STUDY OF LANGUAGE
STUDY OF LANGUAGE LING 2100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wendell Lakin III on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Jacobs in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see /class/202131/ling-2100-university-of-georgia in Linguistics at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Dear all I Some notes on the exam Short answers are basically two sentences long w an example There might be an essay question Count on it pertaining to any of the big issues If you KNOW your definitions and how these things fit into the larger picture you will definitely be able to answer the essay What do I count as an essay A paragraph So it s really just a longer short answer Obviously I don t grade for spelling I grade for you showing me that you know how these ideas work If I put an essay on the exam you will have a choice of multiple questionsmeaning you will choose from a selection II Know the following definitions as well as how to discuss them in a greater context for the following list you don t necessarily need examples just definitions although examples are always helpful Language Death Why do languages die Often because of killer languages like English that stomp out smaller languages One in which a community of speakers of one language becomes bilingual in another language and gradually shifts allegiance to the second language until they stop using their original or heritage language Ex Gothic is a dead language No one speaks it anymore Why should we care Because there is culture associated with the language and when we lose it we often lose the culture too Why would we say that Latin is not dead Because it is an evolved language No one speaks it anymore but it has evolved into the different romance languages What is an endangered language Many Native American languages They don t have that many fluent speakers left to pass it on so it will eventually die out Chapter 10 Sociolinguistics Language attitudes in society many people believe that some dialects are betterworse than othersthis is not objectively true you need to know WHY people have these attitudes reates to prestige below Dialect ALL DIALECTS ARE EQUAL When a group of speakers of a particular language differs noticeably in its speech from another group we say that they are different dialects What is the difference between a dialect and a language A language is a dialect with an Army and a Navy Language is a bundle of dialects Idiolect be prepared to give an example of something from someone s idiolectcoud be from yourself or someone you know something specific about someone s speech How you pronounce something The form of a language spoken by one person Ex Marcus says bagel funny and Magdi says mooove Slang And why do we have it We only have it for taboo things 1 Poop 2 Drinking Drugs 3 Sex Use slang to indirectly talk about inappropriate things Mutual Intelligeability 2 dialects are considered different languages when they are mutually unintelligible Diaects of same language mutually intelligible Dialect Continuum From Berlin German to Amsterdam Dutch it slowly changes from German to Dutch from the cities in between until it eventually becomes a totally different language Each dialect is closely related to the next but the dialects at either end of the scale are mutually unintelligible Systematic differences in lexicon phonology morphology and syntax Speech Community A community of speakers Ex UGAGeorgiansAmerican EnglishEnglish speakers A group of people speaking the same dialect Prestige standard dialects and nonstandard dialects ALL DIALECTS ARE EQUAL We perceive a standardprestige dialect as the correct dialect and all the others are inferior This misconception comes from social stereotypes and biases The standard dialect is usually the one spoken by politicians the media and taught in schools What are the five most studied extralinguistic factors that have been shown to affect dialect variation Region Age Gender Ethnicity Socioeconomic Status Some of my former students have memorized these using RAGES Know the role of child language acquisition in language change as well as the birth of creoles Language changes because of child language acquisition Kids speak a slightly different version of a language than their parents It gets passed down and continues to change Hedging Indirect speech Ex I was wondering if you would consider Affected by relative positions of power Women do it more than men Students do it often to teachers Discourse Marker like is a good example You know well oh um like Does not change the meaning of a sentence kind of fillers Habitual Be Don t worry about a definition here but be prepared to give an example and to compare it with the English progressive Used a lot in the dialect of African American English Ex He be working instead of he is working or she be lazy How is our language different from the language of other generations Languages vary mainly in phonological syntactical and lexical ways Rhotic dialects versus nonrhotic dialects Rhotic dialects do NOT drop r s NonRhotic dialects drop r s at the end of a syllable systematic Example Old Southern English from Charleston Chapter 11 Pidgins AND Creoles The relationship between the two and the DIFFERENCES between the two ie Creoles probably come from Pidgins be prepared to tell me HOW If a child is raised with pidgins he will build a grammar structure out of it and it will become a creole Pidgins are artificial but Creoles are natural What is a lexifier language The language that donates the most words Also called to superstratum Usualy language of people in power historically Why is one language usually a lexifier What is a substratum language Substratum language is a language spoken by the native people What are the common features of Pidgins Extension of words ex stick means pencil tree limb etc Combining dogbaby for puppy Simper sounds in terms of articulation p b m d What kinds of situations make pidgins come about When two languages create a makeshift language to communicate for things like trading Ex Slavery African American languages and English IV Definitions AND examples Borrowing and when does it occur Take a word from another language Occurs through language contact or when we ve never come into contact with something before Ex Sushi tsunami etc Chapter 11 Think about simple structureseither syntactic or phonological or lexicaljust prepared to give some sort of real example Phonological Variation rhotic versus nonrhotic is a good example Ex caught and cot are pronounced the same in many Southern American dialects Syntactic Variation Model verbs habitual be are good examples of this Ex might could might would may can and useta could Lexical Variation Changes the meaning of a particular word CokePepsi remoteclicker Semantic Narrowing meaning becomes more restricted book refers to it as reduction Meat Used to refer to all food meatpie and now only specifically to animal meat Semantic Broadening in the book extension Dog Dog used to refer to only big dogs and now it refers to all breeds of dogs Semantic Drift Sily Changed over time from vulnerable to na39ive to goofy 125 pm Exam Mon May 9 1200 300 pm Caldwell Hall Room 264 might be 265I can t rememberin any case you ll see us all there
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