INTRO TO COMP POL
INTRO TO COMP POL INTL 3300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quentin Kiehn on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INTL 3300 at University of Georgia taught by Kryzanek in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/202129/intl-3300-university-of-georgia in International Affairs at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
1 Comparative Politics the study and comparison of domestic policies across countries 2 Comparative Method the means by which social scientists make comparisons across cases Grand Theories 3 Culturalism a theory that places emphasis on the values ideas and beliefs that shape human behavior and ultimately political outcomes Foundations Max Weber Alexis de Tocqueville Protestantism Asian Values Debate 4 Structuralismstructuralists put emphasis on the economic social and political structures that constrain human behavior and therefore condition political processes across the world Foundations Karl Marx 5 Institutions structures or mechanisms that govern the behavior of individuals or groups of individuals in a collectivity a society a state formal or informal 6 Rational Choice approach that assumes that individuals weigh the costs and benefits and make choices to maximize their benefits Origins British Utilitarians like John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham Types of Political Cultures 7 Parochial found in developing societies a narrow focus 8 Subject increased awareness of politics yet little participation 9 Participative democratic political culture 10 Collective Action Problema situation in which individuals or groups choose what is individualistically rational and this leads to an outcome that is worse for everyone involved 11 Prisoner s Dilemmademonstrates why two people might not cooperate even if it is in both their best interests to do so 12 Tragedy of the Commons an actor will still have access to the resource even if not contributing to the resource s maintenance 13 Bounded Rationality can a person be entirely rational if lacking a lot of information that may include what his best choice should be Nation State 14 Nation State a state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to embody and represent Origins Hobbes Locke and Rousseau Marx Weber 15 Legitimacy a value whereby something or someone is recognized and accepted as right and proper Traditional ageold rules and powers Charismatic belief in a ruler and his mission Rationallegal highly institutionalized laws and procedures 16 Strong States able to fulfill basic tasks 17 Weak Statesunable to do so and characterized by limited public goods provision nonstate organizations that provide welfare corruption and graft rebel groupsarmed factions 18 Capacitythe ability of the state to wield power in order to carry out the basic tasks of providing security and other goods 19 Autonomythe ability of the state to wield its power independently of the public or international actors 20 Nation a territory including the state but as well as the culture language identity ideas beliefs that bind a group of ethnicity together 21 State a territory that has sovereignty from the government but the citizens do not have an ethnic connection nation to the state do not have an allegiance to their state due to their nationality 20 Globalization process by which economies but also societies and cultures have become integrated through trade transportation and communication 21 Challenged Statebecoming more dif cult for the state to regulate and manage national economies that are integrated into a complex international economy 22 Race to the Bottom when competition becomes erce over a particular area of trade and production these countries have an increased incentive to dismantle their regulatory standards 23 Supranational Organizations organizations comprised of multiple states are beginning to have in uence in the making and execution of policy Ex EU and NATO 24 Human Globalization 39 restructur39 J in 39 in migration 25 Assimilation when one must adopt languages culture rules of citizenship when one come to the state France 26 Multiculturalism the state doesn t ask immigrants to assimilate they permit immigrants to operate in their country and still have ties back to their home state C yields increase Democracy 27 Democracy a government where the people share in directing the activities of the state as distinct from governments controlled by a single class select group a party or one charismatic leader an entire philosophy based on the right of a people to control their government institutions for their own purposes 28 Federal Democracies where a government has guaranteed autonomy and authority over a wide spread territory 29 Unitary Democracies have a national government that oversees the entire state many local governments have little authority 30 Presidential Democracies where the executive is elected separate from the legislative group 3 l Parliamentary Democracies voting for and removing the executive by the parliament 32 Bicameral Democracies have two representative legislative groups 33 Unicameral Democracies have one representative legislative group 34 Majoritarian First Past the Post singlemember representing one district vote for the party rather than the representative 35 Proportional Representation there are multiple representatives for each district depends on how many seats one will receive in the parliament for that party a district could have more seats in the parliament than another district 36 Illiberal Democracies rule by an elected 39 J 39 391 through I J of 1 quot 39 39 democratic legitimacy Requisites of Democracy 37 Economic Development 38 Civil Society voluntary organizations that stand between citizens and the state that help people de ne and advance their own interests 39 Social Capitalsocial networks and the associated norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that enable people to act together more effectively to pursue shared objectives Trust mechanism that facilitates processes of social interaction Divided Societies 40 Majority Dominance the largest ethnic group usurps democratic system 41 Consociational Democracy Consociationalism government by elite cartel designed to turn a democracy with a fragmented political culture into a stable democracy elites of different ethnic or religious groups consult with each other and seek to accommodate political con icts through compromise or amicable agreement 42 Reinforcing Cleavages a society is divided along one major dimension with additional cleavages overlaying it 43 Cross cutting Cleavages dimensions of identity or interest along which members of the same ethnic group may have diverse allegiances Political Economy 44 Political Economythe study of the conditions under which production or consumption within limited parameters is organized in nationstates a recognition that politics affects economies and economies affect politics Foundations Adam Smith Karl Marx Components of Political Economy 45 Property ownership of goods services 46 Public Goods goods secured by the state and available for all of society 47 Taxation key source of revenue for the state 48 Monetary Policy a tool used to foster economic growth Central Bank 49 Regulation rules that set the boundaries of given procedures price controls environmental regulation etc 50 Trade Regulation tariffs taxes on imported goods and nontariff barriers quotas subsidies restrictive licensing systems 51 Liberalism an ideology as well as a political economic system values individual political and economic freedom 52 Social Democracy a politicaleconomic system in which freedom and equality are balanced through the state s management of the economy and the provision of social expenditures 53 Neo corporatism a system of social democratic policy making in which a limited number of organizations representing business and labor work with the state to set economic policy 54 Communism a political economic system in which all wealth and property are shared so as to eliminate exploitation oppression and ultimately the need for political institutions such as the state 55 Coordinated Market Economies specific skills apprenticeship programs 56 Liberal Market Economies transferrable skills skills used in more general jobs in several different markets 57 National Comparative Advantage the ability to produce a product with the highest relative efficiency given all the other products that could be produced 58 Incremental Innovation comparative advantage of having a CME highly qualified workforce
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