STUDY OF LANGUAGE
STUDY OF LANGUAGE LING 2100
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Date Created: 09/12/15
English Consonant Chart mm mm mgr121W fabioo m gm 42m 414th Sum W2 Edam MW 860wa w auwmm quot 4 1 3 a DE 5 JV A 34 ca batmm CV gar 92 3 q C wsz I 5 5 d Nawk M h D e VthzmK L f Renown w J g G Me w J h Wu F Phone cs Articulatory the way speech sounds are produced Auditory the way speech sounds are perceived Acoustic study of the physical properties of speech sounds Speech Sounds Needs List xLungs xVocal folds xVocal tract xAir molecule Air molecules vibrate in place producing sound waves Time behavior at 311025 Snapsth of wave at t27 4 4 u 2 2 a 3 a a 4 n a n a a 2 52 4 4 10 20 30 40 5 D 5 1 time o g 20 25 an pos1b10n What is Sound The perception of the air molecules vibrating at a rate from 20 to 20000 Hz times a second LF p 46 1 The speech produaion mechanism Source of the Energy rmm Llebemnn and nlummln 5pm Physician 1990 p 4 Copyllght 1990 Clmbridge Unlvenlty has All rig reserved Reprinted with pennlm39on LF p 73 4 Source plus lter equals speech sound 3 i Contribution of the S Source V Vocal Folds Hz man 2000 3000 3 E Contribution of the 2 Filter Vocal Tract Articulators 39 39V39 39l Hz 1000 2000 3000 U Equot SpeechSaund Hz 1000 20m 1000 Acoustic Phonetics Peter Ladefoged A Course in Phonetics 2006 m y two b o y sknowhuwtofish lit Waveform lll l in lHL mml mm mwl ilmm 39nr me39l r r n I u unr l i Hmul ll Ill l39ftL1lu hum ml Hucl mu l h 1 Principal manners of articulation Difference btw voiced and voiceless sounds Phona on Voiced sounds Vocal folds vibrate Voiceless sounds Vocal folds do not vibrate Determines the quality of a person s voice Intonation the change in sentence melody Tone tonal languages LF p 46 WNW Glums Wall of the larynx a voiceless Open Vocal Folds b Voiced c Whispu Appmximated Vocal Folds Pam39auy Closed Vocal Fulds Type of Speech Sounds Segments Vowels V Consonants C Suprasegmentals Length Tone Intonation Stress Pronouncing Speech Sounds Positioning vocal tract and larynx in a particular configuration Presence or absence of relative constriction and where and how this constriction occurs in the vocal tract Presence or absence of vibration in the larynx Acoustic Phonetics m y twob 0y sknowhowlofish chmnu I39l iculh c 1 bum uucl nltl nu cl uc V bum I JR rWL l AVCI rICJ IVL39 fl39lL lc clown clltngtlgtrc nmcl u I U 1 U wumds Representing Speech Sounds Conventional Writing Systems does not allow to represent all the subtle variations that occur when different people talk Cf English Orthography English Orthography right write rite wright rain rein reign cite site sight pain pane bear bare read red wind N wind V etc English Orthography Partially alphabetic r i t Partially logographic right writ e rit e wrigh t alphabetic alphabetic alphabetic I I I ram rem reign l logographic English Orthography sea see scene receive thief ltsgt sign pleasure measure resign ltchgt charter character chef ltagt father all about apple any age lock mat bgk bgst op exit use Know though island some more of the inconsistancy ltoughgt tough cough though through N meet meat siege conceive city spaghetti International Phonetic Association IPA Alphabet 0 An quotidealquot segmental alphabetical writing system The symbols represent pure sound and are not associated with any particular language The best approximation there is to a quotphoneticquot writing system uzzamu njudaiwi kullulrfsirozhi egnim lzle retnedhoztem tnu bi kantnmjuzd 1 ll a dega vizite do mezS 4 Sagittal section 0f the vocal tract LF p 49 Alvmur Ridge Glouls Manner of Articulation Stop Fricative Affricate Nasal Lateral liquid Retroflex liquid Glide Flap Place of Articulation Bilabial quotbothIippy Labiodental quotIowerlippoupperteethy Inte rdental quotinbetweenteethy Alveola r quottoothsockety AIVEO palatal quottoothsocketomouthroofyquot Pa Iatal quotmouthroofyquot Vela r quotveilyquot Glottal quotwindpipegappy nasal cavuy alveolar hard palate ridge palaium durum teeth 7 7 7 soft palate vejum shown in denies bucca39 Cavity palsnne velum raisedpasman t39 biggie uvula l apg back dorsam tongue U39 lingua g I39st root 2 labia mdb 3 X epiglottis Anthony Atkielsky Using phonetic transcription in class 2005 g 4v a D g vocal 7 g folds 39 In glottls LlNGZlOOiPhonologyistudy Guide 1 Phonology The way native speakers mentally react to the behavior of speech sounds in their language This is a speaker oriented definition of phonology A typical textbook definition would make reference to the organization of speech sounds i e their patterning and distribution within a language specific system Phonetics the study of concrete speech sounds complements and at the same time contrasts phonology in the sense that phonology is a scientific systematic attempt at making sense out of the seemingly random and complex information that is available on the surface ie out of the variable phonetic signal This is traditionally modeled via phonological rules The seemingly random and complex but tangible phonetic information on the surface is thus modeled to be the output of the phonological rules that are argued to exist in the mind of a speaker The input to the phonological rules is argued to consist of abstract and categorical ie invariable mental entities Phoneme An abstract unit of the underlying phonological system located in the mind The inventory of the underlying phonemes of a language is established by means of patternings or systematic relationships of speech sounds in a language A phoneme seems to be an absolutely indispensable theoretical construct of any phonological analysis In the traditional one the one we are doing in class it represents a relatively simple manageable and in a certain sense static underlying input to the phonological rules that straightforwardly map it onto the complex surface phonetic output which is in a very real sense dynamic and hardly manageable as such The phonemic status of a segment is marked by slants eg s represents the phoneme s ie voiceless alveolar fricative in the mind of a speaker Allophone A concrete physical realization of a phoneme or a predictable surface sound of a language ie the one which is spoken The allophonic status of a segment is marked by square brackets eg s represents the actual surface pronunciation of the allophone s ie the actual or potential physical articulation of a voiceless alveolar fricative This is the dynamic level at which there exists a staggering diversity the scientific fact being that no two speakers pronounce their speech sounds in the same way Whatis more a single speaker is really not able to reproduce the exactly same sound twice This is in direct contradiction to the most natural intuitions speakers have about language In phonological theory this intuition is explained by making reference to phoneme a kind of a mental template for an allophone LlNGZlOOiPhonologyistudy Guide 2 The allophones of a phoneme form a set of sounds that 1 do not change the meaning of a word 2 are all phonetically quite similar to one another 3 occur in phonetic contexts different from one another cf Complementary distribution The differences between allophones can be stated in terms of phonological rules Phonological rules make the distribution of the allophones of a phoneme predictable Distribution The set of phonetic environments in which a speech sound occurs If two sounds are found in different phonetic environments or positions or contexts they are distributed differently There are several logical ways in which the distribution of two or more speech sounds can be related they might have exactly the same distribution overlapping distribution or disjoint distribution Notice that the same distribution and overlapping distribution can be either contrastive or noncontrastive whereas disjoint distribution can only be noncontrastive This is because the terms contrastive and noncontrastive refer to a slightly different aspect of distribution the one having to do with the cognitive meaningfulness of the sounds ie their phonemic status while the same overlapping and disjoint distributions solely refer to logical strictly speaking non linguistic aspects of distribution that I believe were simply adopted from mathematical theory Contrastive distribution Two speech sounds are in contrastive distribution when interchanging the sounds in the same position is cognitively meaningful ie it changes the meaning of a word or creates a new potential word of a language e g the contrast between one vs wug points to the fact that n and g represent two different phonemes of English namely n and g respectively In traditional phonology this interchanging is sometimes referred to as a minimal pair test What contrastive distribution and the minimal pair test unmistakably imply is that the two speech sounds are unpredictable in the phonological sense ie the correct sound has to be retrieved from the native speaker s memory where it is arbitrarily associated with a particular meaning the correct sound is NOT a result of a phonological y predictable rule Noncontrastive distribution A pedantic way of classifying complementag distribution and free variation into one category Complementary distribution Ignoring all the details below the two sounds are in complementary distribution if they do not occur in the same phonetic environment Otherwise a subtype of disjoint distribution ie the sounds do NOT occur in the same position in which the set of the two positions is exhaustive LlNGZlOOiPhonologyistudy Guide 3 A very good example of an exhaustive set of positions is the distribution of aspirated and unaspirated allophones of the natural class of English voiceless stops ie ptk after s and not after s Since there logically cannot exist a third position which is simultaneously after s and not after s these two specifications represent an exhaustive set of positions Just for the sake of completioniyou don t need to know this for the testia good example of a non exhaustive set of positions would be the distribution of English allophones h and 1 They belong to different phonemes h and n respectively yet they are in disjoint distribution ie they never contrast because the allophone h can only occur at the beginning of the word while the allophone 1 only in the coda position of a syllable or end of the word just try it out for yourselves However since there are other logically possible positions with respect to the specific wording of this phonological rule such as syllable onset neither at the beginning nor at the end of a word etc this rule refers only to a relative subset of all possible positions ie it is not exhaustive in the sense that the rule which says after some segment and not after some segment is If two speech sounds are in complementary distribution there will NEVER be a minimal pair that uses them to distinguish two words In other words these two sounds CANNOT be contrastive If the complementary distribution of the two noncontrastive sounds is predictable via the operations of phonological rules the sounds are said to be the allophones of the same phoneme Free variation The noncontrastive subtype of overlapping distribution In some cases a substitution of more than one allophone of a given phoneme is phonologically possible The crucial thing here is that the meaning of a word does NOT change by the substitution Free variation sometimes correlates with predictability but more often does not at least not in an obvious way For example sometimes realization of a phoneme is affected by register informal vs casual eg city s1ti vs SIti cf apping both possible surface realizations of the underlying s1ti Predictability Predictability correlates with regularity of patterning Used as a tool predictability implies the presence of a phonological rule which is essentially an algorithm that generates output that is in some way perceived as regular and by extension predictable So if for instance all stop segments in a language are found voiced after a nasal an algorithm or a rule of voicing a stop after a nasal can be assumed Cf Kikamba LF p101 Based on this rule speakers can quite easily predict whether a stop should be voiced or voiceless next time they encounter this specific phonetic environment LlNGZlOOiPhonologyistudy Guide 4 More importantly the concept of predictability can be tricky because there are two sides to it If the sounds under analysis are in complementary distribution ie not in the same environment and are predictable ie by some kind of rule the sounds are allophones of the same phoneme In other words the situation is a result of a single abstract entity a phoneme being redistributed into these incompatible positions by some phonological rule However unpredictable distributions of sounds are indicative of both free variation and contrastive distribution see the owchart on p 133 The issues with predictability or rather unpredictability indicate that generating or predicting the correct surface forms is one thing but decoding the surface forms is quite another matter The operation of a phonological rule might obscure an underlying form So if all sequences of nasal plus stop are predictably voiced in a language a surface sequence such as nd can be a result of both underlying nd and nt The point is that predictability works only one way and therefore it is necessary to look for the change of meaning at the same time when analyzing a distribution Phonological rule A phonological rule is a traditional metaphor for the process of mapping between phonemic and phonetic elements A phonological rule can be also simply understood as a statement about a distribution of the underlying forms or phonemes Phonological rules are part of speaker s invisible underlying or unconscious linguistic competence They mediate between the two levels of linguistic structure 1 the underlying mental elements the phonemes and 2 the surface physical realizations of these elements the actual sounds Natural class A group of sounds in a language that share one or more articulatory or auditory property to the exclusion of all other sounds in that language ie the sounds that do not share those properties Phonological rules typically refer to natural classes precisely because phonological rules operate on these specific articulatory or auditory properties that the members of a natural class share by definition For example the rule of aspiration targets or operates on the voicelessness of an underlying stop and not on a particular segment or its place of articulation As a consequence all the members of the voiceless stop natural class in English are affected by it Natural classes may consist of any number of sounds from one to many as for example the natural class of all vowels or the natural class of all consonants in a language Logically the smaller the class the more features will be shared LINGZlOOiPhonologyistudy Guide 5 Minimal pair A pair of words that have different meanings whose pronunciations differ by exactly one sound in the same position The minimal pair test is a simple technique of establishing which speech sounds are contrastive ie used to differentiate words in a language If the sound substitution causes differences of meaning ie creates a new word the sounds are said to be in contrastive distribution or to represent allophones of different phonemes In other words if the sounds are contrastive they CANNOT be the same ie they cannot be one and the same phoneme in the mind of a speaker Phonological processes Classification of phonological rules according to the kind of process they involve Assimilation Quite intuitively Changing one sound into another because of the in uence of the neighboring sounds as in the change of underlying n to 1 in ink 113k cf nasal place of articulation assimilation or of underlying z to 5 in does she dAg f i cf palatalization More accurately Making a feature or a bundle of features of a segment more similar to the feature or the bundle of features of another segment Palatalization A special type of assimilation in which a consonant becomes like a neighboring palatal or front vowel Place of articulation A segment assimilates to the place of articulation of a following segment assimilation Dissimilation A phonological process by which two close or adjacent sounds become less alike with respect to some feature by means of a change in one or both sounds Eg It velenoso poisonous lt L VENENOSU Cf venomous Insertion A process which causes a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of a word Eg dance strength something centssense Deletion Eliminates a sound that was present at the phonemic level Eg Russ mest o place InijADJsuffix gt mesnij local NE signature sign soft soften Metathesis Changes the order of sounds Eg Sp paiabza word lt VL PARABOLA fable cf It parole NE axed asked Fortition Strengthening Makes sounds stronger Aspiration A type of fortition A period of voicelessness after the release of an articulation as in English p1t phlth Lenition W eakening Makes sounds weaker Flapping A type of lenition An articulation in which one articulator usually the tip of the tongue si drawn back and then allowed to strike against another articulator in returning to its rest position Cf wrirer rirer Are they different Multiple rule application cots dogs horses Introduction A diagram of Language Are sound and quotmeani Cf Lipreading Neu quotthe world real or imagined think unicorn Is mammal a necessary part of the meaning of whale is pig of the meaning of pork What about the texture of pork or color or smell is that part of Language Cf Language Files LF p24 25 However the dichotomy be McGurk Effect Acquisition of speech sounds by quotvisua foreign sounds etc III clues lnabiity to hear Gog Sound I Gesture 4 7391 Sound Gesture 139 r Phonetics v0 Phonetics refers to the s in terms of their production articulation perception auditory phonetics and physical properties acoustics PhonOlogy Sound Gesturet 7 7711 Phonetics Yo g Phonology refers to the terms of how the mind h of speech sounds or intuitively how native speakers quotreactquot to physical sounds Phonology Sound Iquot FOR Gesturelx Phonetics Phonology refers to the wa Eg 2 distinct pronunciatio sound one with the so call of pho ography only the 39t is possible is there a pattern Also how native speakers of Spanish have to have the sound eh in front of every st sticker gsticker It s not like the sequence st is physically impossible to pronounce is it I mean Americans can do it Phonology Sound m Go Gesture Phonetics Mor Morphology refers to the w certain sequence of sounds Eg rewrite redo refill et lfill again respectively That is re again da h means morpheme boundary ie the boundary between the units in which the FORM and FUNCTION systematically correspond Phonology Sound I L FOR Gesturequot 5393 39 Phonetics Also English compounds a blackbird ablacker tha usedcar salesman a slight y use car so esman air conditioning a humid air conditioning Phonology Q l 9 Sound w 7 Fog gesturex 7 1 19 Phonetics Also English compounds a toothbrush i a brush for n a teethbrush Phonology Sound w V 1 v0 Gesture l i Phonetics Also English compounds fry meat in a pan gt panfr 7 eat pasta in a tree gt treeeating of pasta ie Verb Object Prepositional Phrase Sound 7 v i Y wGestWe 139 397 Phone cs Syntax refers to the study of the way words combine to form sentences The words do not combine hierarchy That means that words dominate and are quotdominated by other words in a sentence in a systematically predictable ways Structural Ambiguity I saw her water bird I saw her duck I saw that she ducked The identical sequence of sounds is made up of words which are allowed to quotfill in the quotslotsquot of specific quotstructu res The structures are then responsible for the ambiguous or quotboth ways reading The ambiguity cashes in on the possibility of her and duck to be able to fill in two possible structures Cf saw him duck or saw his duck get only one possible reading Wannacontraction Who do you wont to kiss Who do you w kiss Who do you wont to kiss the puppy Who do you w kiss the puppy Wannacontraction Who do you wont to kiss Who do you W kiss Who do you wont to kiss the puppy Who do you w kiss the puppy Could the solution be the result of the syntactic structure Wannacontraction Who do you wont to kiss Who do you wonno kiss Who is the person to be kissed A possible answer p I want You to kOSS the frOg In other words there is a quotslotquot in the structure for the who Who do you want to kiss Wannacontraction Who do you wont to kiss the puppy Who do you wanna kiss the puppy Who is the person that should kiss the puppy A possible answer I want M to kiss the puppy Inotherwords the quotslotquot for who in this I structure is in a different position Who do you want to kiss the puppy A Mini history of Linguistics 5ish c BC quotG rammar lnstituted by the Greeks Continued by the French the British Based on logic Rules distinguishing btw correct and incorrect forms quotPrescriptivismquot a literary genre 177039 5ish c BC 5 l quotG ra m ma rquot Philology Philological School already at ancient Alexandria Friedrich August Wolf Establishes interprets and comments upon texts Priority to the written language ignores the living one MasoreticText j km mug15 013w 1 31373124 NEWS T7195 NEW 77335 1 WW Qere Reading Below is the Qere Reading for 1773377 mu mm anstE my The Qere readings are corrections made to the Hebrew text around the tenth century AD by the Masoretes Because of their reverence for the bibiical texts these corrections were originatly noted in the margin of the text so as to Leave the Inal content undisturbed 39 N W 702 73 Emmith m H4430 1177 melek Aramaic 1770 s 180039s ll 1 quotGrammarquot Philology Comparative Philology Grammar Sir WilliamJones Franz Bopp Sanskrit Germanic Greek Latin Jacob Grimm among others Languages could be compared with one another Explaining the forms of one language by reference to the forms of another related one 1770 s 180039s 5ish c BC ll 1 quotGrammarquot Philology Co parative Philology Latin genus generis genere genera generum Greek g nosg neos g ne i g nea gen om Sanskrit d3anas dganasas dganasi d3anaSSLl d3anasa1m 1770 s 180039s 5ish c BC ll 1 quotGrammarquot Philology Co parative Philology Latin genusgenerisfrgenere genera generum Greek g nosig neos g ne i g nea gen ozn Sanskrit d3anas aganasasjdganasi d3anassu d3anasa1m In Greek the Is fell off in between vowels geneos lt genesos In Latin the Is became an lr in between vowels generis lt genesis r 1800 s 1870 s 177 5ish c BC 05 ll 1 quotGrammarquot Philology Co parative Philology The Neogrammarians Virtually all Germans University of Leipzig Put the results of Comparative Philology into historical perspective The linguist facts are connected in their natural sequence 1770 s 1800 s 1870 s 1900 s 5ish c BC ll 1 quotGrammarquot Philology Co parative phiIoIogy Neogrammarians Structuralism I 0 Ferdinand de Saussure the Prague schoo Language is a self contained and tightly organized system Interprets and analyses this system in terms of oppositions contrasts and hierarchical structures The units only exist as part of the total structure Structuralism Units only exist as part of the total structure The radius of a circle does not exist without the circle Structuralism Units do not exist independently of other units united in the system of structural contrasts 1 2 3i 4 5 I I Could there be two 2 O 2 4 6 one three I 9 1 2 3i 5 7i 9 11 1 2 4 8 16 r 1800 s 1870 s 1900 s 1950 s 177 5ish c BC 05 l 1 i quotGrammarquot Philology CO parative Structurallsm phiIoIogy Neogrammarians Generative Grammar 0 Noam Chomsky Innate Universal Grammar Core properties of language are not the result of its communicative function nor are they learned through expenence Grammar is modeled as an algorithm that generates predicts only grammatical sentences of a language Universal Grammar ping DireQ Colorless green ideas 6 sleep furiously my lil pumpkins Universal Grammar I ve been telling you so since the 50 s The Innateness Hypothesis Language ability is innate Humans are genetically predisposed to acquire amp use Language Knowledge that languages have patterns Ability to seek out amp identify those patterns Universal Grammar UG Set of structural characteristics shared by all languages Language and Writing Words mmbining Patterning and mm raga mental syntax representation of sounds phonology i l V V r FUNC3 Phonetics Physical sounds M0 niema structure 01quot wards Wards meining La guage Patterning and mm quot3h mental syntax representation 0f 50 Phenology At Alphabetic 4 writing 3 r Sound Ow685ture I Phnn Physrcal sound Syllabic a writing Possible links of writing with Language Writing Intuitive understanding Scientific definition That which allows us That which allows us to record and convey to record or convey SPECl C lingUlStiC quotpieces of information Utterances graphically graphically Picture Writing A letter sent by mailfrom a Southern c eyenne named Turtlefallawingrhierife to his son LittlerMmI Pictures which tell a story but which are not related to specific linguistic utterances Even though picture writing has some elements of graphic communication it is NOT writing GarrickMaiiery James Giichrist Swan 1886 Pictagraghs 0 the North American indians m ALALMIIV u Lunarx 1mm m mu r l39lxuyullm YUkaghir Love Letter e r WVe nbeb Irla Hman I e wamm Ikhs hUr ngsm aaee k t uh tha Aw FL 0 r b Hvkulivlllf AII ll in Semasiography Writing meanings or semantic writing Not tied to any one spoken language The Semasiography Controversy Sampson vs DeFrancis AII writing systems are phonologically based DeFrancis The Chinese Language Fact and Fantasy 1984 Writing Meanings Charles Bliss Semantograghy 1945 Some symbols are picmgrams O houst car39 J 39containcr Some symbols an abstract picmgrams w s i O feclmg A protectmn water liquid 5mm symbols are arbitrary wirh no logical connection to their meaning CI thing r mind this Some arbitrary symbols are borrowed from ordinary writing a threc39 addirinn39 l 39imensiry Somc symbols are semantic compounds g clnud N wamr39 sky39 A T parem39 l pcrson pmtccrion39 6G raxi a car G limilcd rimc Scmanrically based diacritics are common 3 room39 l cciling 3 wall lexical items 0a o o H 6 0 say shaul discussinn argumem39 0d 6 El song opinmn39 nonscnsc sccrer D 6 as 39knowlcdgc39 undcrsmnd explain39 39dcscribc39 Writing systems a linguistic approach By Henry Rogers 2005 Writing Meanings Charles Bliss Semantograghy 1945 Why not Sun 0 mnurh39 Or hole ball CIrcle wheel eye etc lmnd Why not hill or bump or Sunrise etc The signs are arbitrary and have to be learned What s the meaning of this What s the meaning of this What s the meaning of this What 5 the meaning of this What s the meaning of this WIPP Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Sandia National Laboratories designs a 10000vear marking system DANGER h I POISONOUS RADIOACTIVE 3 WASTE BURIED HERE 3 Cab 61 f F DO NOT DIG OR DRILL HERE BEFORE AD 12000 rg Pioneer Plaque Glottography A graphical representation of the elements of a specific spoken language Writing A systematic way to record specific linguistic utterances Language is quotnormallyquot manifested as sound Graphic communication may classify as writing only if the graphic sign is connected with sound Why is Writing Interesting Nature vs Nurture debate Ill Innate vs quotCultura I 1 Language vs Writing The quotStroop test Dyslexia T h I 1quot quotfa5391 IFN r0 R n e M L U UL k s Name the color in which the words are printed as fast as you can red green brown green red brown White gheequot red white green howquot brown green white White green white red green quoti red brown green white u Mummt m Aoccdrnig to rseeacrh at one Elihsgh uinervtisy it desom t mttaer ih waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are the olhy iprmoetot tihhg is taht the frist and lsat Itter es are in the rghint polae The rset can be a toatl mses so how cmoe you ooh sitll raed it Mroe to the ponit oolud you ohjublme the Hetetrs for sohomee who oha t Types of Writing Systems Logographic U Sylabic D A phabetic Alphabetic ordscomblninginto phrases writing ming and 3539 Phonetics Physical sounds I1 teri1al structure of words Logogra p y Writing is not quotpicture writing Pictographspictograms are pictures icons of the things they represent Ideographsideograms are symbols which graphically represent abstract ideas There is no onetoone systematic correspondence between symbol and language btw form and meaning Logographic A writing system in which more than 10000 signs may represent a word or a part of a word It is better to say Morphographic Syllabic A syllabary is a phonetic writing system consisting of hundreds of symbols representing syllables LogographicSyllabic Alphabetic An alphabet is a system of twenty plus letters each of which ideally represents one sound unit phoneme Alphabetic Abugida Syllabic Alphabet consists of symbols representing both consonants and vowels at the same time Vowels can also be written with separate signs at the beginning of a word or on their own tna rla ta ma agnimie ratnadhotam Alphabetic Abjad Consonantal Alphabet represents consonants only Vowels are either not written or added by means of diacritics 0 gm o7 ltalzrnn jdawj kl aldgrahgt dZdeonjudawi kul old gimzh Time heals all wounds Alphabetic Abc Segmental Alphabet represents consonants and vowels by separate signs All letters have a history Cuneiform vlluqunaglh Tabla I kxmawg giw 39 be amd gsmmquot fa Kbemo C samk guwm wagM Gilgamg k me he uemms adream eh Ll pquz ru Wk 1 l F 39 W 5 sq 19quot am a r0 um Mn gt i q ram 6 Il 595413 0 k39t MailWK q c snap um Puth a J UMwudL U m mi 3 wk 33 10 mugiti m m1 ma a dwinSHi fmd mm 1351i I Chinese Writing Picture of the beam with the sac opened the lobes and the aorta are also seen Hear ok S Pictuxe of a woman with a curvy gme Woman N Picture of a woman I with bleaer ad ded Mother Pich of a horse with its mane blowing htt9seeingredinchinacom20110112itseasy toIea rnchinesereally in the wind Horse Picture of a bird Bird Understandin Chinese Characters b their ancestral forms by Pinggam Go 5 V Ma Horse D D Ma Scold zz i M5 Mother iii M5 Hemp Chinese quotwordsquot are single syllables a a an ang ao ba bal ban bang bao bel ben beng bl blan blao ble bll l blng bo b da dal deng dl lLl dong dOLl dLl dban dLll dbn dbo e en er fa fan fang fel fen ferlg f0 fOLl le ga b anal nan ang ao lnen nen n lnban nbang nbl nbn nbo l lalan langlaoleln lnglonglblblbanlbel llt l kan llt ng kao llte n eng ong OLl bal ba b n ulkul l kuolalallan lang lao le lel leng l la lan lang lao le ln lng lb long lOLl lb lbb lban lbbe lbn lbo ma mal marl mang mao me me men meng ml mlan mlao mle mln mlng mlb mo mob mb na nal nan nang nao ne l lel nen neng nl nlan nlang nlao le 0 Cu pa pal pen peng pl plan plao ple pln pll lg po p0b pb ql qla qlan qlang qlao qle qln qll lg rbn mo 55 Sal San sang sao 5e sen seng sna snal snan snang snap sne snel snen sneng snl snOb snb snba snbal snban snbang snbl snbn snbo Sl son SOLl SLl Sual l SLll Sul l SUO ta lal an tang 80 te lerlg ll nan llao tle mg tong Ou Ll tban tbl lul l LlO wa Wal Wan Wang Wel Wen Weng W0 Wu gtltl Xla xlan Xlang a an anb a l W nb b b ban znbang znbl znbn znbo Zl zong ZOLl ZLl 2ban ZLll 2bn ZLlO N WJ 1 313K 15W W f 1m 5 TLhK J 1 IJ39HYW 11 1111 WM 53 maxz 13 an 131 Duo m 71 TU Dt39ILr J J TU 73 711an vanw rumc 7K 13 5140 711 M1 N1 KW KD 3v mum x m 9K 39rnAkr Hebrew Abjad Wham win 11quot mm an m 5 M s mquot 141 16 MM 4111quot mm 4 m awn mnrwma n 1tan may mm M aw Lu my 1 yaw mummy mm mm m mam wwcn but m n 1bquot umM ma 7x35 i mam NB m K39WJ WW aagwm u yr rumma I nx gwu v w Mu 1mm m m 1 w 5w 3n 1mv mum mu nm39wn vhmumy mdimmwx Wunum Henry Roge rs 2005 we saw v wwu mum mam 511143 I I WM WW WW my mum W Writing Systems A MBA M4 M1 macaw w Mambx linguistic Approach 7 NW mm mm w m WWP r 39Ew Mam man u n m t quot unhvemarw may rim 2 mm s ScmH mm m pwlm um mama m m M 1m My at m m quotmm Hm mm mum six mm m rlm mg the rum mLurrrnce 5 in 19mm mm m hnr 4 34mm my Rc mulmud Limn uv n he Ismi Annqumcs Rumorm iunnalcm Vedic Abugida quotI H i mn mnm nan Wilma WWi la am ruau WWW igg at w zwu Hig na ruau WWW WHE ia i 39n 39uunqu ainqv m iml i n m nan ma a WW l i u inau W wwuwameu gaat g Whlm313 neuau
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