centuries this status has passed from theNetherlands to the United Kingdom and most recently the United States


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