INTRO TO COMP POL
INTRO TO COMP POL INTL 3300
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Globalization Interaction integration bt ppl governments and companies Driven by int l trade and invstmnt gov policy Aided by info technology Good Econ Growth Jobs Lower Prices and Poverty Bad Loss of Culture Wealth Gap Increase Child Labor Vulnerability to World Market Wealthy 39 39 sourcing Democratization Transition from nondemocratic to democratic gov free and fair elections social freedoms accountability of gov officials First Wave Long Wave 19m Century Ended in 1920 Columbia France Italy Second Wave began the victories of allies in WWII ended in mid 1960s Third Wave began In mid 1970s 123 countries 39 39 39 39 Democratic Peace Theory The theory that democracies will not go to war with each other Derived from Immanuel Kant s Perpetual Peace He believed that the majority of people would choose not to go to war unlessti was forself defense If evenone was a republic then there would be no aggressors st answerto voting public 2 Feel L L ways to solve 39 Identity Ethnic common bio ancestw langua e culture kinship Horowitz collective ancestw mythno purebreds race Religious set of common beliefs and practices held by group of ppl Exclusionaw State and Religion taxes may go 2 clergy religiousfigures influence gov UK Church of England Church of Scotland Secularism gov and religion ind US 15 Amendment Gender Identity Often excluded from religious participation underrep in leg branch Rwandha has most women in legislature UK France Canada Germany had female Heads of State Gini Coefficient Measures ratio of rich poor ppl Denmark most equal perfect equity 0 Absolute inequality 100 Bolivia Least Equal Value Judgments Evaluations made on the basis ofvalues standards or ideals cannot be proved ordisproved normative political science political philosophy amp public policy analysis Liberal Democracy Fair and free competitive elections multiple and distinct parties protection of human rights social contract Ind Va riabie In cause and effect relationship it is the causal orexplanatowvariable Dep Variable Most interested in examining or explaining object of study effect or outcome that is influenced by another varia Theory quotL39 B 39 39 39 quot LU decide Will 39 fuLLul matterandwmcndun L 39 interpreted organized and fit to make a coherent whole Bad SimplifyArbitrarily Jump to Conclusions IgnoreDismiss Facts Fail to see contradictions neglect to think about assumption thattheories are based on Must be falsifiable Law A theorythat has been tested but not falsified strongly supported by empirical evidence do not change when new theories worked out Could be overturned by future observations Experimental Not common in comparative politics a methodological trial and error process that seeks to verify falsify or M th d establish the validity of hypothesis e o 2 or more quot to estimate the difference between the responses tothe treatments Compa rative Research s are political nature method of comparison is theow driven but not by singulartheory many tools eories must seekto explain social political change Method Theow provides the 39 39 quot then uses to test Induction Reasoning process that goes from quot39 39 3 weal 39 quot 39 39 wealthy Hypothesis Testing Step 1 Define Key Terms Step 2 Identify Variables Step 3 Specifying the Expectations ofthe Hypothesis if then statement Step 4 Collecting Examining the Evidence lookforevidence that confirms orcontradicts the hypothesis Correiation A 39 39 quot39 which two ur 39 39 39 together Positive and Negative Correlation Intervening A variable that explains the relationship between 2 or more othervariables V Can provide the causal link between two or more variables 393 9 Parents39 Statusgt child 39 39 nco Spurious When there appears to be a causeeffect relationship bt variables a no real causal link all b indirect link by Relationships some othervariable The State The whole ofthe countw s governmental institutions and officials the laws and procedures that structure and govern theiractivities The state has a monopoly on legal authority the entire population is bound by the laws of the t State Sovereignty s ate The exclusive legal authority ofa government over its population and territory independent of external authorizes in IR ability to enter into intern l agreements and orgs is key socially constructed concept that has changed overtime EUnion supranational org State Legitimacy Right to rule ppl must believe in that right Weber state has monopoly on cause of legit violence does this mean that citizens can use violence when the gov rule is not seen as legit John Locke Government with highest authority chosen by people Ppl have right to life liberty and property Gov must protect rights to be legit JeanJacques Rousseau Good of whole outweighs good of ind Governing body consists of a few elite who knows what is best forthe whole and only meet with rest ofthe body sometimes Influence socialism and communism Immanuel Kant Derived from Immanuel Kant s Perpetual Peace He believed that the majority of people would choose not to go to war unlessti was forself defense If evenone was a republic then there would be no aggressors Failed States A state has little or no ability to govern entire territow and lost basic security and development functions A variety of indgroups may claim a monopoly on legit violence Failed States 39 on 1239 39I39 t 0 most stable 10 least stable Social Demographic Problems Mass Refugee Movements Vengeance Seeking Groups Chronic or Sustained Human Rights Economic Uneven econ 39 quot Political 39 39 39 39 39 ofsta security forces rise offactionalized elites external intervention M 39 39 2 econ 6 political quotmm lines se ei ui iu pi au i iati ii ofhuman rights breakdown of Bureaucracy A network of state orgs that advise political decisionmakers and implement policies when decided upon They control economy education health environment international trade foreign relations etc Overseen by leg and court or bureaucracyyields power Coup d etat Forceful takeover of state power by militaw The Nation A group of ppl whose members share a common identity on the basis ofdistinguishing characterstics and a claim to territorial homeland Partition 39 39 quotquot 39 39 ofat least 1 eLiIlllL ui 39 39 39 homeland 39 39 units under different gov 1 fresh cut 2 usually externally proposed and imposed Has occurred w india Pakistan the iuimei 39 much ofthe African continent Secession Occurs when separatist group orethnic group breaks away from a civic territorial nation in orderto form a new nation The world s 15 secession Happens in Quebec Tibet Taiwan Wales Scotland the Punjab and even the US 15I is USfrom Britain West VA and VA Conventional Irrendentism c rs when an ethnicgenealogical nation residing in one civic territorial nation attempts to leave its parent state to join a neighboring hoststate Kashmir N Ireland K Unificationist Irredentism also known as the Motherland Style Irredentism occurs when an ethnicgenealogical nation that is divided among several civicterritorial nations attempts to unite into a single NEW parent state Kurds Basques Political Power The ability to determine or influence the decisions or behavior of gov officials held by primaw and secondaw elites masses Easton s Political Systems Analysis Politics is authoritative allocation of values and scarce resources ower held by those who decided to allocate said resources TABLE Pluralism The view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government but that many non governmental groups use their resources to exert influence LegalRational Government39s legit39y rests on a belief n the legality of the rules and the right ofthose who occupy positions byvirtue of those rulesto issue comm n s Authorlty Leaders elected by ind qualification Lose powerwhen they leave office Mo moder 39 39 39 39 Charismatic Control of others based on ind characteristics Extraordinaw ethical heroic or religious virtuosity Authorlty The Most unstable and unpredictable ofthe three types Civil Disobedience Non violent breaking ofan unjust law in orderto sene a higher principle Gandhi and salt protest New Terrorism Religion based self legitimacy and superiority no restraint 39 u eath of 39 39 39 Claiming Credit Less quot iii ag Alnaprl lemaahl lami ah hu f um Shinrikyo Uledlel nun believers ofadversaw a au Intl 3300 Notes for October 1St Advanced Industrial Democracies Not geographic countries that are similar Have high levels of human and economic prosperity Stable Democracies OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Defines itselfas an organization that provides a setting where governments compare policy experience and seek answers to problems It has 33 members Better re ects what advanced industrial democracies are How do we know ifa country is an AID Levels of economic development and existence of institutionalized democratic development Economic Private Property Purchasing Power Parity GDP and per capita levels of trade Their output tend to have small of agriculture sectors more service based Starting to see more post materialism Lower values on materials and progression and now more values on leisure environment quality oflife etc Quality ofinstitutionalized Democracy Marked by participation political competition and protection of liberties Doesn t mean all are same looks different This means check and balances vary from country to country Ex US vs Britain US we separate powers from executive to the other two branches So executive is not allpowerful Britian everything is merged together No veto power no judicial review They also can t overturn acts of parliament Also no divided government Participation also varies some countries use referendum allowing the policy to vote on direct decisions Notes for October 4th Types of electoral institutions that a country has in place determine what type of party system they have Two or Multi Single Member District who ever gets most votes wins one seat Generally leads to two party systems Proportional Representation leads to Multi Party system because there are no limits to how many parties can have seats in Parliament Because of only two parties the parties have to have policy platforms that cover a diverse range ofissues There are factions that do not support all points but they choose the party that best fits their needs Multi party systems are more numerous and allow each party to focus on specific policy points Green Party Environment and even multiculturalism Social Democrats Jobs You vote for a specific party not a candidate Process of Policy Making Two US Policy through hands of congress makes way through other branch up to the President or other way around Parliament Britain Made through use of coalition In which several parties cooperate Make a pact about legislation October 6 2010 The welfare state type of democratic state that offers protection to its citizens against the hardships of the market and life in general Gov protected minimum standards of income nutrition housing to every citizen as a political right not just charity First and foremost a democratic state People also argue that policy protection should be included in welfare regimes All provide social protection to prevent extreme poverty Main welfare providers The State the Market family In our country the market provides the most welfare protection Purpose of Welfare state Social rights Provides alternative means of welfare besides job Individual status as a citizen can compete and even replace class distinction Basic rights regardless of class and job Critics say it makes people to reliant to the state Ottoman Bismarck credited with starting the welfare state Wanted to keep socialist quiet by offering state benefits Late 19th century in Germany Development ofwelfare state was a response to the social problems developed by modernization Some believe that it developed because of the labor movement Lastly the State is believed to have developed the welfare movement The state was better able to craft the welfare state Expansion ofwelfare state Parties help expand For example the social democratic party in Sweden Countries place in the international economy Some societies that rely on other countries have to leave their economy open and to reduce uncertainty they have to develop social guarantees Prevents economic and social instabilities Variations in welfare regime 1 AngloSaxon liberal regime benefits tend to be low and at rate Target towards needy in society Tax financed Only protects small group 2 Scandinavian social democratic model Tax financed as well Benefits are granted without means testing not targeted Universal everyone gets the same treatment 3 Conservative continental regime Social rights are not based on citizen status but based on employment All types of work have different welfare benefits Differentiated based on income level Transfer payments get a lump sum for certain expenditures October 8 2010 Welfare pressures High unemployment leads to stress on system It s very expensive International globalization is now causing a race to the bottom and it s providing an incentive to lower welfare state Political shift to the right Scaling down of welfare state Demographics Aging populations put pressure on Welfare state Average life expectancy is high gets expensive to take care of old Health care pensions etc Declining birthrate Pressure from EU EU is a supranational system sovereign power shared among the members and held by institutions over the states themselves Lose autonomy Is it valuable Cons makes European economies less able to compete in international economy Pros globalization makes social policies a need Citizens need to be protected from international swings Invest in human capital Products of welfare states are the ones that defend it October 11th 2010 Immigration Advances in technologies have made migration to advanced countries a lot more attractive 110 in OECD countries is foreign born 2050 of migrants leave host country within five years A lot of migrant workers just come for a season then goes back home Surge for political asylum but it has been going down US UK Spain Canada and Germany Permanent ow ofimmigrants Much tougher to legally enter the United States that being said the US has some of the most liberal citizenship laws US interest groups lobbying for immigration laws How best to integrate newcomers into society Assimilation immigrants integrate themselves wholly They take up the native language usually secular government etc French and US Multi Culturalism Promotion of different cultures Set ofpolicies designed to recognize specific subgroups in society and to promote their interest to the majority Purpose stems in reduction ofpotential of con ict Some subgroups are catered to and some fear that his segments identities and leads to cultural isolation Socially keeps immigrants from mainstream society able to eXist on their own Economically MCPs prevents access to the labor market October 13 2010 Review Kinds ofterms Essential texts and Readings Nothing miniscule Four theories Culturalism Values Beliefs ideas Explaining political behavior and political outcomes EX Confucian culture places emphasis on growth etc Makes these societies more productive Structuralism Economic social political structure that constrain human behavior Things that are unconscious EX Capitalism nationstate Dependency theory the advanced democracies control international market and this impedes the development of the third world Institutionalism Humanly devised rules or constraints Groups develop to gain information about others These help solve collective action problems Helps prevents tragedy of the commons Looks at macro level outcomes Organizations Rational Choice Politics can be thought of choices made by individuals Start from the assumptions that humans are rational and selfinterested Weights cost ad benefits of course ofaction Anthony Downs Economic theory of rationality Political parties form policies just to win votes Nation State Types oflegitimacy Rational Legal Charismatic Traditional Strong states and weak states two different factors Autonomy and Capacity Capacity ability of state to wield its power Collecting taxes building roads etc Autonomy Ability to wield its power independently ofpublic and international opinion Changes to state by globalization state is becoming weaker because of global in uence Race to the bottom Political Economy relies on institutions that allow them to trade goods with each other State has to decide how much they will control the market Market Property Public goods available for all of society Taxation monetary policy regulation trade policies Types ofideal economic systems They tend to convert on distinct political economic organization Liberal vs Social Democratic coordinated market economy Business Labor State comes together and form decisions on labor wages etc Collective bargaining corporatism Another difference skill development CME specific skills Liberal transferrable skills Explains what sort ofadvancements are in countries Democracy Variation ofpolitical institutions in democracies Ex Parliamentary vs Presidential Single member vs Plural Democracies look different How democracy is managed in ethnically diverse societies Consociationalism elites multiparty democracies each group has representation PR Different ethnic groups represented in different parties Is economic development or civil society an important requisite of democracy Advanced Democracies postindustrial service sector is growing Post modern values postmaterialist Differences political parties 2 party system vs multi welfare states anglo saxon liberalneeds tested not expansive Nordic social democracysocial rights are universal and conservative continentalemployment standing Welfare state getting expensive Ideal vs Actual Ideal State where there is free and fair elections nonpartisan press capitalism strong civil society Voting is key part writing representatives Actual October 18 2010 Nondemocratic regime political regime controlled by a small group ofindividuals that exercise power over the state without being responsible to the public Systems Political rights for citizens are restrained These types of regimes place severe restrictions on the activities ofindividuals Variation Who rules Personal and Organizational rule Personal based on one charismatic leader Monarchyhereditary and highly ceremonial Dynastic Very large royal families DictatorUsually soldier or politician Not based on family or organization just leadership of one person Often hereditary succession happens but not a monarchy Populist President makes himselflegit but then makes him reelected through illegitimate practices Organizational Military rule and One Party rule Military surprising that there aren t many more military rule Use weapons and fear to keep power One Party Rule is a lot more stable When one party rules the country EX Chinese Communist Party Can have situation when all other parties are banned or where there are several parties but all puppets of one party How they rule Use of coercion compelling individuals by threatening them Harsh consequences whether it is lost ofjob arrest death torture Surveillance keeping close watches over population Keeps a fear over the population Cooptation Individuals are made dependant on the regime One form of co optation is corporatism organizational Clientelism is another form of cooptation It is on an individual level Manufacturing of personality cults North Korea is a good example Leader is not just a political figure but also someone who is good and holy Wisdom and embodies the spirit of the country Portrayed in a quasi religious manner October 20 2010 Why they rule Authoritarian regimes always think they have a right to rule Religious claims EX Wahhabism religious claim in Saudi Arabia Ideological Claims EX Communist ideology Black power Iuche Ideology doesn t have tradition like religion for it to be effective it has to be given a similar presence and in uence Democratic Claims Uses democratic process to stay in power Introducing new constitution or amendments etc Wants to make power quotlegalquot Even if have elections they aren t competitive Illiberal democracies still elections but use violence and other tactics to win the election to stay in power People still retain freedom from surveillance can still moderately criticize the government Totalitarian Governance mandate really becomes total control penetrates into every aspect in people s lives Pol pots Cambodia s totalitarian ruler October 22 2010 Middle East amp North Africa Has highest concentration of authoritarian regimes Regime politics Characterized by Monarchies Jordan Saudi Arabia Kuwait etc and Dictatorships Monarchies liberal and conservative Liberal Jordan and Morocco Executive authority is invested in the king King executes all of the laws Appoints and dismisses all judges can declare war command armed forces etc Parliament made of 55 senators appointed by king Second chamber of directors are elected Characterized by vote buying and chamber doesn t hold much weight Political parties are recognized as organizations Have political platforms can moderately criticize the government Conservative Saudi Arabia etc Council of ministers that advise the king All appointed by the king Political and civil rights are curtailed in conservative Very harsh punishments for violations Women have several restrictions not allowed to travel without permission of closest male relative Syria Algeria Vote rig curtail freedom ofpress On paper they are multiparty and semi democratic Coupon clippers Libya Kuwait Oman UIE Baran Kutar Abundant oil little else They have very few human capital Oil industrializers Iraq Iran Algeria Saudi Arabia Big oil exports and large enough populations to make industrialization happen First 3 has other natural resources and can create industrial and agriculture sectors Can be characterized as rentier states except Iraq Country with one abundant resource No need to extract tax revenue from their citizens Less pressure on government Watchmakers Iordan Syria Tunisia limited natural resources Investing in human capital and exporting skill intensive goods NIC Newly Industrializing Country Turkey Egypt Morocco Either no or not enough oil to base economy on Large populations good agriculture potential for land and long experience with industrial industries Import substitution industrialization but failed on all accounts These countries all began to shut off economy and government puts lots ofmoney into establishing industries that they needed to import Involved in exportled industrialization October 25 2010 Communists States Communism is not only a type ofpolitical regime but also an expansive ideology and political economic system Is in a class by itself Socialization of resources state must contain land labor and capital Social and economic equality between all citizens Says that until equality is achieved a strong leadership must guide it Communist countries havehad very strong states Fundamentally redesign human relations needed high level of autonomy and capacity Roles were written directly into the constitution so almost no way to remove the party A specific type of organizational rule what makes it different is that it is based on a particular ideology Within party where the real power was General Secretary Chief executive Politburo Political bureau Central committee Under Central committee cells that were meant to keep eye on population Ideology shaped policy and legitimized power of these regimes Benefits given to some ethnic groups inefficient level ofprosperity Failure of economy to generate greater material abundance To ensure stability Rewards and Sanctions Obedience could gain benefits like communist party membership Higher priority for desired goods Better housing ability to travel abroadetc Extensive system of surveillance was used to ensure that those who failed to obey the communist system lost their privileges Movie The Lives of Others Political Socialization the state required joining groups Used to quotentertainquot Report any bad behavior keeps the accountable Governmental apparatus shaped aspects of social life Carefully allocated jobs in state to people chosen and proved by the communist party High level of stability Some uprisings and violence but such outbreaks were suppressed Political Economy all property is nationalized Economy becomes a public good produced but not distributed on the market Central Planning command economy decisions like what and how much to produced what determined by the central government At the individual level almost everyone had free health care education etc Their economic performance was low Quality of goods was poor and consistent shortages Problems Over centralization didn t see the needs of consumers not responsive to circumstances Worker incentives workers were less inclined in communist countries to work hard Inadequate capital investment they didn t make investments in modern technologies etc China is because they liberalized their economy October 26 2010 Glasnost and Perestroika Changes to the system Glasnost is the plan Pere Actual changes Limited reform not total transformation Solidarity began asserting itselfacross Europe demanding open elections and no more one party rule This chain reaction spread east and end of communist system was imminent Had to reorganize a high autonomous state Had to create a separation ofpowers Iust things they weren t used tostarting from square one Needed body oflaws people would respect Afterwards everyone wanted to have a party Liberal parties reformist parties and nationalist parties formed Most of the developed has fared well but a lot have not Rioting after elections in Georgia caused President to step down Economic transitions Transfer to a liberal market system needed a separation between the state and the economy Process ofprivatization was tough for a lot ofbusinesses Shock therapy wanted to introduce the market very quickly A lot of the countries lost enormous prosperity The other half of them did achieve substantial growth Unemployment in these places really soared though Countries that began transition to market economies at various points of economic development Less developed fared a lot worse Radical changes like shock therapy more effective Russia Has struggled Vladimir Putan has built a closed and hypo centralized state This pseudodemocracy may be more destructive than the authoritarian institution Citizens living in these countries might prefer an iron hand State dangerously dependant on oil and gas Public goods continue to languish in Russia Troubling trend growing in uence of their eternal security police KGB 20 FSB has been granted the role ofa new elite in Russia llurt the scientific community restricted the work of NGOs spied on Russian journalist Closing open discussion November 1 2010 Developing Countries Some developing countries have strong and thriving democracies but some developing countries are authoritarian Less standards ofliving we usually classify them by economic standards Fourthworld countries are hurting the most Newly industrialized countries are on the border transitional phase Developing Countries On the way to being industrializedstill poor though Also called the global south The thirdworld Economically less modern High birth rates Some states have 40 of population below 15 Region based clustering Most developing countries in Sub Saharan Africa and Asia are generally low income In North America Middle East North Africa middle income Asia 13ml of the world s land 23rds ofworld s people Characterized by ethnic cultural and geographic diversity China and Phillipines somewhat greater economic development China s per capita ratings are in middle Rural and Agrarian Huge gaps between cities and rural areas SubSaharan Africa almost all are in lowincome category with the exception of South Africa and Namibia Poorest and least economically developed in the world Rampant disease plagued with malaria and HIVAIDS Colonialism led to dependence and few states have strong sense of national unity During colonial times they were grouped with tribes that have no common history Authority of central state is weak Middle East Islamic in religion and culture Arabic in ethnicity and language Petroleum resources Strategic location Remain socially conservative Latin America relatively advanced Modern and technological sector Direct colonial control of states were really early Strong national identity Church has huge in uence in region Highly urbanized November 3 2010 Political economy on developing states GDP per capita is a common measure of prosperity Low GDP per capita Policies are important to what sorts of outcomes in country GDP and human development index both important Development strategy choices 1 State control vs Market neoliberalism control in economy After independence more opted for a statist approach Need strong government but by the late 1980s developed countries rejected this approach Pressured by western states a Neo liberal Government regulation ofindustry and agriculture is radically reduced Emphasizes export promotion Open to foreign and direct invest FDI Characterized by combination of tax cuts and expansive reduction in public spending Produce for domestic consumption or for export a Use public policy to control import and exports Like decreasing imports and promoting internally produced goods Also trade protectionism Tariffs and Quotas Export promotion 3 Mix of manufactured products services and commodities are going to be produced a Seeks diversification Commodities are subjected to sharp swings in market Lots of developing countries are looking to industrialization 4 How agriculture is going to play in their development strategy N V a Ideally it can support an urban population Want to have crop yields that can be sent to other countries Nearly all developing countries promote market based production of cash crops 5 Collaboration with foreign capital a Whether they should embrace the foreign economy For other countries to have direct access to their economy Can do this through foreign aid shared technology grants and loans and debt forgiveness Loans borrowing funds from IMF World Bank etc Enticing but they have to be repaid Micro credit giving actual people loans to start business November 5 2010 Few states have found economic growth with small amounts ofborrowing little in ation China Other states have economic growth hyper in ation and lots of borrowing argentina Low economic growth in ation and debt burden Ghana Kenya negative economic growth Uneven development global south On individual level also uneven Gini indeX inequality within countries Structural adjustment programs to get loans and aid Cutting government jobs cutting services etc Outcomes Now relatively efficient but political elite captures profits from commercial agriculture and not use them for the state Small farms produce half of goods grown in developing countries Causes many citizens to deforestation techniques This causes oods and destroys farmland Green Revolution has doubled average rice corn and wheat But cost has risen dramatically Ground Hoppers destroys farmland unanticipated consequence from the green revolution Pesticides killed predator so they ourished 70 of FDIs are between developed countries around the world 20 goes to about 8 developing countries Less than 10 are shared between the 100 poorest countries in the world So they have to rely on loans Sometimes globalization means decrease in real wages for countries Emphasize implication ofpublic policies that promise to increase quality of life through jobs and social services Positive results Growth has increased Sustained high levels of economic growth models and inspiration Overall economic growth averaged more than three percent per year compared with 17 of the developed Average person is living longer healthier and better educated Has more material possession Negatives Financial industrial agriculture sectors are characterized by high levels of dependency Most countries still borrow money to pay for imports Gap in prosperity between developed and less developed world keeps growing Life is far less comfortable and life expectancy is about 14 years shorter Economic growth is uneven concentrated in east Asia Obstacles to prosperity High birth rates Corruption private payoffs 22 of top 38 are in global south Also 2 of the worlds least corrupt countries also in the global south Botswana and Namibia Large informal economy part of economy that s not regulated and not taxed Street vendors Dependence on primary commodities oil coffee bananas Imported most manufactured goods Prices have uctuated greatly Neocolonialism economic cultural military dependence can continue Patterns even stronger with globalization November 8 2010 State in developing world has inherited the political structures ofits colonizers Did not develop organically inherited Once nation gained independence they extended the method ofheavy state control Colonizers did not prepare peoples for a proper takeover Became easy for leaders to concentrate their powers to create a one party system Batswana state that did not suffer because of colonial legacy Success story An awareness and inclusion ofindigenous peoples during time ofindependence Kgotla communal assembly that act as liaisons between government and people Tribal chiefs were essential to political processes Europeans also left a quotstatistquot economy This caused the state to never full develop Favored their own exports Local firms were at a severe disadvantage State became the primary means ofwealth accumulation in these societies Secure a government job Swollen state very large and very week Private sector development lags behind State controls economy Wealth is highly concentrated in hands of state Patronage democracies Democracy in which the state monopolizes access to jobs and services and where gov officials can control jobs at state and local level Can distribute jobs to voters on an individualized level Patronage undermines political institutions and the rule of law Creates political competition that can be potentially dangerous Underinstitutionalization Political institutions in lots of these countries have existed for fewer than 40 or 50 years Institutions are so fragile that they begin to break down Susceptible to in uence of external actors Weak in capacity unable to provide quality of public goods that developed countries are able to buy November 17 2010 State society relations how do societies in developing countries relate to these very large yet weak states Do these states hold legitimacy Generally they do not hold much legitimacy however there are a few that do hold a degree of legitimacy It39s this duel nature of states that they are large and weak that is the heart of studying developing countries States have resources to build things for the public but they are ineffective in doing what the populous wants of them ex Africa The state feels as if it must have social control Social control getting the population to obey the rules of the state The formulate rules and regulations that society must follow web like societies which makes the state somewhat of a secondary realm What could account for the state having low level of legitimacy How they took power Corruption Economic reforms Self enclosure reducing one39s view of state39s channels and instead relying on family channels for survival Some states will offer quotrewardsquot for participation like giving participates a genuine role While other states use force or repressive qualities Democratization a result of these techniques used by states we39ll talk more about after the breakthe states often end of reinstating order If policies by the states are not effect it can result in violence terrorism As political decay increase social order and collapse In some cases there is external intervention like by the UN etc Security and Violence Characteristics of developing countries search for security Violence occurs around the globe However if does effect developing countries in particular Often between neighboring states Why Refugees Resources Boundaries attempts to realigned national borders Differences in cultures esp those grounded in religion because this tends to produce animosity Resources attempt to take control of those resources by force typically when resources are scarce Internal problems quotdiversionary theory of warquot war that is the result ofpolitical leaders rallying around the ag and starting a war based on internal problems interstate war UN often tries to maintain stability in developing countries quotprotect and implement current peace agreementsquot most UN peace keeping missions are funded by developed countries Does this violate states sovereignty The search for security is often very costly Devote many resources to arms military missions etc in the last decade military spending has increased particularly in N Africa E Asia Internal War when political decay becomes excessive this is the outcome Two types civil and revolutionary Fueled by ethnoclass or regional Ethnic identity and con ict primary source of con ict EX Sudan Usually triggered by other struggles And are then waged along ethnic lines Since the end of the Cold War ethnic and religious identity cases have surged Ethnic group ppl with common history see themselves as unified not usually seeking their own state It39s people39s perceptions that are crucial in defining what is an ethnic group Like a common language Most scholars agree that ethnicity is socially constructed Their interests often just want to be recognized politics of recognition Recognition can include local language inclusion inclusion in national history making language an official language being identified Seek regional autonomy If they believe those in power are being discriminatory they may see their political identity and ethnic identity as one in the same quotrelative deprivationquot feel as if they aren39t getting their fair share feel as if they39ve been discriminated against and they often resort to violence Both POR and RD can lead to mobilization of ethnic groups and lead to violence Political leaders are very important to ethnic con ict November 19 2010 Brazil very diverse economy founded on strong sector in oil biofuels and agriculture Grewthrough sound political decisions Has stability Allows Brazil rise to continue and become a global player Brazil economy Discovery of new oil and gas deposits Independent from importing crude oil Brazil s Mining industry is a world leader Partnered with South Korea and China to build steel mills Agricultural plenty largest tropical landmass in the world Can feed national population and still have a substantial surplus to export Energy dimension to Brazil s economy ethanol biodiesel Trying to break into European and US market Environmental Activist says this energy causing deforestation Serious concerns about eastern perimeter where agriculture frontier is growing Forest burning is a major source of atmospheric carbon emissions quotStop and go development Political disorder has often prevented sustained growth Workers party PT Union movement Lula Brazilian Social Democratic Party PSDB Fernando Brazil s notorious gap between rich and poor have been decreasing Dilma Rouseff Brazil s first woman president Brazil s annual growth rate is 5 November 29 2010 Democracy Most developing countries are under pressure to shift away from authoritarian regimes Pressure from financial institutions and citizens demanding rights Free country allows citizens a large array ofpolitical rights and civil liberties Not free limits political rights and civil liberties Partly free significant political restrictions Latin America by 2004 every country in the western hemisphere had an election for political leader As far as GDP Latin America has been successful in development Asia Mixed China has been historically hostile towards democracy SubSaharan Africa 16 countries labeled as not free 11 of48 are entirely free Countries that belong to this group are overshadowed 21 are partly free Middle East and North Africa Greatest number of authoritarian regimes in the world Has introduced elements of democracy a lot quotelectquot their leaders Don t have well institutionalized democratic processes Only Israel is free PostCommunist Mixed in area Economically developed countries has fared better EXplanations Pressure of external actors World bank and other financial institutions have said that countries to have democratic reforms before aid Also individual countries Other actors Catholic Church Breakdown of authoritarian regimes Provides window of opportunity for democratization Reasons why Hands ofpopulous schism in the leadership severe economic mismanagement Level of economic development Conclude that democracy is most viable in wealthy countries Contagion effect Perception grows that other countries are making the transition citizens conclude that they should also adopt the desired reform Political leadership that s committed to democracy December 1 2010 Agents of transition When authoritarian regime faces large crisis the leadership splits into two camps Hardliners and Softliners Believes in repressing any opposition Hardliners refuse to allow any liberalization Led by labor unions religious authorities or middle class professional groups etc Path dependent circular process Softliners begin to open up regime and establish more rights This resurrects civil society Civil society establishes democratic institutions Civil society is divided between radicals and moderates Radical complete democratization and Moderates willing to compromise Negotiated pact agreement between most important political actors to establish new government Founded by a founding election Regime is strong they control the process Type of rule determines what sort of democracy you develop EX Military rule divisions in military spurs on democracy Latin America Personal Rule democratization from below From groups in civil society Africa Whether democracy will last Democratic consolidation Democracy has become widely accepted as permanent form of government Two turnover test before considering it a consolidation Hybrid regimes allow has elections but the processes are so awed that they can t be considered democratic in any sense Economic development political culture depends on chances ofdemocracy developing