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by: Quentin Kiehn


Quentin Kiehn
GPA 3.82


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This 69 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quentin Kiehn on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INTL 4440 at University of Georgia taught by Johnson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see /class/202122/intl-4440-university-of-georgia in International Affairs at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
People 0 William Colby DCI o 1974 executive order prohibiting the CIA to use tasking of American Journalists in the prebrie ng process I no more prebrie ng tasking used prior restraint to forbid LA times from printing more articles on Project Jennifer 0 Operation PHEONIX Honorable Men39 CIA and other intelligence of cers are honorable men and they should be trusted 0 Howard Hughes 0 lomar Explorer 0 O I Mming magnesium o Helped US in Project Jennifer 0 Daniel Ellsberg Key gure in Pentagon Papers case Nixon vs New York Times 0 Inducted into Harvard Fellow Society as an undergradivery impressive Great writer 0 Went to work at RAN Asked by the Pentagon to write history on the war in Vietnam 19691970 middle of the war I As he wrote the paper he turned from a hawk to a dove I Realized Johnson and Nixon administrations had lied to the American public about the war and real number of casualties 0 Wanted to bring the war to an end and reveal the truth to the American public I Stole secret documents made copies sold to NY times and Washington Post 0 Printed by NY times immediately I In violation of disclosing unauthorized information9 treasonable act 0 ever punished case was thrown out because of stolen les from his psychiatrist by the American government Verdict of Pentagon Papers no irreparable damage brought to the US if these documents are publishe Prior restraint didn t hold 0 Jack Anderson 0 Syndicated columnist 39 wrote detailed articles about classi ed CA missions 0 NY times 0 Detailed article about project Jennifer that made it nearly impossible for them to complete the mission 0 Wrote an article revealing Operation GUPPY I KGB found out about the operation and swept out all the limousines the next day ruined the project 0 James Angleton o a longserving chief of the Central Intelligence Agency39s CIA counterintelligence CI staff His ial position within the organization was quotAssociate Deputy Director of Operations for Counter Intelligence ADDOCI I Chief of Intelligence top 5 most famous CIA o Secretly encouraged Hungarian youth to rise against the Soviets in 1956 I Promised that the US would come to their rescue but the students were massacred in the streets President Eisenhower 0 rollback the iron curtain I Rhetorical political appeals to refugees in the US to come vote for the republican American ticket 0 Wouldn t hide behind the skirts of plausible deniability I I ordered those ights andI am cancelling all future ones U2 ights over soviet union John Foster Dulles 0 Secretary of State under Eisenhower 0 Coined the phrase rolling back the iron curtain McGeorge Bundy 0 NSA 0 Did not agree with many covert action tactics economic such as destroying certain industries I Bunga send a sugarcane loving insect that could destroy the sugar cane economy in cuba I Noxious chemicals in sugar storage bins I not American beneath the dignity ofUS I Salvador Allende 0 Well educated Chilean o Socialist tendencies worried about the plight of the poor in his country I Vowed to raise the level of prosperity in C 39 e 0 Thou ht this required some amount of socialist programs I NOT COMMUNIST WANTED INDEPENDENCE Driven by nationalism and desire to improve his nation I Began to seek foreign aide from USSR and nationalize some American corporate interests in Chile 0 starting with Johnson administration US began to view Allende as a threat potential to be another Castro welcome soviet missiles threat hyped for political purposes9 turned to covert action Johnson and Nixon spent signi cant amounts of money to undermine Allende s prospects I illions against Allende s election but he still won 0 US went a er Allende in every CA matter possible I Biggest labor strike within trucking industry Brought the Chilean economy to a grinding halt I Propaganda posters with picture of Pope saying he was the antichrist untrue o Eventually took his own life classic example of the US using all CA capabilities against a socialist regime in our own bac ar 0 one thing to overthrow castro but this was a major democracy 0 Henry Kissenger 0 Chile is a dagger pointed at the heart of the US 0 willing to support right wing dictators in Latin America because they are ABC anything BUT communist I less likely to cooperate with USSR 0 John F Kennedy Bay ofPigs may 1961 00 O O 0 Had to signal to the American voters and republican party that he is more hawkish and not SOFT on communism I Had to increase his stance against communism and concern for foreign affairs 0 Relationship with ma a mole Judith Campbell 0 Richard Bissell 0 Another one of the great rninds o Architect of the administration details of the Marshall plan 0 Invented the idea of Bay of Pigs Driven by Blind Strategy John Dean 0 Wanted to be DCl If he could get rid of castro he would be appointed DCI o Determined to make PM work in Cuba not successful I John Dean 0 Wrote Blind Strategy 0 Chief of Council to the White House for Nixon I Very much involved in covering up Watergate scandal 0 Alan Dulles 1954 o DCl 0 Brother to John Foster Dulles sec of state 0 On the board of UFC united uit company in guetarnala Suggest using covert action to prevent the nationalization of UFC o Assassination plan of Lurnurnba I Fidel Castro 1959 Rose to power in cuba turned to USSR 0 US had several assassination attempts 34 plots I Nothing worked because he was a beloved gure in Cuba and well protected 0 Richard Helms o DCI DDO in 1962 o Asked to report to the oval of ce to do something about del I Thought those were instructions to launch assassination operation against Castro I 34 assassination plots by CIA gang that couldn t shoot straight o recruited William Harvey for an assassination plot against castro who then recruited 3 prominent Ma a gures Dean Rusk 0 Sec of State JFK o Never saw a single leak that hurt US national security Robert McNamara Sec ofDefense JFK Judith Exner Campbell 0 Early Elizabeth Taylor 0 dating JFK 7 introduced by Frank Sinatra 0 actually a ma a mole 0 Hoover suggested he cut ties with Campbell or he would make it public William Webster Only person to be both director of FBI and CIA 0 Very good man39 high integrity 0 Principles on covert action I 1 Should be consistent with law I 2 Consistent with American foreign policy I 3 Consistent with American values I 4 should be something the American people should agree with and support Lee Harvey Oswald 0 Former US Marine Corps Of cer39 involved in helping the CIA with U2 ights 7 exact ying 39 de 0 Defected to USSR but came back to US 0 Pro iCastro o Moved to New Orleans involved in ma a and night club activities 0 Suspect found guilty of murdering JFK according to Warren Commission Patrice Lumumba Leader of Congo 0 We thought the congo would become the focus of Soviet foreign policy in A ica so we decided we wanted to assassinate 39 I Rival A ican faction wanted him dead too Gerald R Ford 0 l 976 0 football player at Michigan9yale law school 0 became president a er Nixon resigned as a result of the Watergate scandal I immediately pardoned Nixon controversial o signed an executive order that prohibited assassination of foreign leaders for the rst time in history Tom Charles Huston 0 Very bright college student at IU o Member of Young Americans for Freedom I Against the hippies and other anti Vietnam war protestors anti American 0 Entered the military a er graduating9 assigned to DIA o 1968 volunteered for Nixon reelection campaign asked by Nixon to write a report with suggestions on anti war protests I Huston said it is probably a soviet union operation we need intelligence agencies to spy on the antiVietnam war movement I Huston moved to being an assistant in the white house in june 1970 0 Authority from the president to call the int chiefs together I Told them to nd out where the funding is coming from Tapping phones opening mail Etc 0 H39USTON PLAN massive spy plan directed at American citizens in the name of counterintelligence O McVeigh o decided to stop talking about it and do something 0 Detonated truck full of explosives Aldrich Ames o Traitor within the CIA 0 Father had a great reputationiformer Intelligence man I ffect over the son 0 Financial problems Approached soviets who paid him large sums of money for valuable information about American intelligence operations occurring in the Soviet Union I Came up with cars houses with no explanation 0 At least 9 of our highly placed assets in Moscow were assassinated I All at the same time big hint they had a mole in US intelligence 0 220 operations against the Soviets I told the soviets about every single one of them Robert Hanssen breach 0 FBI counterintelligence aimed at the Soviet Union 0 Gave them a lot of information that reinforced Ames knowledge 0 Gave soviets info about our penetration of the Soviet embassy in the US I Wired the entire building I Provided them with the exact locations of every device James Madison 4Lh president the great Argued that the founders were the most interested in the question of power I Safeguards to prevent the abuse of power 0 Federalist papers Thought the best approach would be to divide power into 3 departments I Executive judicial legislative I Rely heavily on elections as a safeguard SyHersh 0 one of the great American investigative reporters 0 Given classi ed CIA info known as the familyjewels 1974 0 Impact of his writing was hu e I use of the word rnassiv I CHAOS represented massive Sllf veillan 0e against American citiEns James I Schlesin er 0 1973 DCI sent a letter around agency saying he wants to address and resolve any improprieties I wanted to clear the deck I CYA cover your ass activity 268 reports ltered up to 7Lh oor way more than anticipated O I real or perceived wrongdoings within the agency I tried to look into each on I a copy ofthis list leaked to the NY times SyHersh Included Operation CHAOS Frank Church 1975 leading orator senator picked to lead investigative committee very bright phi beta kappa I believe the CIA is like a rogue elephant on a rampage O O 0 Church committee O 0 Church wanted to look at the abuses and Covert action Otis Pike 0 Picked to lead the HPSCI o wanted to evaluate the quality of intelligence I Are we getting our money s worth from the CA J Edgar Hoover o COINTELPRO I FBI program that investigated anyone that hoover thought was a threat to the security of America I Crazy in some ways I Archracist Opposed the civil rights movement 100 0 Viewed Dr Martin Luther King Jr as the great enemy of the US Anonymous writing cam aigns I Purpose to destroy LinAmerican movements 7 civil rights movements KKK Vietnam war protests AnatolRapoport 0 Born in Russia to Jewish parents who ed to the US when he was a baby 0 Spoke out against the war in Vietnam I Criticized both Johnson and Nixon 0 Hoover went a er him rganized anonymous letter writing campaigns in Michigan I Said Rapoport was a communist undermining Americas position in the world 0 One of the greatest political scientists but still red from University of Michigan Robert Olsen MK Ultra Colleague slipped LSD into his coffee part of DSampT experiment to see the effects ofLSD Boards an airplane ies to NYC checks into a hotel runs through a window and kills himsel I CIA covers up the story and it looks like he had just killed himself I Uncovered the les that the DSampT had acted irresponsibly 0 Harold Hughes 0 Democrat om Iowa 0 Reformer only served one term in the senate but le a mark 0 Hughes Ryan Act Leo Ryan 0 D San Francisco 0 Murdered on a trip to J onestown I Religious cult 0 Joined forces with Hughes to do something about Allende 0 Hughes Ryan Act Edward P Boland 0 First HPSCI Chair I Said there shouldn t be a reporter in the room when discussing a secret action 0 Liberal democrat from mass you would think he would be a tough critic of CIA I owever he was unwilling to be a staunch critic of US Intelligence became more of a cheerleader Didn t want to be like Pike wanted to show he could do this job responsibly and nothing would be leaks I Congress could be a player in this domain I Wanted to play by the rules I Put staff through extensive background checks 0 AntiContra support Nicaragua 0 Boland Amendrnents 19811983 ecarne more and more restrictive I nal one proposed to shut off all funding for CA in Nicaragua except for some propaganda activity I Reagan signed the Boland Amendments I Bec e law I Finally led to total prohibition of CA in Nicaragua 0 Early Boland Ex of CHEERLEADER Shi s to lemon sucker then guardian 0 Daniel Inouye o SSCI s rst leader 0 DHI 0 William Buckley 0 COS in Lebanon kidnapped by Hamas I Reagan administration I Beginning of Iran Contra scandal o Tortured to death William j Casey o DCI Rea an o concerned with rescuing Buckley and other hostages in middle east Iran Contra scandal created an Off the shelf stand alone self suf cient secret entity that would conduct CA operations against the Standanistas regardless of the Boland Amendments 7 the enterprise Daniel Ortega o president of Nicaragua 0 Some viewed him as another Fidel Castro I Carter 39 39 39 recmrni ed him but Reagan 39 did not I Reagan administration began to plan covert actions to cripple and remove Daniel Ortega and SanDanistas political party Oliver North 0 Deputy National Security Advisor I Picked from military for the position for his impressive combat record in Vietnam I boxing champion at the naval academy I howeverihe was out of his element on the National Security Council staff not very intellectual 0 take the money we got from Iran and use it in Nicaragua I did not run this past Reagan Admiral John M Paindextei39 0 rst in his class at naval academy computer genius 0 set up modern sit room situation room 0 became the leading villain in the Irancontra affair I Poindexter said he didn t want any outside interference the congress Dennis Deconcini 0 Chair of SSCI 0 Fight with Woolsey over HUMINT vs TECHINT I Woolsey was arrogant rude to Deconcini I Deconcini removed budget money for another satellite Woolsey tried to get it back pissed off Deconcini Barry Goldwater 0 Ex of OSTRICH I Shi ed to lemon sucker for a while then to cheerleader 0 against the creation of SSCI I ecame the chair very few meetings 0 verylow support wasn t engage more concerned with aeronautics armed services weapons systems etc o belief in the honorable man system these agencies should manage themselves Newt Ginrich o EX of CHEERLEADER 0 Wanted to make the IC stronger give it everything it needs and more I Increase budget Daniel Patrick Moynihan o EX of LEMON SUCKER 0 Wanted to get rid of the IC because they had failed the American people I Didn tpredict the fall of soviet union I Untrue IC carefully tracked the decline of USSR but they did NOT predict the exact day and time Impossible standard even gorbachev didn t know this 0 Extreme position Lee Hamilton 0 EX of GUARDIAN 0 Former chair ofHPSCI o DIndiana o Believed North and Poindexter when they said they had nothing to do with Iran Contra I Messed up shouldn t have just trusted their word should ve checked up on them Robert Torricelli DNJ 0 Found out about CIA relationship with Col Alpirez June 6 2011 Collection wrap up 0 The relationship between reporters and spies 0 Secret organizations and society 0 Number of things in common Intelligenceinformation gathering similar field a Difference one is used for public information and one is used for secret government reports o Open source vs secret o Reporters and spies are both located in major cities around the world overlapping Gravitate towards each other same social scenes for familiarity of homeland a Try to avoid being associated with eachother 0 Every reporter who has an international beat before heshe goes oversees goes to the CIA o Prebriefing to acquire information that will help them be smarter reporters while abroad Nothing secret is discussed because that can be contaminating to a reporter On the CIA payroll in the 1970 s were several reporters investigated by the Church Committee found 25 but numbers vary a This was secret Prebriefing became much more than an educating system but rather a tasking opportunity U Get the reporter to find out certain information that the CIA wanted to know Joe Alsup it was social old boy social network Money info exchange social connections patriotism the bonds that weld the reporters and spies together until the mid 70 s n Mid 70 s reporters began to complain some reporters were being arrested abroad as espionage agents even if they weren t a Ask for executive order prohibiting the CIA to use tasking of American Journalists in the pre briefing process 0 9 1974 William Colby DCI executive order 0 fine print accredited American journalist o NYtimes ID cardaccredited 0 When reporters return from oversees they get a Debriefing 0 Courtesy call 0 Reporter relays hisher impression of what they saw 0 Tasking 0 Back in the day would be very specific 0 Questionnaire Set of 25 questions that reporters should try to slip in when interviewing someone high up or important Fuzzy if invisible line between spying and reporting a No clear line between Americas free press and America s espionage establishment very troubling o Ironic when unlike the Soviet Union no distinction between press and KGB officers we supposedly take enormous pride in our system of free press The media are the only ones asking the tough questions of the CIA the ones finding out about the Irancontra spring on Americans n We find out they are in bed with the CIA appears as an abuse of power What did that do in their reporting about the American intelligence establishment 0 Was it biased in 0 Post Colby era 0 Colby said no more prebriefing tasking you are an intelligence officer and this is what you need to find out 0 CIA can still recruit freelance writers not accredited 0 foreign journalists are not affected by this exec order CIA can recruit any one they want for any purpose No distinction between foreign journalists in democracies and ones not in democracies a Who do we think we are recruiting reporters in fellow democracies o What if Germans recruited our journalists Huge difference according to Johnson definitely recruit as many journalists in totalitarian regimes and get as much info as possiblebut in other free governments it is unethical and goes against the golden rule 0 Treat them the way we want them to treat us BO39I39I39OM LINE no reporter who is accredited to any newspaper can accept any money or tasking but things such as hosting parties or small scale gifts often still occur When it comes to freelance fair game Project Jennifer 0 Prior Restraint o In 1974 an American surveillance satellite caught a flash of light on the surface of the pacific ocean 0 These programs are automatically programmed to zoom in on flashes of light look for launching of soviet rockets It wasn t a rocket it was an explosion aboard a surfaced soviet nuclear submarine The satellites were also programmed to exactly pinpoint the location of where the flash of light is Many photographs and direct location of huge soviet mistake After this submarine sank out of sight Submarine had all kinds of goodies on board that could lead to key information 1 Could be an intelligence jackpot if we could locate it and see what was on board 0 Howard Hughes airplane manufacturer deeply involved in mining modules on the ocean floor for magnesium and other ores Glomar Explorer ship that had already set mining records Readily agreed to help the US with Project Jennifer Crew of Glomar explore goes out to find the submarine with cover story that they are going to mine magnesium a Drop cables to retrieve the submarine the soviet destroyer pops up but they believe the cover story and goes away Half of the submarine is severed by the cable so they head back to LA with what they have 0 Reporters drink and so do sailors at the same bar LA reporter wrote an article about the incident that he overheard a Colby DCI freaked out because this was a top secret mission and half of the submarine is still in the ocean Colby tells LAtimes to stop the press 0 Prior restraint when the government asks the media to not publish material that could be damaging to the United States 0 Media does not like prior restraint Pentagon Papers Case Nixon vs New York Times 1971 0 Daniel Ellsberg key figure in the case 0 Inducted into the Harvard Fellow Society when he was an undergrad unheard of Very smart articulate great writer 0 Decided to have a stint at RAND Asked by the Pentagon to write a history of the war in Vietnam 19691970 middle of the war a Kind of a hawk on the war in Vietnam 0 As he wrote paper he turned from a hawk to a dove Realized the Johnson and Nixon administrations had lied to the American public about the war and the actual number of casualties Wanted to bring the war to a halt reveal the truth to the American public a Stole the secret documents made copies and returned originals n In violation of disclosing unauthorized information o Treasonable act that he could be rightfully punished for c He gave the documents to the NYtimes and Washington post anyway 0 NYTIMES started printing these documents immediately 0 President called up John Mitchell and told him to send an injunction on NYtimes to stop printing 0 They stopped printing for a short time o Went to supreme court vote of 6 3 in this particular instance Nixon vs NYtimes that no irreparable harm will be brought to the US if these documents are published Prior restraint will not hold in this case Tremendous victory for free press 0 NYtimes found out about glomar Explorer case and began publishing articles on that 0 Jack Anderson sindicated columnist Wrote a very detailed article about project Jennifer and made it nearly impossible for them to complete the mission Operation Guppy put listening devices in Limos in Moscow 0 Jack Anderson wrote an article about it and revealed this KGB found out and swept out all the limos the next day ruined the project 0 99 of all leaks come from exec branch o leaks can be very dangerous but hard to eliminate What should have happened to Daniel Ellsberg 0 case was thrown out bc of stolen files from psychiatrist 0 Publications review board CIA board that verifies that anything published is not classified info 0 Agree wrote book of inside the company COVERT ACTION 0 No other topic has ever been more controversial for the CIA no other mission has given the CIA such a black eye over the years 0 We have engaged in this pursuit since the revolutionary war George Washington CA against the Brits o 1947 Natl Security Act made the subject more official 99 collection 1 about other duties the president might have to conduct other duties from time to time that may prove necessary 0 in case we haven t foreseen everything we might need to do in the future 0 the other duties phrase covert action and counterintelligence o Covert Action secret efforts used by the US but without attribution to the US to manipulate the affairs of other countries or groups 0 An attempt to change the direction of history in a way more favorable to the US 0 We live in a dangerous world 0 5 major ways we attempt to change the world 1 Secret Propaganda a CIA phrase Perception Management 2 Political Covert Action n intervene in other elections a money 3 Disrupt other economies 4 Paramilitary activities a secret warlike 5 Murder n assassination a subset of the fourth June 7th Covert Action Cont The world is a dangerous place Presidents get frustrated with this notion 0 Each country has a mind of its own 0 Threat assessments differ among countries 0 Ex brazil 1A crime NZ 1A Japanese fisherman 0 Not everyone s threats are aligned with the US 0 We do have common enemies terrorism 0 American presidency is limited 0 There are so many other players the president must deal with 0 However he is very powerful in the sense he can end the entire world with the use of nuclear warheads Unique power 0 What can the president do to deal with rogue nations Diplomacy n Talking our way to a resolution of disputes among nations n Internationalnegotiations Soft Power Joe Nye n Over power propaganda n Anything that has nothing to do with economic sanctions or military force 0 Has to do with our culture ex people love levis and Michael Jackson and what people admire about our cultural achievements and political idealsinstitutions 0 We are admired for our judicial system free press etc Disrupt trade a Ex refusing to sell Russia wheat until they left Afghanistan 0 Canada jumped in and sold them wheat n Ex2 apartheid in South Africa a Difficult to get this to work War Military force a War powers resolution requires congress to approve o Becomes national debate a High costs involved political and financial o Deficit spending in efforts to balance national budget but we are spending millions in Afghanistan daily 0 These can be used together Covert Action n Many presidents turn to CA because there is a possibility to achieve instant solutions secretly o No debate on capitol Hill a Henry Kissinger A third option 0 Diplomacy war and covert action a the quiet option 0 can slip in assets overnight and take care of the problem without a big fuss o misnomer in a sense 0 paramilitary operations are anything but quiet n SpecialActivities o in order to carry out special activities need to have some infrastructure bureaucracy 0 Infrastructure is in the D0 or National Clandestine Service NCS The plumbing of covert action 0 consists of COS 0C or NOC and Team of assets Recruited with same agent acquisition cycle as collection a Can even be the same individuals End of WWII troops were demobilized 0 Taken out of uniform sent home 0 Meanwhile Russians were building up their armies 0 Sending KGB around Europe robbing banks and stealing money to go towards soviet military Anticipated cold war and were quick to develop communist 0 parties in other places around the world We were slow to wake up to this danger but then we did 0 Marshall Plan D the great enemies of the United States were hunger poverty desperation and chaos o rubbed out communism a primary mission of the CIA find out what the soviets were up to so we could protect our nation 0 CIA took on the task of covert action and counterintelligence almost instantly First Manifestation of CA Propaganda 0 Win the hearts and minds of people around the world toward the American democratic free enterprise capitalist system and away from communism Wanted to get the word out about why people should choose the US over the Soviets United States Information Agency USIA o Overt action official 0 Channels information about the US around the world every day 0 Department of State 0 Why do we need a CIA propaganda program when we have this in place Trying to convinceprove the world that America is a good place Want to make it a little more subtle n Ex have media assets SECRETLY on CIA payroll to write pieces that have a pro American theme to them HAS MORE CREDIBILITYTO IT than an official a American propaganda piece 0 As opposed to an official press release 0 Not a government agency 0 In another language Written by someone who is trusted in his community a Secret channels carry some weight a Can do this in democracies and other nations in Also can be considered hypocritical 9 would be furious if another nation did the same to us n brainwashing a free society with CIA propaganda n is there a higher cause 0 Some would argue yes To make the world a better place for us And presumably for other nations who want peace 0 Tried to get proUSA propaganda behind the iron curtain o RADIO FREE EUROPE Based in Munich Hired all kinds of refugees from Russia and other eastern European communist nations Supposedly an American free government institution but actually a CIA operation for propaganda Radio Cuba a Used broadcasts in cuba during the cold war a Use radio and television propaganda anywhere we consider hostile 0 Radio Haiti 0 Radio and tv are important means of propaganda n Also blogging twitter etc o Gulag prison camps throughout the soviet union where dissedents were sent 0 Get people to smuggle in copies of Newsweek Time etc into the country 0 North Korea is the counterintelligence state Almost impossible to get anything in Brainwashing to support country Big question Was all of this worth it 0 Millions of dollars spent 0 Every single day of the cold war about 90 media insertions by the CIA occurred around the world 0 On average 0 Answer we don t really know It is very difficult to measure the effects of propaganda 0 Interviews of soviet citizens trapped in that society during cold war reveal that American propaganda kept the spark of hope alive that maybe some day they would be free 1989 fall of the berlin wall maybe the strength and hope came from the knowledge they had support from the outside James Angleton 0 was a longserving chief of the Central Intelligence Agency39s CIA counterintelligence CI staff His official position within the organisation was quotAssociate Deputy Director of Operations for CounterIntelligence ADDOCIquot 0 Chief of intelligence top 5 most famous CIA o Secretly encourages Hungarian youth to rise against the Soviets in 1956 o Promised that the US would come to their rescue and make sure they were left alone 0 Students were massacred in the streets Eisenhower Roll back the Iron curtain o Rhetorical political appeals to refugees in the US to come vote for the republican American ticket 0 John Foster Dulles sec of state coined the phrase rolling back the iron curtain Bottom line covert propaganda is a useful instrument of American foreign policy 0 Today directed against insurgents in iraq Taliban Al Qaeda etc o Soviets were also involved in propaganda battle of global ideas 0 American message was more persuasive contributed to our winning 0 Soviets are hypocritical promising classless society Covert Political Activities 0 Want proAmerican candidates to win elections power etc 0 Italy 0 Christian Democratic party largest of prowestern parties 0 90 of the funding for the communist party Christian Dem Party came secretly from the Soviet Union and US respectively 0 We paid a lot of bribary money to Italian politicians to support proWestern positions Why do this secretly a Don t want people inside the country to know that trying to manipulate their political system a Don t want Christian Dem party to look like American party a The use of King George s cavalry money to support elections was the right thing to do to win the Cold War 0 1945 Churchill believed we should have invaded USSR then and gotten it over with 0 We were tired and crippled too would have been a fail o If we cant win through military operations we have to win war through propeganda and manipulating politics Economic Covert Action 0 Economic Covert Action Staff at NCS o Falser print a nation s currency and bring about inflation in their country 0 Counterfeit money 0 Economic disruption with respect to their currency 0 Destroy specific industries 0 Send a bug agriculture 0 Bunga sugarcane loving insect that could destroy the sugar cane economy in Cuba in less than 24 hours Never brought to fruition o McGeorge Bundy NSA Said this was beneath the dignity of the US not American 0 put noxious chemicals into Cuba s sugar storage bins make sugar that tasted awful hoped that soviet union imported 99 would no longer buy their sugar from cuba Bundy once again disagreed with this 0 Could manipulate stock market 0 Economic sabotage 0 Mining harbors in enemies ports when ships come into the harbor blow up ships so they wont want to come anymore Could be considered military 0 Salvador Allende very well educated Chilean o Socialist tendencies Worried about the plight of the poor in his country Vowed to raise the level of prosperity in Chile a Thought it required some amount of socialist programs 0 NOT A COMMUNIST WANTED INDEPENDENCE driven by nationalism and desire to improve his nation Began to seek foreign aid from the USSR small amounts and nationalize some American corporate interests in Chile n Starting with Johnson admin began to view Allende as a threat potential to be another castro and welcome soviet missiles o Threat hyped for political purposes 0 Kissinger Chile is a dagger pointed at the heart of the US Soon turn to covert action against allende Both Johnson and Nixon administrations began to spend significant amounts of money to undermine allende s prospects n Contributed millions against Allende s election but he still won Kissinger willing to support right wing dictators in Latin America because they are ABC anything but communist n Less likely to cooperate with USSR u Had to make a choice of stability vsgoa of greater overall democracy In Latin America throughout the 50 s 70 s we embraced ORDER AND STABILITY and that usually meant abc s Went after Allende in every covert matter we could think of n Biggest labor strike within the trucking industry 0 Brought the chilean economy to a grinding halt n Propaganda manufactured posters with pic of Pope saying he was antichrist not true a Armed some dissidents who failed to physically remove him a Eventually he took his own life 0 Unclear why 0 Classic case study of the US using all covert action capabilities against a socialist regime right in our own backyard How destitute must a nation be before its not viewed as an enemy against the US Paramilitary Operations 0 LAOS 19621968 0 CIA sponsored major war in Laos tried to keep it secret People on ground known as MEO or HMUNG fierce warriors with a cause to win their own freedom u Had they not been here they would have been fighting American soldiers in Vietnam keeping them distracted Unfortunate ending we abandoned the HMUNG to fend for themselves a Ammunition ran out n Many escaped to Vietnam Minneapolis 0 Tendency of the CIA initially helping groups and then leaving them to fend for themselves 0 0 Bay Of Pigs May 1961 G Castro era began o Communists began to shine light 90 miles from our shores o JFK had to signal to the American voters and Republican party that he is more hawkish and not SOFI39 ON COMMUNISM Had to increase his stance against communism and concern for foreign affairs 0 Richard Bissell another one of the great minds Architect of the administration details of Marshall Plan Invented the idea of Bay of Pigs a Wanted to be DCI driven by BLIND STRATEGY John Dean 0 If he could just get rid of Castro JFK would surely appoint him as DCI o Organized Cuban exiles among other latin Americans to invade cubans were a much fierceful force than perceived o Determined to make PM work in Cuba 0 JFK receives a phone call saying they need air cover for this Rusk told president you cannot do that you cannot overtly involve US military Result massacre a CIA people killed refugees killed 0 Watergate Nixons people broke into democratic party headquarters He didn t know about it but once he found out he didn t come clean and fix the problem He tried to cover it up instead ofjust coming out to the public with what happened and firing those involved in the event JOHN DEAN Chief Council to the White House for Nixon a Very much involved in covering up the scandal n Wrote a book called Blind Strategy which drove Bissells actions 1953 First important PM success 0 O O 0 target was Iran Goal to get rid of the leader of Iran at the time Seemed to be a little too pro Moscow Nationalist not communist Wanted to nationalize British and American oil a Did not sit well with Washington or London M16 and CIA joined forces Wanted new leader the Shah of Iran a Not communist would export oil to US and Britain cheaply a Leader of Iran was overthrown no blood spilled n 1956 we put our man in he stayed in until 1979 over the years the Shah became more and more unpopular n torturing his people a Sabak secret police organization similar to stalin s 1979 people of Iran overthrew the Shah American puppet u put a Mullah religious leader in power a AntiAmericanism unintentional consequences creation of a monster by the CIA that turned against his own people and was eventually devoured by its people and turned into a very antiamerican place 1954 Allen Dulles O O O DCI brother to John Foster Dulles sec of state Socialist takes over in Guatemala Wanted to nationalize the United Fruit Company E Allen and John Foster Dulles were on the Board of UFC Dulles Brothers suggest using covert action paramilitary action to prevent this from happening D Eisenhower approved because it worked so well in Iran a Worked again but Some blood was shed 0 Another friend put in office Euphoria gripped the White House and the CIA in the aftermath of Iran and Guatemala Seem to be some success Seemed to be a panacea got a problem in the world just call the CIA and they will take care of it n Illusion that the DO can solve the world s problems for the white house was shattered in 1961 CIA got its momentum after 1950 with the Korean war 0 If America is fighting a war somewhere the CIA is going to be over there simultaneously fighting a complimentary covert war After Korean war goes down Except for Iran and Guatemala Back up for Vietnam war o Reagan years golden age of covert action of all forms extreme high Until iran contra scandal back down 0 Back up at 911 0 the major focuses for covert action in americas history have been the Korean war 5053 nicaragua and Afghanistan during Reagan years and middle eastern countries SW asia with 911 attack What were the key targets of covert action spending in the 1980 s 0 1 Afghanistan 0 smashing success at least in the short term got soviets out because US distributed Stinger Missiles to bring down USSR bombers and jet fighters Main reason CIA paramilitary support to afghan freedom fighters muhadine n This was the Taliban our allies in the 80 s but now our enemies We left the Taliban helped out Al Qaeda SHORT RUN SUCCESS o 2 Nicaragua 0 june 8 Propaganda o Blowback 0 CIA Technical meaning planting stories overseas but they are false stories trying to mislead the adversary About 2 of CIA secret propaganda plants are disinformation false n Dday info that was would be landing in Callie instead of Normandygt throw off Germans 0 Can be very valuable a Can also be troublesome can flow back to USA in media outlet 0 Even though it was meant to fool foreign media audience it ends up back in American soil 0 Don t want the cia brainwashing the American people CIA quietly notify key leading media outlets about the disinfo plant so the will alert to the story and make sure if does not end up in their own 0 Generic meaning broadly consquences from an American screw up oversees Bay of pigs Come back to haunt us PM operations 0 Covert action increases when the US is involved in military action oversees o Reagan doctrine a phrase crafted by the NY times Is the use of the CIA to defeat the communist empire Administration for 8 years anointed a secret agency to be the spearhead of the attack against communism a No overt wars slight exaggeration n Invasion of Grenada 0 Lebanese drove a truck filled with dynamite into a US military base and killed many of our armed forces Wagging the dog to get it out of the Americans minds invade someone amended except when a highly ideological administration likes to use covert action in times of peace no overt wars but tremendous focus on covert action during Reagan Administration CA used when administration is unable to use overt force due to the enemy being too powerful Soviet Union ASSASSINATION9 subset of PM operations 0 Murder 0 America is a global godfather o Knocking off people who disagree with us 0 Some people on the world stge have become so unbearable to the security of th US that removing them becomes the only viable option a Fidel Castro 1959 0 America thought anyone would be better than Batista o Castro disappointed us by turning to the USSR 0 Michael Grow Us Intervention in Latin America 0 Initially we tried to think of ways to get rid of castro with lower levels of disruption o OPERATION MONGOOSE 0 Some proposals were ridiculous Elimination by Illumination American subs circle off the coast of Cuba Surface at midnight set off fireworks At the same time will drop off leaflets into Cuba n Christ has come rise up against the anti Christ Fidel Castro a supposed to stir the people of Cuba to overthrow Castro McGeorge Bundy knew this was insane D But someone in the CAS thought this was a great idea Proposal did not get anywhere in the White House Became great fodder for critics of CIA 0 Another proposal depilatory powder in Castro s boots Make his hair fall out beard disappears o More reasonable sneaking books and propaganda into Cuba 0 Nothing was working Why a Fidel was a beloved figure in Cuba Began to escalate out thinking of how to get ride of Castro 0 Richard Helms DCI DDO in 1962 Asked to report to the oval office Kennedy Wont someone do something about Fidel n Helms thought those were instructions for him to launch an assassination operation against Castro 0 Dean Rusk sec of state and Robert McNamara sec of defense Knew that s not what JFK meant by saying that Just intensify economic CA propaganda etc a Instructions unclear a People disagree with origins of assassination plots n 34 assassination plots against Fidel Castro by the CIA n the gang that couldn t shoot straight probably weren t lying helms probably misunderstood in his desire to please the prez Assassination plot summary a Young lady college junior recruited 0 Stunning adventurous professor tipped the CIA to recruit her 1st step she moves to University of Toronto 0 establishes Canadian residency o couldn t enter Cuba if an American citizen during the cold war mission take a little pill and put it in Fidel Castro s soup 0 recruited because she is pretty fluent in Spanish supposed to spark a love relationship with Fidel s chef started a love relationship with the O chef convinced him to take her to Castros palace hid the pill at the bottom of cold cream to prevent counterintelligence in cuba from finding it 2 assassination plot a diving suit presented to Castro for his bday o pulverized shellfish toxin 0 leads to death within minutes a diving suit presented to Castro for his birthday 0 never put it on unclear what happened to it 3 Helms got on the STU Secure Telephonic Unit to talk to William Harvey n wore a pearl handled pistol on each hip u only man allowed to enter CIA with a weapon because no one wanted to tell him not to n Harvey called up 3 people all prominent mob figures Havana used to be the gambling mecca of the world under Batista Mafia could help the CIA bump off Castro by getting one of their hitmen in Cuba to do it Tried to ignite their contacts 9 all failed approx 12 total attempts JFK had no idea Judith Exner Campbell a Early Elizabeth Taylor a dating JFK at the time introduced by Frank Sinatra n n a mafia mole Hoover suggested that JFK cut ties with her Would make it public if he didn t stop seeing her Mafia probably thought they would get pardoned for crimes use blackmail against Kennedy for his relationship with Campbell JFK was a slut n Reporters knew a lot of these stories but didn t print them everything changed with Watergate Investigative journalism became very important 0 William Webster only person to be both director of FBI and CIA Very good man high integrity 0 Philip Hart 0 What if JFK was the target of Cuban assassination plots 1 Two Cuban intelligence officers entered Florida illegally 0 FBI for once knew about this 0 Followed them 0 Who else lived in tampa Lee Harvey Oswald Left Tampa driving north FBI in a car behind them 0 FBI lost these 2 guys 0 Where did they go We don t know 0 November 23 1963 Boarded an airplane flying from Dallas to Mexico City then on to Havana Not a lot of evidence that they were involved in his assassination o Merely circumstantial What are the hypotheses of who killed JFK 0 Warren Commission investigated this and came up with Oswald 0 Allan Dulles never mentioned Operation MONGOOSE o 1 Oswald Former US Marine Corps Officer assigned to Asia N 00 U1 Ch I Involved in helping the CIA with U2 flights a Exact flying altitude Defects to USSR but comes back to the US Pro Fidel Castro Moved to New Orleans became involved with the mafia in night club activities a mafia ties n didn t like JFK Cabal grassy Knoll Castro 39 revenge LBJ presidency Soviet Union embarrassment of Cuban Missile Crisis Hoover critic of JFKs lifestyle MAFIA after being reelected Kennedy bros wanted to go into Nevada and clean up the mafia Need a motive Oswald had ties Official answer Oswald rush to judgement a Wanted to make sure the americans knew it wasn t the Soviets a Real drive was the mafia Assassination plots during the Eisenhower admin a When this type of CA took its roots n Patrice Lumumba 0 Leader of Congo 0 Started traveling to Moscow in search of foreign aid 0 Interested in building up congo 0 US refused him foreign aid 0 Thought Congo would become the focus of Soviet foreign policy in Africa 0 Assassination plan alan dulles o Ambiguity on the instructions from Eisenhower 0 1960 envelope sent to the COS in Congo contents rubber gloves gauze mask hypodermic needle vial of yellowish liquid Curary a highly toxic poison instructions were coded but basically said to put some of the contents in Lumumba s toothpaste or food 0 In the middle of this planning a rival African faction made it clear they wanted him dead too Why did we result to assassination n Needs to have clear presidential support 0 Plausible Deniability if the president didn t know about it he can t be held responsible 0 We want to be as pure as caesar s wife A way of keeping the pure out of the gutter Guided our nation from 1947 to 1974 Hughes Ryan Act centerpiece of second half of this class 9demanded through a new law that presidents formally authorize all covert action activities Eisenhower 1960 admitted a U2 flight over the Soviet Union a Shot down and held captive a Silver dollar provided by DSampT Eisenhower stepped in forward and said I ordered those flights and I am cancelling all future ones a Wouldn t hide behind the skirts of plausible deniability 1976 Gerald R Ford n didn t seem very smart but was in fact very intelligent a Football player at Michigan yale law school a Became president after Nixon resigned as result of the Watergate scandal 0 Immediately pardoned Nixon controversial o Nation was being torn by Watergate sending a president to prison would send a terrible image to the rest of the world what about all men created 0 equal a Assassination is not right that is not us We do not assassinate foreign heads of state 0 Signed an executive order that prohibited assassination of foreign leaders for first time in history 0 Exec order doesn t carry as much power as law Can easy be erased Maybe even in secret n Codicil amendment to an existing executive order a Secret codicil are deeply frowned upon Cant secretly change a law however n Gerald ford exec order prohibiting assassination plots against foreign leaders key pt Operation PHEONIX a William Colby o COS in Vietnam 0 Target North Vietnames VC VietCong o VC south Vietnamese sympathizers working with the north Vietnamese army Could be anyone old grandma or little kids 0 Mass CIA assassination Kill all known and probably VC village leaders 0 This is in the context of a battlefield American military fighting in open warfare CIA comes in targeting VC 0 Don t want to be caught in an elevator with John Tower War time vs peace time different than castro assassination o Probably 80000 people killed by CIA and assets by operation PHEONIX May have killed innocent civilians Colby claims those numbers are small but we don t know how true that is O Very controversial a People weren t in uniform in civilian clothing a Men with red paint planning to throw on Colby When we talk about CIA assassinations not just talking about heads of state also talking about overt actions that the CIA has supported 0 First Persian Gulf War 1990 We used every method possible trying to kill Saddam Hussein We kept missing couldn t find him a 15 palaces a constantly moving target a elusive how could we be killing Saddam Hussein when we have an executive order in 1976 saying we cant n Colloquy a discussion on the floor of congress between lawmakers about some event law or E0 0 Part of legislative record 0 Look at entire history and details a Colloquy was clear that assassinations prohibited generally EXCEPT o 1 If we are involved in an authorized war then all bets are off we can do anything o Authorized war constitution Congress shall declare war by majority vote of those present in voting 51 Only declared war 5 times a War of 1812 a War of Mexico 1846 n SpanishAmerican War a WWI a WWII Yet we have been involved in military interventions 290 times a Where does Obama get the right to attack Hbya a They shouldn t be allowed to do this on their own 0 2 In self defense assassination is permissible first Persian gulf war tried to kill saddam but failed Persian gulf war 2 authorized war a 0 Second Persian Gulf War Authorized war Found him in an underground hiding place near his hometown in Northern Iraq Arrested him and turned him over to the Iraqu authorities who hanged him very quickly 0 Patriot Act 0 Gave the president power to combat terrorism around the world Osama Bin Laden 0 Scenario 1 Clinton a Bin Laden spotted with 7 of his wives and 12 of his kids on coast of Med sea 0 We have destroyers with cruise missies nearby 0 Request permission to take him out 0 Station ALEX CIA special group to hunt Bin Laden down 0 Samuel Berger NSA goes to Clinton and asks for permission 0 Clinton refuses to send a cruise missile that will kill women and children 0 Berger was furious o Moral principle trumping practicalities of assassination opportunities 0 Was not going to kill women and children 0 Scenario 2 Bin laden on a camel in the desert accompanied by 8 princes of the United Arab Emirates Clinton refuses to murder the princes of UAE Operation aborted Head of ALEX station is furious and resigns n Can t pull the trigger when they finally find Bin Laden O 0 Was Clinton making the right decision Risk not having another opportunity Could have prevented 911 However could cause a lot of bad feelings towards US potential revolts or uprisings a Before 911 attacks didn t have as much international support Is this the US Do we just go around the world killing people we don t like We are different then Osama and Soviet Union etc so we cannot react to situations the same way they do a Don t be hypocritical in international relations a Killing innocent people is what they do However have to keep a strong arm and not be nai39ve about the situation 0 Cascading effect that assassination can have on our own politics 0 William Webster s Principles on Covert Action 1 Should be consistent with law a talking about US law particularly Hughes Ryan law a All CA must go through the Hughes Ryan process 2 The need to be consistent with American foreign policy 3 Need to be consistent with American values a we should try to honor the principles of fair play a be tough but still have values 4 most important CA s if revealed to American people should be something the American people should agree with and support a most if not all covert actions come to light only adopt CA s that American people would be proud of o elimination by elimination would not count 0 2 more assassination plots against Bin Laden 0 both failed because of false information about Al Qaeda The most Important Covert Action Instrument in the past 10 years Predator armed with missiles Reaper These 2 UAVs are the weapons of choice for PM operations and assassination plots 0 Sometimes make mistakes Told us to kill 129 people that were not associated with Al Qaeda or Taliban Numbers are decreasing on accidental deaths 0 Killing innocent people can turn the survivorsloved ones against the United States 0 Advantage no pilot deaths involved 0 Battlefield of the future 0 Robotization of American warfare Do you become more callous or uncaring about going to war if the casualties are less likely Possible ladder of escalation for CA a Lower on ladder very modest intrusions 0 zone of modest intrusion o 1 2 3 4 0 ex recruitment of CA assets in other countries o or the presence of satellites a Zone of more serious intrusion 0 Pump secret money in to use propaganda against another country dictatorship 0 Higher rung would be pump secret money into a fellow democracy for elections a Zone of High Risk 0 Ex massive funding for political parties in another country 0 Major effort to determine outcome of their electoral process a Extreme Covert Actions 0 Assassinations 0 PM operations 0 Coup d Etat o Environmentaltampering o Destroying animals trees etc 0 Things on ladder that could be considered so terrible we would hope the US would not use them but we have to protect ourselves from other countries that may use them 0 Blowing up in our faces exs of CA 0 Bay of Pigs o 34 assassination attempts against Castro 0 Big successes 0 Keeping communism out of Italy by secretly funding the Christian Democratic Party 0 Putting the Shah of Iran in power and getting cheap oil Only a temporary success but we couldn t have predicted the later result o Assassination of Bin Laden Do not know the long term effects They will want revenge 0 Response right after 911 in Afghanistan Decimated the Taliban regime n Combination of PM political propaganda US military special forces and 852 bombers n Covert action special forces overt air support success Didn t follow through we had them on the run but the Bush Administration gave up the most successful large scale PM operation in the history of the CIA Johnsons view diplomacy is the most important instrument we have 0 There is a place for CA in the arsenal of weapons for American foreign policy 0 Also war soft power trade etc 0 CA should be the last resort 0 Only when absolutely essential 0 After every other method has failed COUNTERINTELLIGENCE o If CA is the secret sword then counterintelligence is the SECRET SHIELD 0 Goal to thwartstop hostile operations directed against the United States by foreign intelligence services or terrorist organizations 0 Make sure the KGB during the Cold War did not infiltrate the CIA 0 Today make sure there are no more 91ls 0 Can get off track a dangerous methodology 0 North Korea has perfected it 0 George Orwell 1984 danged of getting into a counterintelligence state 0 If we wanted to do everything we could put cameras and wiretap everywhere in the nation No one wants a society like that north korea o no counterintelligence can leave you very vulnerable to attacks from abroad or subversive groups 0 Tom Charles Houston 0 Very bright college student at IU o Member of Young Americans for Freedom Against the hippies and other anti Vietnam war protestors Thought they were being anti American by not supporting the war 0 Nation was in a period of upheavel o Graduated and entered the military Assigned to DIA o 1968 volunteered for the Nixon Reelection Campaign impressed everyone Nixon admin getting very concerned about the student protests n Increased paranoia 1 or 2 of the protesters were completely nuts killing copsburning banks 0 Group of extremists o Majority of people just raising questions normal people Nixon went to Bob Erlachman and asked him what they should do Huston Plan 0 O n Nixon Thought the protestors were being sponsored by the KBG anti soviet KGB counterintelligence theory Pat Buchanan theres a guy at the RNC who knows everything about the hippies Houston Invited to the Oval office to talk to Nixon about u the anti war unrest Asks him to write a report with suggestions 0 I think Nixon is right this is probably a n soviet union operation We need our intelligence agencies to look into this 0 suggested the agencies spy on the anti vietnam war movement Nixon lets do it 0 June 1970 Houston moved to being an n assistant in the white house 0 Authority from the president to call the intelligence chiefs together 0 Everyone met at the CIA Tom Houston J Edgar Hoover Richard Helms Donald Bennett Nolan Gaylor o Told them they needed to find out where the funding is coming from o Tapping phones opening mail Etc Massive spy plan directed at American citizens In the name of counterintelligence Protecting the US against Soviet hostile operations Allowed the NSA to wiretap anyone they wanted O O O McVeigh decided to stop talking about it and do something 0 Aldrich Ames O O 0 US Army spied on protestors around military bases CIA opened the mail of student protestors Nixon this country is in danger of falling into the hands of terrorists Not terrorists just young students with reservations about this war a Especially because of the national draft After this moved forward Hoover got nervous If this were made public it would hurt his reputation n Didn t want to retire yet a Told the president that he didn t want to be associated with the Huston Plan any longer 0 Everyone else followed Investigative committee in 1975 found that even though they officially said they were not going to be involved with the plan the spying actually continued at a deeper level of secrecy Operation CHAOS COINTELPRO counterintelligence program Watch out with counterintelligence you need it to protect against Ames but it can also turn into a monster Mir Amal Kansi Murdered CIA agents at Langley Detonated truck full of explosives Traitor within the CIA Father had a great reputation former Intelligence man Halo effect over the son Financial problems Approached soviets who paid him large sums of money for valuable information about American intelligence operations occurring in the Soviet Union Came up with cars houses with no explanation 0 At least 9 of our highly placed assets in Moscow were assassinated All at the same time big hint they had a mole in US intelligence 0 220 operations against the Soviets told the soviets about every single one of them Robert Hanssen o breach 0 FBI counterintelligence aimed at the Soviet Union 0 Gave them a lot of information that reinforced Ames knowledge 0 Gave soviets info about our penetration of the Soviet embassy in the US Wired the entire building Provided them with the exact locations of every device Compared to every other western democracy we have been less penetrated by traitors Traitors o Klaus Fuchs British atomic scientist Came to work on the Manhattan Project Soviet asset Got the designs for the abomb 0 Edward Weisband Info on NSA tradecraft o Campilis Sold to the Soviet Embassy satellite orbiting information O O O O O O Photograph anyone going into the soviet embassy in Washington Howard CIA officer who defected to the USSR took info and moved there Pollard Spying against us for Israel Jewish wanted to help Israel His argument The information only dealt with the USSR which was a threat to Israel not related to US Longtree Only native American to be convicted of being a traitor Approached by a swallow beautiful woman whos job is to seduce someone with access to classified info Nicholson Highest level of CIA officer Defected to USSR Chin Chinese American Stole info from the CIA Angleton Kim Philby Chief of Counterintelligence for MI6 Top of CI Assigned to Washington as a liaison officer Bonded with angleton drinking buds Philby was a soviet asset n Recruited at Cambridge as a student a Fooled everyone Even angleton After being discovered he fled to the USSR n Made and general in the KGB o 995 of all American intelligence officers have never done anything wrong in terms of traitorous activity 0 why don t we use capital punishment against traitors anymore We want to continue to debrief them 0 Motivations for treason Ideology n Some Americans spied for soviets because they believed in the the MarxistLenist dream a Soviets spied for americans because they began to see the bankruptcy and failure of the Marxist dream a Popov GRU Colonel o Fed up with the USSR 0 Gave him a milk cow Money a Second phase 1960 s a Credit card debt D Other financial problems Heritage n Recent phase a Helping the old country 0 Chinese Americans spying for China 0 Most immigrants are not prospects for treason they had to work hard for their citizenship 0 TRADE CRAFI39 of CI 0 Techniques people use in the counterintelligence movement 0 Two groups Security and counterespionage Security o Secrecy n Protecting our intelligence information from foreign countries 0 Firewalls special codes building security heavily fortified electrical fences polygraph Counterespionage key to counterintelligence U Get a penetration get a mole inside their camp E Find out what they are doing to us a Most important form of CI 0 Agent in Place recruit an asset already inside the foreign intelligence service 0 Valuable 0 Already on the inside 0 Feed you a steady flow of information 0 Be careful of double agents Might already be working for someone o Defector 0 Someone on the inside who bails out to the US 0 Spills their guts 0 Danger disinformation A False Defector 0 We are a democracy want the public to know certain things about the government More educated citizens make the government work better Where do we draw the line Hersh and Jack first amendment absolutists Good Secrets vs Bad Secrets a Good names of assets or people involved in certain operations anything that could affect our troops 0 Project Guppie Jennifer etc a Bad spying on citizens Watergate 0 Government classifies things buries their mistakes to protect themselves and their reputation Dean Rusk Never saw a single leak that hurt US national security Group in each intelligence agency that determines what is secret 0 Most leaks come from the executive branch President has the authority to disclose classified information 0 Executive Privilege President claims that no one can interview someone he declares covered by executive privilege A cloak of secrecy extended by president a Nixon went way too far Want people to be able to talk freely in the executive branch without being hounded by reportersetc READING 0 Aggregate Budget Figure Debate 0 Whether or not to release the number 0 Wanted to show that the CIA wasn t the huge consumer of the budget Only 18 Released for a year then back in secrecy O Executive branch decided to make a release an annual event 0 Why not Would give the US citizens more motivations to call for cuts foreign nations could figure out how we are spending out money a a slipper slope but no one is going to actually release the DETAILS just an aggregate figure cant really figure out where it is going 0 NIC placement 0 CIA closest to analysts be there to get the information Be where the troops are Week 4 Accountability 0 Constitution and Federalist papers 0 Federalist papers James Madison 4th president the great a Argued that the founders were the most interested in the question of power Men would have to govern men because there were no angels 0 govern US Safeguards to place to prevent the abuse of power Lord Acton power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely a a Thought the best approach would be to divide power into 3 depts 0 Executive judicial legislative o Rely heavily on elections as a safeguard Federalist paper 51 Auxiliary precautions O n Methods to curtail power beyond elections themselves a Congress holds hearings 0 Every day at any time mostly public but some are executive session closed door 0 Make sure the bureaucrats don t do something stupid 0 Check up on the executive branch Founders driven by an antipower ethos n Prevent the abuse of power a Greatest gift to us today the safeguards given to us in the constitution against the abuse of power 0 Strong and independent congress to hold heanngs Strongest legislative branch ever in history except roman days of pericles Some of congress powers a Strong staff 0 House of commons only 15 staff aids senators often have up to 150 staff members working for them 0 Check up on laws being carried out n Subpoena powers 0 Can call anyone who is an American citizen to appear before congress and testify under oath If they refuse law enforcement officers come get them 0 Threat of using this power is massive a General Accountability Office GAO o Investigative arm of US congress o All of this did not happen by accident designed by James Madison 0 Arguments Ring of efficieny Congress is too strong Many presidents come from senate Govt is too fragmented inefficient a How can we get things done more rapidly hyperpluralism in washington missing the main point trying to guard against tyrannyautocracy we do have the capacity to react quickly in times of emergency pearl harbor and 911 we do have tendency to be sluggish u but this is good Encourages debate and differences of opinion 0 world leader when it comes to tryingto bring democracy checks and balances and accountability into the secret world of government affairs many countries want to follow our example CHAOS 0 America involved in an experiment to see if we can bring sunshine into the darkest recesses of the government 0 began in winter of 19749 result of operation CHAOS CHAOS CIA operation domestic surveillance program 0 Allende and Chile 0 Chile was a democracy 0 He was elected into the presidency by a free and open voting process 0 Nixon continued to cripple and destroy Allende administration despite this people of chile are too stupid to pic their leader o Sy Hersh one of the great American investigative reporters Melai massacre u be suspicious of classified government material why is it classified Covering up meai incident Given classified CIA info known as the family jewels 1974 James r Schlesinger n 1973 DCI sent a letter around agency saying he wants to address and resolve any improprieties o wanted to clear the deck 0 CYA cover your ass activity a 268 reports filtered up to 7th floor way more than anticipated 0 real or perceived wrongdoings within the agency 0 tried to look into each on o a copy of this list leaked to the NY times Sy Hersh o Included Operation CHAOS quite shocking the CIA going through mail of campus protestors following them entering classrooms tapping phone calls very unAmerican o Allende One thing to try to overthrow castro and other covert actions we had been involved in before but a major democracy is a different story Very controversial 0 Impact of Sy s writing was huge The word massive was major factor n CHAOS represented massive surveillance against American citizens a only against 15 people but that is still a lot of innocent individuals expressing their 1st amendement rights 0 Senate created an investigative committee immediately 0 1975 Frank Church leading orator senator picked to lead investigation a picked by mike Mansfield u very bright phi beta kappa intelligence officer in WWII House followed suit in creating a committee 0 O O O 0 First one fell apart difficulties figuring out how to conduct its inquiry Aggressive vs light fingered Picked Otis Pike Fighter pilot during Korean war White house also decided to conduct an inquiry Gerald ford asked Rockefeller to look into CHAOS Had to report only been about Allende nothing probably would have happened but operation CHAOS made the Family Jewels big news 0 3 separate commissions Smaller and ridden by ideological consent n Conservatives and left wing liberals a Wide spectrum of ideologies Blew up n Internal dissent n Irresponsible staff Someone leaked the entire top secret pike committee report to the Village Voice 0 Completely discredited the pike committee 0 Pike committee immediately disbanded as a result 0 the report the president didn t want you to see 0 why leak Maybe a retaliation from CIA Someone on committee so outraged by the findings most likely 0 Report given to Daniel Shore then to Village Voice source never revealed Immediately on bad terms with CIA because of left wing liberals n Pike was a democrat but not an extreme left winger but he was responsible for hiring irresponsible staff Huge n 175 people JOHNSON WAS FRANK CHURCH S ASSISTANT AT THE TIME Chief Council was FAO SCHWARTZ junior grandson of toy manufacturer Relatively cohesive n Senators tend to be less ideological Asked to appear on CBS Face the Nation n I believe the CIA is like a rogue elephant on a rampage breakfast with McGeorge Bundy 0 this statement would haunt the committee for the rest of the investigation 0 seemed to be biased before even conducting the investigation 0 Church apologized for the premature comment and said that most of the mistakes the CIA made stemmed from the Executive branch white house orders Lasted 16 months Tremendous output a Did much to spur the field of intelligence studies a Floor to ceiling public reports but half of it is still classified Rather professional a Nothing ever leaked Tense relationship with CIA n Made compromises but sometimes very tough on agencies 0 Sometimes took them to court George H W Bush thought Church committee was a disaster for the US intelligence n Hung out all of our dirty laundry for everyone to see and ruined intelligence Small only lasted 5 months Rather aggressive Rockefeller picked a tiger for Chief Council that wanted to get to the bottom of CHAOS a How could we prevent this from happening again Didn t last long but came up with a remarkably good report Pike vs Church 0 Pike wanted to evaluate the quality of intelligence Are we getting our money s worth from the CA 0 Church wanted to look at the abuses and CA Why separate committees 0 Going to be front page news Both house and senate wanted this recognition and opportunity for publicity 2 houses are not that cozie 1789 1974 Era of trust when it came to intelligence agencies they would not be subjected to checks and balances 0 Why Very delicate and dangerous area to mess with leave to the professionals general view Colby Honorable Men CIA and other intelligence officers are honorable men and they should be trusted However Democracy is about distrust distrusting those with power a Especially secret power D Thomas Jefferson Must chain down the Consitution with distrust o For a long period of time we relied on this theory of trust until we realized we couldn t anymore VietnameWatergate suspicions of Americans about the abuses of executive branch already raised n Then CHAOS and Allende furthered this 2 Reasons Why Law Makers Stayed out of intelligence during Era of Trust 0 1 General feelingt hat intelligence officials are honorable men and women can be trusted o 2 Avoid being held accountable James R Schlesinger and John Stennis n Accountability in 1973 n Schlesinger wanted to keep Stennis fully informed about intelligence n Stennis no no my boy I don t want to know 0 3 They are too busy don t want to spend time on anything they wont be able to take credit for busy spending time getting votes a David Mayhew the Electroconnection Members of congress engage in activities for which they can gain credit for back home 0 Must question authority As americans or just part of a democracy we need to check up on what our elected officials are doing a Cant just trust people to do the right thing a Current system doesn t emphasize the importance of checking up on bureaucrats End result of Church Committee 0 Change in attitudes in the IC Era of trust had come to a grinding halt No longer would intelligence be an exception to the role of accountability checks and balances and oversight o The creation of a Senate Select Committee on Intelligence SSCI 1976 New era is born Standing intelligence committee that would carry out all these oversight activities Brought democracy to the IC Hold executive session hearings n Members of the committee a Executive bureaucrats o HPSCI 1977 o SSCI and HPSCI become surrogates for the whole body of congress Some democracy is better than none 0 What did they find that was powerful enough to change thigns 1 Operation CHAOS n beyond the pail n spying on American citizens was intolerable to almost everyone a could no longer rely on trust and faith 2 COINTELPRO n anyone that Hoover thought was threatening to the security of America KKK and anitVietnam protestors a stunning discovery shocking n FBI program driven by J Edgar Hoover director of FBI 0 Crazy in some ways 0 Archracist Opposed the civil rights movement 100 0 Viewed Dr Martin Luther King Jr as the great enemy of the US Operations to destroy MLK from his own office 0 Anonymous mail writing campaign saying that king was foul unworthy of being a religious leader 0 Communist agents 0 Agent wrote a letter to king you have 84 days to take care of your scummy self king was supposed to commit suicide before receiving the Nobel Peace Prize 0 Box with a set of tape recordings of King having sex with women other than his wife in random hotel rooms around the country King didn t know who he was being blackmailed by take your wife or be disgraced publicly Philip Hart 0 0 King admitted his wrongdoings to his wife and apologized and she decided to stay with him Held a press conference apologizing to the nation and moved forward Captured John Dillinger n COINTELPRO case studies 0 Anatol Rapoport Born in Russia to Jewish parents 0 who fled to the US when he was a baby Spoke out against the war in 0 Vietnam Criticized both Johnson and Nixon Hoover went after him 0 Organized anonymous letter writing campaigns in Michigan D Said Rapoport was a communist undermining Americas position in the world a do you want your children to have a professor like that professor of UM fired him a Rapoport had offers all over the world bc he was one of the greatest political scientists of the century 0 White woman in St Louis married to a white man 0 She was a civil rights activist 0 Letter writing campaign against her saying she was having affairs with numerous black males n purpose was to destroy civil rights movement or the KKK movement because they were un American 0 FBI operations 3 Assassination plots 4 MK Ultra a Drug experimentation program a Robert Olsen 0 DSampT o Colleague slipped LSD into his coffee part of experiment to see the effects of LSD o Boards an airplane flies to NYC checks into a hotel runs through a window and kills himself 0 CIA covers up the story and it looks like he had just killed himself 0 Uncovered the files that the DSampT had acted irresponsibly 5 Operation Shamrock a Read every single international communication sent or received by American citizens a NSA 6 Operation Mineret n NSA wiretapping antiVietname war protestors telephones 7 Huston Plan 0 end result people are troubled new set of expectations no longer will the intelligence officers be unsupervised SSCI created 0 New Era of Oversight beginning in 1974 0 123174 congress went into a special session D Hughes Ryan act first signal that members of congress were shedding the skin of the era of trust and entering a new era Harold Hughes 0 Democrat from Iowa 0 Reformer only served one term in the senate but left a mark Leo Ryan 0 D San Francisco 0 Murdered on a trip to Jonestown Religious cult 0 Joined forces with Hughes to do something about Allende We cannot allow the CIA to run loose need to have more supervision when it comes to CA First law in the history of CA to deal with supervision Establishes 2 important procedures 0 1 every important covert action would have to be formally authorized by the president of the US no more plausible deniability no more easily erased lines there would be a paper trail of the president saying yes or no to covert actions historic and revolutionary n dismissal of the idea of trust a required formal procedure 0 2 All presidential authorizations of covert actions findings would be reported to the US Congress Reporting Requirement n bring some degree of democracy not full transparency a report to specific members of Congress about these approved CA a HPSCI and SSCI if HPSCI and SSCI don t approveagree a they don t have to approve they must just receive or be reported to a Target and Scope 0 Target who 0 Disrupt terrorist activities in Nicaragua 0 Scope n Aspin wanted to know more


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