INTRO TO COMP POL
INTRO TO COMP POL INTL 3300
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Midterm Notes 0 Political Science Social science concerned with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior Deal with the following questions 39 Who makes political decisions 39 Which decisions are made 0 Subfields of Political Science American Politics Public Policy Public Administration Positive Political Theory Normative Political Theory Methodology International Relations Comparative Politics 0 Comparative Politics Includes three different traditions Studies of single and multiple countries Description of political systems institutions and processes ofa specific country Methodological tradition Establishing rules and standards for comparative analysis Analytical tradition Combination of empirical substance and method Testing of hypotheses in order to find generalizations This is where we are today 0 Substance What is compared 39 Political systems nation state federalstates communities Regimes democratic and authoritarian Institutions parliaments electoral laws courts Actors parties trade unions social movements Processes political communication culture behavior 39 Policies types as well as their impact 0 Method Deals with both substance and method The comparative method is also known as Mill39s Methods 39 John Stuart Mill A System of Logic 1843 Method of Agreement 7 When the cases agree on the phenomenon to be explained 39 If two or more instances of the phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in common the Country Democracy Wealth Ethnically hom Multiparty system Parliamentary system UK Y Y Y N Y Edgium Y Y N Y Y Us Y Y N N N 39 Now wealth seems to be a necessary cause being a parliamentary system does not Method of Difference 7 When the cases differ on the phenomenon to be explained 39 Is wealth a suf cient cause for democracy To evaluate this claim with the Method of Difference we need to find a case of nondemocracy 39 Say we observed Mexico prior to 1990 and the US Country Democracy Wealth Ethnically hom Multiparty system Parliamentary system Us Y Y Y N N Mexico prior 1990 N Y Y N N o o o o o o Critique of Mill s Methods 39 Assume deterministic causes One that always leads to the speci c outcome 0 Problem You can reject a cause after one counterexample if you assume determinism like we did when we observed prel990 Mexico gt Instead should you think probabilistically Assumes one caus e 0 Problem It is hard to think of many cases where political phenomena have only one cause Assume we have identi ed all possible causes and have observed all cases 0 Problem It is unlikely that we have observed all cases and variables gt We can only take a sample of date from the world The State Refers to large political units which rst developed in the modern West Most fundamental components of a state are Monopoly of legitimate violence Only the state has the right to exercise violence Territoriality Aprecisely delimited area of monopolistic power Sovereignty The state recognizes no power superior to itself The people The political community of a state is called a nation The concept of nation state applies to many of the world s countries 39 But many countries have multiple nations Being part of a nation implies common political aspirations Nationalism is a strong motivator think war 39 Can you have a strong state if it consists of more than one nation 0 The State of Nature 0 o Humans were originally in a state of nature 39 Hobbes described life in the state of nature as a war of every man against every man in which life was solitary poor nasty brutish and short People in the state of nature face a dilemma Every individual could gain by attacking his neighbor in a moment of vulnerability Hobbes s solution to the state of nature was to create a sovereign with suf cient control of force that individuals would stand in awe He believed that the state of nature was so bad that individuals would be willing to transfer power to the state in exchange for protection This would be achieved with the help of a social contract 0 Implicit agreement among individuals in the state of nature to create and empower the state In doing so it outlines the rights and responsibilities of the state and citizens in regard to each other o o 0 Should produce a sovereign that is strong enough to dole out punishments to individuals who steal and kill State Formation 39 So individuals at some point were willing to give up personal liberties and pay taxes to be removed from the state of nature 39 Much ofthis took place in the 12Lh 17111 centuries 39 State formed centralized systems nanced with taxation 39 From the middle of the 19111 century through the present state have become more powerful o Bureaucracies have a tendency to grow 0 People now demand more than protection Failed States 39 But not everyone is willing to concede liberty to the state 39 Remember states need to use the threat of force to organize public life 39 State that cannot coerce are often described as failed states 0 The Rise of Democracy 0 o o 0 Before the late 1970s less than one third of all independent states were democratic 1974 275 Today the majority of states are democratic 2011 about 63 Democracy in a Historical Perspective 39 Demokratia normally gets translated as rule by the people but without distinguishing who the people are 39 Demos common people 0 These were people with little or no economic independence no education and no knowledge of politics 0 Most great thinkers saw democracy as a bad form of government 39 The framers of the US Constitution were skeptical of direct rule by the people 0 As such we are governed by representative instead of ourselves 39 Nearly every country practices representative democracy instead of dire demokratia o Developed in Roman Empire 0 Representative democracy protects from the tyranny of the majority What Defines Democracy Procedural definitions 0 Focus on the institutional organization of the country 0 This means elections are contested and that all people are included 0 Procedural definitions are unconcerned with outcomes 0 If the people freely elect a single party to all seats it is still democracy Substantive definitions 0 Focus on outcomes There is only democracy if there are political freedoms a free press economic justice etc 0 Presidential vs Parliamentary Democracies 39 Parliamentarism 0 There is a division between the head of government and the head of state Head of government prime minister Head of state ceremonial position 0 The prime minister is not directly elected but is chosen by the party that wins the most seats The prime minister can be dismissed at any time even without an election Elections are not necessarily scheduled Presidentialism o The president is the head of state and the head of government 0 The president is elected for a fixed term and does not need a majority in the legislature to stay in power 0 The president can be of a di erent party than the majority in the legislature meaning there can be clashes over legislature Classifying Democracies Read more in book 0 Lijphart classifies democracies as majoritarian or consensus Majoritarian democracies create political majorities that can govern without obstruction Consensus democracies encourage decisionmaking through conversation and compromise Audience Democracy 0 We can also classify democracies based on the behavior and attitudes of the people Turnout Satisfaction Nondemocratic Regimes o o 0 Introduction 39 We generally use the term authoritarian regime to refer to all nondemocratic political systems 39 However note that nondemocratic regimes show a huge diversity of characteristics Define 39 A small group of individuals control the state 39 Government does not have to answer to the public 39 The public has little or no role in selecting leaders 39 Individual freedom is restricted Personal Rule 39 Monarchs or dictators o The state and society are seen as possessions ofthe leader 0 Monarchies remain in the Middle East Saudi Arabia Jordan 0 Many dictatorships remain in Africa o o o o o 0 Libya Zimbabwe Tunisia 0 Sometimes personal rule has a religious element Theocracy or rule by god 39 Iran39s Ayatollah Military Rule 39 Usually comes about through a coup d etat in which the military takes the government by force 0 Myanmar present 0 Chile under Pinochet 19731989 One Party Rule 39 A single party monpolizes politics 0 Other parties are banned from power 0 Supporters of the party are often granted privileges denied to the public at large 0 Examples Cuba North Korea China Vietnam Laos 39 All controlled by a single communist party 0 0 Iraq 39 Saddam Hussein39s Baathist party 0 Mexico Nicaragua and Bolivia in the decades after WWII Coercion and Surveillance 39 r quot39 39 J39 39J 39 into quot by threatening harm 0 Loss of ajob o Arrest and detention o Torture and death Cooptation 39 Making individuals dependent on the regime o All services statesponsored Buying a car going to school getting ajob Personality Cults 39 Using an emotional appeal to legitimize rule 0 Ayatollah Khamenei in Iran is seen as a conduit of god 0 Hugo Chavez in Venezuela spends hours on TV addressing the nation each week 0 Kim Jong II is a self styled Dear Leader Totalitarianism 39 The most extreme type of nondemocratic rule Everything in the state nothing outside the state Mussolini Totalitarian regimes aim to control every aspect of a country including ideology 0 Violence often becomes necessary There are actually relatively few examples of totalitarian rule 0 Hitler Mussolini and Stalin Legislatures o o o o o o o 0 Intro 39 A body in which national politics is considered and debated 39 Serve the following functions 0 Policymaking o Representing the people 0 Oversight and debating Policymaking Powers 39 Introduction of new legislation 0 Most important 39 Delay of legislation 39 Veto of legislation 0 In some countries the legislature can veto legislation of the president Unicameralism and Bicameralism 39 Bicameralism two houses 0 Historically two chambers existed of serve the interests of di erent economic classes House of Lords House of Commons in England 0 The upper house also places an additional check on legislation 0 In federal countries the upper house often represents the interests of subunits 39 Unicameralism one house 0 Common in smaller countries 0 Nebraska The Number of Houses and Policymaking 39 Under bicameralism policymaking is slower o This is especially true where the upper chamber is quite powerful US Colubia Switzerland Party Discipline and Policymaking Party discipline is the ability of a party to get its members to support the policies of the party leadership 0 Where discipline is high passing legislation is easier 0 There are very few mavericks 39 In some countries the party leadership determines who can run for office Representation 39 How should legislators represent the people 0 Delegates v Trustees Representative as a Delegate 39 Delegates merely communicate the wishes of their constituents in government 0 Hobbes preferred the instructed delegate vision of representation so as to constrain the vanity of elected officials Representative as a Trustee 39 Trustees are accountable guardians who use their intellect and reasoning skills to make the decisions best for their constituents without necessarily considering their wishes o Burke thought the representative should not have to sacri ce his unbiased opinion his mature judgment and his enlightened conscience to constituents 0 Madison reasoned that representatives deliberate to reach the common good which is more productive than simply re ecting the will of the people Oversight 39 General Oversight o The legislature can conduct inquiries and form investigative committees 0 Examples from the US Intelligence leading up to the Iraq War 39 Oversight of the Executive 0 In presidential systems the legislature can impeach the executive o In parliamentary systems the legislature can dismiss the executive with a vote of no confidence Debating 39 Debate brings a diversity of opinions into the policymaking process 0 Debate can affect and inform public opinion 0 Debate can promote compromise Question Time 39 In parliamentary systems the prime minister is called upon roughly weekly to defend his or her policies and actions 0 This can be very informative to the public Governments and Bureaucracies Government the country39s central political executive 39 Not how we use the term in daytoday talk Bureaucracy 39 The group of people who help the government achieve its goal Governments in Presidential Systems 39 The government is the executive branch 39 The president is the chief executive o The president appoints cabinet members the highest ranking government of cials usually with legislative consent 0 Cabinet members are not elected officials For example Secretary of State Secretary of Agriculture Secretary of the Treasury Governments in Parliamentary Systems 39 The government is the prime minister and the cabinet 39 The prime minister is the chief executive o The prime minister appoints cabinet members the highest ranking government of cials 0 These individuals are members of the legislature They must be elected before joining the cabinet For example the foreign minister equivalent of Secretary of State is also a member of parliament o Partisan Composition of Government 39 In parliamentary systems there may be a o Singleparty majority government 0 Coalition government 0 Minority government 0 Type of Government and Survival 39 Remember the government can be dissolved at any time in parliamentary systems triggering new elections 0 The length of time a government survives is dependent on its composition 0 Singleparty majority governments live the longest o Minority governments die quickly 0 How it works 39 Bureaucracies are agencies of nonelected people that implement the wishes of elected lawmakers o For example the US Department of Agriculture a bureau of the government implements food safety regulations 39 The relationship between the government and the bureaucracy can be thought of as a principalagent relationship 0 In such a relationship the boss principal wants something done and the employee agent actually does the work 0 Shirking and Sabotage 39 Bureaucrats may shirk their duties or diverge from directions given by politicians o LeisureShirking Simply not working as much as expected 0 DissentShirking Not working because of a disagreement with the policy to be implemented 0 Political Sabotage Producing policy at odds with the directive 0 Monitoring the Bureaucracy 39 Police patrol oversight Elected officials continuously and systematically monitor the bureaucracy to assure that it acts in A with J quot quotJ J J wishes o Costly and timeconsuming 39 Fire alarm oversight Only kicks in when an alarm is raised Something Defining Constitution 39 Provides a formal source of state authority 0 Constitutions establish the structure procedures powers and duties of governmental institutions Many constitutions also contain a list of guaranteed rights Legislative Supremacy Constitutions 39 These constitutions recognize that legislatures can do no legal wrong having derived o o o o legitimacy through popular election 39 They are unentrenched constitutions which can be modi ed with a simple legislative majority just like any other law 39 Enacted laws can be replaced only with new laws not judicially 39 There is no formal bill of rights which would constrain legislative authority 39 Examples United Kingdom New Zealand French Third 18751940 and Fourth 19461958 Republics Higher Law Constitutions 39 These constitutions start from the premise that the state can do legal wrong 39 They are entrenched constitutions which can only be modi ed through a special amendment procedure 0 This procedure varies from country to country 39 There is a bill of rights which places constraints on the legislature 39 They establish a constitutional review mechanism which gives an institution the authority to invalidate legislation or other act of government deemed to violate constitutional rules 0 When constitutional review is conducted by judges it is called judicial review Bill of Rights Around the World In India and Canada there is a constitutional right to protect one39s language 0 Both have multilingual societies South Africa s Bill of Rights is long and speci c giving the right to food housing education and even reproductive rights The US has the right to bear arms These varying rights re ect the speci c needs and circumstances of a country Most of the rights enumerated in the US Bill of Rights are common throughout the world Judicial Review or Constitutional Review 39 Some countries have constitutional courts that exist solely to conduct constitutional review 0 Common in Europe and Africa 39 In others more than one court has the ability to invalidate legislation 0 Common in the Caribbean many Asian countries Examples of Judicial Review 39 1992 Aboriginals were given broad rights in Australia Mabo v Queensland 0 The High Court in Australia found that an act of the Queensland government was invalid Ultimately the court rejected the doctrine of terra nullius that Australia belonged to no one when the British arrived The court recognized native title that indigenous people have rights to their land that exist after colonialism 39 2008 transsexuals were given equal marriage rights in Germany 0 Germany s Federal Constitutional Court declared the country39s Transsexual Law unconstitutional 0 Issued a ruling that effectively allowed transsexuals to marry Gay marriage not recognized Judicial Politics 39 We ve seen that in many countries judges have immense power 39 It is argued that judges like politicians are always seeking to promoted their power and policy goals 39 Moreover political affiliations and ideology affect a judge s decisions and power Strategic Defection in Argentina 39 Supreme Court justices tend to rule in favor of the government as long as it is solidly entrenched in power Granting Cert in the US 39 Scholars have shown that Supreme Court justices in the US are more likely to agree to hear a case if they believe it will serve them ideologically 0 That is they will hear cases that will potentially move the status quo in a favored direction Political Affiliation and In uence in Australia 39 Those appointed by the Liberal Party tend to have more in uence over the life of their career 39 Those appointed by the Labor Party are less in uential 39 So the party that appoints a judge affects his or her overall impact on the law Elections Elections AnOverview 39 Virtually every independent country in the world held elections at one time or another 0 Only 6 countries had not held legislative or presidential elections by 2007 0 Bhutan Brunei China Eritrea Qatar and Saudi Arabia 39 Why would dictatorships hold elections To give a sense of legitimacy and to keep uprisings down Electoral Systems 39 How votes are translated into seats in a given country 39 They affect who wins what party wins representation policymaking the economy etc 39 There are three main categories of electoral systems 0 Maj oritarian o Proportional 0 Mixed Majoritarian Electoral Systems 39 The candidates or parties that receive the most votes win 0 We will talk about firstpastthepost the alternative vote and tworound systems FirstPastthePost 39 Individuals cast a single vote for a candidate in a single member district The candidate o o o o o with the most votes wins Examples United Kingdom United States India Canada Nigeria Zambia 0 Common All have British heritage Imagine a situation where there are four competing parties in a country with 100 districts Parties AD o If the vote breakdown is 28 for Party A and 24 for the remaining three parties in each district what will the distribution of seats in the legislature be Party A would receive 100 ofthe seats with only 28 ofthe vote The Alternative Vote 39 Individuals are required to rank the competing parties or candidates on their ballots 0 Votes are transferred until one party has a majority of votes Australia Fiji Papua New Guinea UK 2011 Referendum From FirstPastthePost system to Alternative Vote Two Round Systems 39 Candidates or parties are automatically elected in the rst round if they obtain a speci ed level of votes typically an absolute majority o If no candidate wins this level of votes then a second round of elections takes place 0 The candidate that wins the most votes in the second round is elected France Costa Rica Athens GA Proportional Electoral Systems Often referred to as proportional representation The rationale behind PR systems is to produce a proportional translation of votes into seats 0 There are many different electoral formulas used to allocate seats Most proportional electoral systems use party lists 0 These can be open or closed 0 If a party wins n seats in a given district the top n candidates from its list gets seats in the legislature OpenList vs Closed List PR In a closed party list the order of candidates elected is determined by the party itself and voters are not able to express a preference for a particular candidate 0 Aparty leadership controls the order of candidates 0 How will this affect party discipline It will be high 0 Examples Argentina Nicaragua S outh Africa In an open party list voters can indicate not just their preferred party but also their favored candidate within that party 0 Those with the most preferences get moved to the top 0 How will this affect party discipline Lower 0 Brazil Electoral Thresholds 39 Many proportional systems have a formal electoral threshold that stipulates the minimum percentage of votes that a party must win to gain representation When the electoral threshold is high electoral systems proportionality is lower Mixed Electoral Systems Voters elect representatives through two di erent systems one majoritarian and one proportional Some legislators win their seats through the maj oritarian component and some are selected from party lists in the proportional component 0 Germany New Zealand Mexico 0 Referendums Overview A referendum takes place when the public votes on a certain issue Referendums get closer to rule by the people 0 Direct democracy instead of representative democracy Highly used in Switzerland Italy and Liechtenstein Never used in the US at the national level 0 Used in California and other states Arguments For and Against Referendums For 0 People are more directly involved in decision making 0 A decision made by the people has more legitimacy than one made by political elites o Referendums inform the electorate by stimulating debate Against 0 Elected officials are experts we should leave public policy to them 0 Tyranny of the majority 0 Something What is federalism Significant powers such as taxation lawmaking and security are devolved to regional bodies Federal states can be contrasted with unitary states which invest most power at the national level with limited local autonomy Incongruent and Congruent Federalism Congruent federalism exists when the territorial units of a federal state share a similar demographic makeup with one another 0 US or Brazil Incongruent federalism exists when the demographic makeup of territorial units di ers among the units 0 Switzerland Belgium Canada Symmetric and Asymmetric Federalism Symmetric federalism exists when the territorial units of a federal state possess equal powers relative to the central government 0 United States 39 Asymmetric federalism exists when some territorial units enjoy more extensive powers than other relative to the central government 0 Cananda 0 Advantages of Federalism 39 Brings the government closer to the people and therefore increases government accountability 39 Creates incentive for good government performance due to competition among states for citizens and investments 39 Encourages policy experimentation 39 Creates a bulwark against tyranny by providing increased checks and balances o Disadvantages of Federalism 39 Can lead to the unnecessary duplication of government and the inefficient overlapping of potentially contradictory policies 39 Competition between states can also lead to the amplification of preexisting inqualities particularly if there is asymmetric federalism Effects of Federalism 39 Minor parties are more successful under federalism o 39 Lower clarity of responsibility 39 In terms of survival as a country federations tend to last a very long time or a very short time o Devolution vs Federalism 39 Devolution occurs when a unitary state grants powers to subnational governments but retains the right to recall or reshape those powers 0 Devolution is different from federalism because devolved powers can be recalled or reshaped by the national government Ultimately political power resides in the central government in unitary states Regional governments do not have a constitutional right to any of their powers 0 Subnational Government in the UK 39 In 1997 the UK Prime Minister Tony Blair announced referendums on the creation of regional parliaments for Scotland and Wales 0 Elections to the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Senedd took place in 1999 39 As part of the Good Friday Agreement a provincial assembly was also set up for Northern Ireland in 1999 o On four separate occasions the central government in London has suspended the provincial assembly 0 Subnational Government in India 39 Although India looks like a federal state constitutionally it is a unitary state that has devolved considerable power to its states and union territories 0 Political Parties Overview 39 Elected officials amp individuals o o o o 39 Goal to gain political power Role Theory Rational Choice Theory 39 Political parties come about cause politicians use them to achieve their goals ofpolicy making Four purposes 39 Coordination o In governmental amp in society Selection and recruitment Mobilization 39 Representation 3 types of political parties 39 Elite Party 39 Mass Party 39 CatchAll Parties Diverse viewpoints ok Party systems 0 o o 0 Types of Party Systems in Democracies A oneparty dominant system is one in which multiple parties may legally operate but in which only one particular party has a realistic chance of gaining power Atwoparty system is one in which only two major political parties have a realistic chance of gaining power A multiparty system is one in which more than two parties have a realistic chance of gaining power Where do parties come from 39 One of the roles of parties is to represent particular groups in societies 39 Some examples of cleavages o Urbanrural cleavage o Secularclerical cleavage 0 Class cleavage 0 Ethnic and linguistic cleavages Politicized Cleavages 39 When political parties form to represent a particular cleavage in government the cleavage has become politicized 39 Where electoral systems are permissive to small party entry cleavespeci c parties are more likely to enter the party system 39 We should see lots of political parties where there are lots of social cleavages and proportional representation Measuring the Number of Parties 39 It is useful to assign a quantitative value to party systems that indicates the number of political parties o o 0 We need measures that weight each party39s contribution to the measure Effective number of electoral parties ENEP o where vj is the vote proportion of party j Effective number of parliamentary parties ENPP o where sj is the vote proportion of party j Imagine a situation where two parties each have 50 of the vote 0 ENEP l5squared 5squared l5 200 The Ideological Spread of Parties 39 While the number of parties is important we must consider the policy options offered by parties 0 If two parties offer the same platform what does the provide to the electorate o What menu options do parties offer A Measure of Party System Polarization 39 We can use a simple formula to assign a numerical value to party systems that provides an indicator how polarized they are Where pj us the position of party j vj is the vote proportion of party j and p with line is the weighted mean party position 39 We again discount joke parties with the vj term Why Does This Matter The number and ideological spread of parties varies across countries This affects o The quality of representation 0 The ability of government to get things done 0 Media coverage of small party issues 0 Satisfaction with democracy To study how party systems affect such things we need to be able to quantify them Missed two days Political Culture 0 o 0 Defining it 39 It is the basic norms for political activity in a society 39 Is it possible that a given society can share a set of political views that are distinct from other countries 39 Alternatively do people respond to politics in similar and predictable ways around the world Dimensions of Political Culture 39 The two most important dimensions of political culture are 0 Value Orientations 0 Religion Value Orientations 39 Support for political institutions 0 Do people support the government o o o o o 39 Interpersonal trust 0 Do people trust their compatriots 39 Postmaterialism 0 Do people value freedom and quality of life over order and economic growth Democracy and Culture 39 Some argue that democracy is not for everyone 0 Montesquieu 16891755 argued that Monarchy is most suited to European states Despotism is most suited to the Orient Democracy is most suited to the ancient world 39 Others argue that while a democratic culture is necessary for democracy any clture is malleable and can be made suitable for democracy 0 John Stuart Mill Nothing but foreign force would induce a tribe of North American Indians to submit to the restraints of a regular and civilized government 1861 But cultures are malleable and will adopt to new norms and ideals A Civic Culture 39 Political scientists have long argued that only a civic culture is compatible with democracy 39 In a civic culture 0 Individuals believe they can in uence political decisions 0 Individuals feel positive toward the political system 0 Individuals believe citizens are trustworthy 0 Individuals prefer gradual over revolutionary change Robert Putnam39s Italy Study 39 In the early 1970s Ital set up a bunch of regional governments to address local concerns 0 The social economic political and cultural character of these units varies greatly 39 Putnam theorized that civic community should predict good democratic performance 0 He found support for this through an in depth study of Italy Religion 39 Religion impacts politics through 0 Cleavages within countries Christianity vs Islam in Nigeria and Lebanon Buddhism vs Hinduism in Sri Lanka Secularism vs Buddhism in China 0 Cleavages between countries 39 With the rise of fundamentalism the relevance of religions to politics has increased Religion and Democracy 39 Huntington 1993 argues 0 Western ideas of individualism liberalism constitutionalism human rights equality liberty the rule of law democracy free markets the separation of church of Political Parties 0 James Madison quotin every political system political parties are unavoidable 0 They will arise no matter what 0 Also negative context we will have to live with them Defining Political Parties 0 A political party can be thought of as a group of people including 0 Those who hold office elected officials 0 Those who help them get and keep them there I Individuals bureaucrats and lower level party officials donors etc 0 Share a common objective to gain government office and gain political power Why Parties 0 Role Theory Humans have psychological need for predictability in our relations with one another we want to know the role that will be played by the people in our life 0 We like political parties because they play roles if you are going to be a democrat you know what you re getting 0 Rational Choice Theory comes from economics individuals and parties and countries etc act rationally to maximize their utility some form of benefit they can get 0 Politicians use political parties to achieve their goals of elections and policymaking What Parties Do 0 Coordination give us labels to help organize the political world 0 Coordination in society 0 Coordination in government 0 Selection and Recruitment 0 Socialize activists to political office 0 Mobilization of the electorate 0 Sometimes appeal to the idea of partisanship and teamlike behavior o It is easier to induce voters for major elections presidential 0 Representation 0 Give voters a coherent policy package to vote for making it easier party label 0 Example parties around the world are clearly associated with certain groups like Christian parties Germany Labor parties England Women s parties Iceland Types of Political Parties 0 Elite party members of the societal elite o Vestige of the past mainly in Europe in the early days of democracy 0 Still some parties like this in Japan