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by: Elva Rodriguez


Elva Rodriguez
GPA 3.76


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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elva Rodriguez on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARHI 3065 at University of Georgia taught by Boland in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/202143/arhi-3065-university-of-georgia in Art History at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
ARHI 3065 Boland II READING ASSIGNMENTS 29 EARLY 20th CENTURY SCULPTURE 19thCentury Background Auguste Rodin 1840 1917 FauVism Matisse PrimitiVism Constantin Brancusi 1876 195 7 READ Hamilton Painting and Sculpture in Europe pp 6270 Rodin pp 172176 Matisse pp 46266 Brancusi Chipp pp 36465 Brancusi Cubism Picasso Raymond DuchampVillon 18761918 Alexander Archipenko 1889 1964 Futurism Boccioni Vorticism Henri GaudierBrzeska 18911915 Jacob Epstein 18801959 READ Hamilton Painting and Sculpture in Europe pp 269 271279 Cubism pp 286288 Boccioni pp 296301 Vorticism Chipp Theories of Modern Art pp 298304 Boccioni 216 ABSTRACT ART FRANCE ITALY AND ENGLAND Robert DelaunayOrphism Sonia Delaunay 1885 1979 Frantisek Kupka 18711957 Czech working in Paris BallaItalian Futurist READ Hamilton Painting and Sculpture in Europe pp 303305 p 350 Kupka REVIEW pp 266267 Delaunay Henderson Cubism Futurism and Ether Physics 1RESERVE III NO LONGER AN OPTION FOR RESPONSE Chipp Theories of Modern Art pp 309317 Introduction pp 317320 Delaunay 221 GERMANY MUNICH DER BLAUE REITER THE BLUE RIDER Wassily Kandinsky 18661944 Russianbom Franz Marc 18801916 Auguste Macke 18871914not discussed in class Paul Klee 18791940 Swiss READ Hamilton Painting and Sculpture in Europe pp 20513 215219 pp 494496 Klee Chipp Theories of Modern Art pp 152170 Kandinsky pp 178179 Marc RESERVE IV Washton Long Kandinsky and Abstraction 223 RUSSIA PRIMITIVISM RAYONISM RUSSIAN FUTURISM Mikhail Larionov 1881 1964 Natalia Goncharova 18811962 READ Hamilton Painting and Sculpture in Europe pp 136140 optional 3 RUSSIA MALEVICH AND SUPREMATISM Kasimir lVIaleVich 1878 1935 PrimitiVism Futurism Suprematism READ Hamilton Painting and Sculpture in Europe pp 310313 Chipp Theories of Modern Art pp 341346 MaleVich RESERVE V Douglas MaleVich 228 RUSSIA RUSSIAN CON STRUCTIVISM Vladimir Tatlin 18851953 El Lissitzky 18901977 Naum Gabo 1890 1977 READ Hamilton Painting and Sculpture in Europe pp 313319 pp 352358 Chipp Theories of Modern Art pp 325330 Gabo 31 HOLLAND DE STIJL Piet Mondrian 18721944 Theo Van Doesburg 18831931 READ Hamilton Painting and Sculpture in Europe pp 319331 Chipp Theories of Modern Art pp 321323 Mondrian RESERVE VI Welsh Mondrian and Theosophy 36 POSTWAR PARIS Le Corbusier CharlesEdouard Jeanneret 1888 1965 Purism Amedee Ozenfant 18861966 Purism Leger Picasso NeoClassicism and Later Cubism READ Hamilton Painting and Sculpture in Europe pp 267269Purism pp 253256 Leger pp 453456 Picasso Chipp Theories of Modern Ag pp 277279 Leger W Fabre Cercle et Carre 320 THE BAUHAUS IN GERMANY Walter Gropius 18881969 German Johannes Itten 18991967 Swiss Lyonel Feininger 18711956 GermanAmerican Laszlo MoholyNagy 18951946 Hungarian JosefAlbers 1899 1976 READ Hamilton Painting and Sculpture in Europe pp 331345 pp 496499 Chipp Theories of Modern Art pp 182186 Klee RESERVE VIII Gropius Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus RESERVE VIII A Lissitzky Van Doesburg Richter Declaration 1922 NEITHER OF THESE 320 READINGS ARE OPTIONS FOR A RESPONSE 29l O l SCU LPTU RE Rodin The burghers of Calais l880s Each person has their own personal unique psychology of what they were going through at the timeThese aren39t meant to be idealized or classical forms these are meant to be realized and individual forms as they are in real life He does studies of each person and face to really capture personalities and the emotions of each figure Like Monument to Balzac he is trying to get the character and personality of the gure General simpli cation and a desire to embody the real characteristics ofthe man BRANCUSI FrenchRumanian Primitivism The Kiss I908quot o A response to Rodin39s Kiss Rejecting Rodin39s work and doing his own version 0 He really wanted a greater authenticity to the work primitivism and gaugin and he did that by carving the sculptures himself instead of having sculptures churned out by others 0 Interest in a reduction conceptualization of an object greater authenticity going back to african sculptures o Constantly trying to reduce even further o Uses a limited amount of form and does the over and over tho further simplify them Also does the same one in I9 I 2 273 The New Born l9l5 o Making reference to moth an egg and a baby39s head 0 Like The Sleeping llluse l I909 referencing a head but also a mothers head and egg and birth very simple and inspires him to make newborn to make it more simple and closer to the egg 0 He like to look at folk Romanian sources and also the world around him in the modern world to compare and then make art such as Bird In Space I928 which is the most reduced form ofa swoop ofa bird PICASSO Cubism I 34 Head of a Woman I909 Simpli cation and reduction responding to the idea of ether opening up of forms looking at african art 0 A sense of multiple perspectives opening up of planes o Cultural sources leads him into this direction of art Guitar l9l2 o This is closer to the painting style and de nitely relating to assembage in cubismTaking non ne arts material again and using them in ne art o Much more ofan opening up of form and the use of negative space and representing the parts and a synthesizing effect to a form 6 DUCHAMP VILLON The Horse l9l4 Cubism A response to this machine aesthetic after the war In the group of salon cubists working in paris looking a picasso and braque but just slightly different 0 Interest in the unseen world new discovered of gtlt rays electrons and radio waves but REALLy interested in they machine aesthetic o Complete contrast to rodin39s Thinker in the form and how different they are BOCCIONI Italian Futurism l70 Development of a Bottle In Space l9l2 o Basically the egtltact same idea as belowThe development ofa form in the ether o Opening up of forms and penetration l7l Unique Forms of Continuity in Space l9l 3 0 Possible response to Winged Victory of Samothrace 3rd C BCE Greece o Talking about a physical transcendentalism and embracing this new science and technology o Embracing the invisible realitiesAn Acknowledgment ofthe unseen we see these force lines in the ether a drag running through space Openings inner penetrations ofthe form I79 EPSTEIN The Rock Drill l9l 3 English Vortlclsm Machine aesthetic commentary of our life in general o Changing view oftechnological innovation o Cut down mutilated vulnerable o Pushing things further than he usually did o Comparing to Mother and Child I9 I 3 like Branchusi s art Same ideas generalizing abstracting and simplifyingThis is more of how his work is WEnd of SculptureW in Paris both ofthese artists are coming out of cubism so a lot ofthe cubist ideas still apply and influence these guys KUPKA o First French artist who showed the rst abstract work o Kupka is coming out of cubist work but never really shows the cubist work But believes and is looking at all cubist ideas 0 More of a deep interest in the spirits Big idea ofthe higher realm and getting in touch with these invisible realities not just scienti cally but spiritually as well o Idea of egtltpanded conscience so you can egtltperience more ofthese invisible realities o Friends with more ofthe orphic cubists MUSIC the most abstract of mediums o With Piano Keys Lake he is merging music with the natural world and bringing it to the non objective and abstract world o 2 ways of painting leading to total abstraction blocks of color reference to gtltrays usually or divisionism and circles and curvilinear forms 0 ln Planes By Color its the best view of gtltrays yet Direct reference to it by nose He likes this idea of gtltrays and the various layers Amorpha Fugue In Two Colors l9l2 Czech Painter In Paris o Very clear reference to music and a view oftwo melodies intertwining o In this relationship ofdifferent colors he is giving meaning We see this a lot in Disks of NewtonThe way colors interact can give meaning instead of form 0 If music can make an abstraction so can painting DELAUNAY Disk l9l3 The different pushpull of colors 0 how red pushes out and cools recede back o trying to show even in the flatness there is a dynamism and changing relationship of colors o This idea of novelty doing something new and pushing boundaries o Responding to this modern world around him why he paints eiffel tower and planes etc l55 Circular Forms Sun and Moon l9l2l9l 3 o Known to be one ofthe main abstract artists to make it come up o Doing the same thing of responding to color theorists and the way colors interact and what that does lll German Expressionism Der Blaue Reiter KAN DINSKY o Trained as a lawyer and doing a dissertation on royal peasant lawVery inspired by russian folk art o Was absolutely moved by Haystacks that resonated in him solely because ofthe relationship of color He didn39t even see the form at rst just colorThis and the discovery ofthe electron inspired him to start art o We see in A Colorful Life and Night russian fold art is a huge influence with flat style bright colors o Medieval art takes out out of material egtltistenceRemoving notion of materiality inspired by this o His theory came before his art o All of his theories come back to vibrations Color directly influences the soulAnalogy ofthe piano sympathetic vibrations you can FEEL the vibrations not just hear and interpret them Small Pleasures l9l3 o Going to revelation black is coming from the trumpet o The boat is rocking on these apocalyptic waves with some people whoa re going to make it o He is trying to vail and strip his images to lead his audience into total abstraction o There is usually an idea about stgeorge nd the dragon and the rider ofthe apolocypse in most of these types of paintings o His grand statement I Is Composition VII l9l3 Referred to as a total abstraction but not completely representational imagery o We see horses and riders a boat a city crumbling on a hill o He is slowly beinging people into total abstractionvery hard to see things but sometimes you can make out what he is paintingvailing and stripping o It was said he was trying to paint music But more trying to paint akin to the way music is created o In all ofthe studies there is this one gure in all ofthem along with circles Chladi s sound plate that makes the different forms o Annie Besant and Leadbeater wroteThought Forms lnvisible forms that come from us when an emotion or thought or reaction happensAlso related to shakras and oras o Spiritual effects of colors blue and yellow are very spiritual Impression Concert I909 Todays dissonance with be tomorrows concanence schernburg o Music is the paradigm for kandinskys painting o leading an audience into what you are doing baby steps so that they can appreciate this new artistic language o This is a response to the actual music and this idea o He had impressions always based on something observed improvisation made quickly from the mind and compositions grand statements carefully composed o We see the sketches for this and from the sketch we get the study which is totally stripped Then in the nal painting he makes this vailing of yellow as the sound of the piano o At this time he was writing about this push for expansion amp abstraction of art in all forms while writing the blue rider almanacALso wrote about children s art and primitive art MARC Really interested in animals and how they egtltperience the world o uses non naturalistic colors in his form but using color to express spirituality o horses are an interest because of a different perspective so much we dont know about the world Deer In the Forest No II l9l 3l4 KLEE RecI and White Domes l9l4 The Vllla R l9l9 shown In the context of Bauhaus Klee IV Russian Neo Primitivism Rayonism More of an interest in child like art non trained artists primitive ideas peasant life schematic and simplistic Rays invisible imminations gtltrays force lines and looking a lot like italian futurism Notjust a russian version of futurism and looking at their work but more of a response to the same new technologies going on More of a response to french cubism than futurismAnd not very political if it was it was left winged LARIONOV I 8 Autumn I9 I 2 NeoPrimitivism o We have a subject matter but it becomes more schematic and conceptualized Becoming aware of cubism as well o Looking at the french sources and making formal relationships with decorativeness But more interested in the subject matter Using egtltpressive color as well o More crudely done more childlike and schematic and childlike than gaugin l83 Rayonlst ConstructionPortrait of a Fool l9l 2 Rayonlsm Still representational and not totally abstract response to the new technologies Really responding to the inner penetration GONCHAROVA Haycutting l9l0 NeoPrimitivism purposefully crude and simple lookinginterest in outsider art againTrying to get at a more direct egtltpression more authentic o overall flatness Purposeful lack of depthadded tegtltt Schematic more and more abstracted o Russian art suddenly embraces ideas from other places and turns it into something uniquely russian Usually a greater emphasis on idea and content than other places and mor epolitically oriented Rayonism BlueGreen Forest l9l I Rayonlsm A lot of the same thing as larinov39s glass but just in a brighter palette V Russia Cubo FuturismAlogism Suprematism MALEVICH Malevich had his roots in impressionism He was basically self taught He was a russian artist but drew and painted a lot of french cultural things so he was not very well likedA lot of responses to cezanne and french post impressionists Interest in peasant life primitivism crude and simple painting He worked in neo primitivsm and rayonism as well and really looked at leger Underlying geometry of gures cubes spheres Huge interest in machine aesthetic But still manages to have interest in peasant life I IS The Knife Grinder Principle of flickering l9l2 CubaFuturism o Looks a lot like his woodcutter and his interest in peasant life Still using the leger looking geometric form usage o Not a lot of inner penetration but still responding to a lot ofthe technological feel ofthe times 0 Not so much about the sense of force lines or velocity etc but there is a sense of dynamism and is trying to express it gure in motion o Principle of flickering is one ofthe things happening when someone in the 3rd dimension egtltperiences something from the 4th dimension o Looking at Picassos Ma Jolie Cow and violin o Response to synthetic cubism collage aesthetic overlapping of forms shallower space 0 A difference was that he wasn39t trying to assemble a new form out ofdifferent parts to form a new wholehe is giving complete forms and having them jugtlttaposed to each other o The idea is that is it illogical illogical is a way to break out of logical restraints o Response to zoun poetry response to mystical scienti c way of looking at things o Focus on egtltpanded consciousness Looking at this huge world around us o Presenting things that we think we understand in ways where we cant understand them Why No answer Putting us in a different egtltperience with these things Portrait ofM Matiushin I9 I 3 0 Interest in purposeful ambiguity No longer working so much narratively but formally in the relationship of shape and color o Reference to kupkas piano keys and the abstraction o Idea of music and its abstraction is involved An Englishman In Moscow l9l 3l4 Aloglsm o Doing the jugtlttaposed forms not creating a new formlThe text is nonsensicalthe whole painting is not meant to be symbollic but more about this nonsense and the illogical idea of everything together 0 A lot like Aviator l9 l4 and these new ideas of planes and how we saw things differently because ofthem Airplane flying l9 l5 o Non objective painting no objects from material world o In his suprematist work he o Anywhere in the translation where it talks about feeling its more like sensation Black Square l9l5 Suprematlsm Supposedly this was born out of his stage design for the operaVicotry over the sun working in the vain of cubo futurist ideas Overcoming the sun was his idea overcoming logic understanding sun o Turned this view ofthe sun into a very simpli ed view as was the beginning of suprematism Maybe maybe not o This purposeful ambiguity and continued abstraction allows for multiple layers of meaning and different ideas o Suprematist style in his most simple form l87 Suprematist Composition Black Trapezium and Red Square l9l5 Suprematism In the I9 I 5 O l 0 show he is showing this very quick timeline of development of suprimitism The black square is separated to make a statement and show the power of that work Just like an icon in a house he has the black square up in the corner between walls Power ofthe pure form Vl Russia Constructivism TATLIN much more practical and less spiritual l88 Relief l9l4 Monument to the Illrcl International l9l920 o Working ofl the idea that there was thhis spreading revolution and the workers would take control of everything and the bourgeoisie He wanted to celebrate this 3rd national congress that was going to create this evolution o This was just a model for a tower o This was also a response to the eiflel tower bare bones architecture and utilitarian idea This was more ofa means to outdo the eiflel tower EL LlSSlTZKY Proun I9D I922 o Uses constructivist ideas in these propaganda posters o This is an acronym o Combo of collage and painted forms GABO Kinetic Construction I920 Vll De Stijl The Style MONDRIAN l90 Composition in Line and Color l9l3 I 95 Composition Use this title and date of quot l920squot for archetypal mature Mondrians l97 Victory BoogieWoogie I943 VAN DOES BU RG o Uses diagonals to create more ofa sense of dynamism o His style is called elemantarism Construction In SpaceTime II I929 Taking the ideas that he had of space in the 4th dimension and changes them He makes a reference to Einstein39s ideas o They were drawings of buildings Focus of bright primary colors and being as non naturalistic as possible typical di jistl style Vlll Postwar Paris PURISM of CORBUSIER and OZENFANT LEG ER associated with LE CORBUSIER Still Life I922 m l45 The City l9l9 Late Synthetic Cubism Three Women Le Grand D jeuner l92l PICASSO 269 Mother and Child l92l Classicism l4l Three Musicians l92l Late Synthetic Cubism IX Bauhaus You may use quotGermanyquot as country of origin for all works produced at the Bauhaus Study bauhaus more as a whole than as speci c artists and works A place where art theory and skill are being taught by the most famous artists Known as the universal style a universal egtltpression that does not rely on national styles No ornamentation and stripping down to minimums response to the war Egtltamples of font styles that are completely geometric and simple Representation of this typography talk about grophius Bare boned view using the materials and bringing those forth No ornamentation Creating asymmetrical balance especially grophiusAbundant use of glass glass planes and tuning a corner with glass not bending it but using it to the corner a piece of steel and then continuing it FEININGER German Did work with underlying geometry overlapping and interpenetrating planes but not quite interested as cubism and not really relating to the things cubism was relating to Part of debrucke artistsAFter the nazis came to power he was forced to move out of germany around I936 because his wife was JewishVery influenced by klee and picked up by many other bauhaus teachers l98 Gelmerocla XII I927 SCHLEMMER German Bauhaus Staircase ca I929 KAN DINSKY Russian Composltlon VIII I923 He really changed his work and takes a page out of constructive books Looks a lot like tatlin Gemoteric abstraction when he returns to Germany Once again as this compositionthey are large scale statements that show his theories and ideas Suggestion of city on a hill crumbling and responding to revelation and apocolyptic ideas But these are more veiled and stripped so they become totally abstract Still very interested in music and art relationship Looking for an underlying system of art KLEE Swiss We have been seeing him in the context of blue rider but now these artworks are more abstract abstractions but still recognizableVery spiritually driven and interested in pre renaissance and medieval art Really starts to begin using just symbols in his work Not only representailtion but acts as a part of the picture Such as the R it flattens the picture outAlways uses symbols VILLA R 1292 Precious Contalner for Stars I922 suggests movement for us looking through the pictureTotal abstraction but a poetic title Drawn partially from the unconscious Freuds theories are known Interest in representation in a very abstracted way lt does not reproduce the visible it makes the visible Idea of construction rellating to constrctivists of le corbusieTheres no need to reproduce visible reality but painting the unseen instead Sort oflike kandinksky he is more interested in the spirituality in this Builds up his paintings with form uses repetition IMPRESSIONISM Corbet said to be the rst one to begin the modernist and realistic styleWe see that he paints real portraits of real people instead ofthe perfect historical painting or portraits etc We look at manet and Bouguereau Birth ofVenus and olympia Manet was not just interested in painting the lifelike subject but he is also showing his hand in the paint its also about the paint not just the subject All ofthese artists are considered from the avant garde and breaking away from the normal paintings from the salon academy Manet really starts to show the impressionist style in their hand but also showing this new style of painting everyday activities of leisure Being a painter of modern life not just painting traditionally accepted subjects Manet Boat I874 These impressionists starting painting en ple er in open airThe start of portable easels and tubed paint came into egtltistence allowed the painters to go out into the landscapes and paint what they saw Monet Boulevard de capucines I873 We see an everyday street view that had to have been from nadars studio Nadar was friends with the impressionists so they worked together He was the master of working with light Used shadows differently in each portrait Impressionism is in part a rejection of photographysince photos can show real life perfectly why paint that way The japanese woodblock prints began to influence the impressionists but even more so the post impressionists Japanese ceramicists wrapped the pots in these prints and when the french saw them they loved themThese prints usually dealt with leisure activities ofthe middle class and entertainmentALso had a birds eye view usually Harunobu Returning sails at shinagwa I764 There was a less life likenessnon naturalistic look and use of color was an influence and so was the very slanted and rushing planeThis gave them further support to do their subject paintingThese prints meant floating fleeting in subject Monet Impression Sunrise l872 This painting gave rise to the name impressionism rst egtlthibition was in nadar s studio Louis leroy was a critic that saw this painting and really summed up what was going on in this new movement Capturing like the japanese prints and constantly moving eye and million different moments When you39re looking out like this it isn t a perfectly clear sceneespecially because of light and water its like a broken scene He is capturing quickly the movement and changing effects of light as the eye sees himThe way the eye responds to light Positivism an authentic knowledge knowledge derived from observationAugust Compte father of sociology Believed rmly in the scienti c method supporting your ideas from experimentation and observation Being an objective recorder of sensory data Monet Rouen Cathedral l894 He paints this over and over not to show the ne details ofthe cathedral but studying the changing effects of light Monet Haystacks 2 Same idea changing colors and relationships between colors Monet Harmony in Greenzjapanese footbridge amp water lilies l899 Monet blue water lillies I9 I 6Very much about light and color Renoir Moulin de la galette l876 He is much more interested in people than monetWe really see this view ofthe daily leisure activity more a lot of parties and fun things in the middle class Drinking wine by a lake etc Luncheon at the boating party painting the way light reacts with different surfaces Impressionism is more of a group who knew each other more than just a set of ideas Renoir amp Monet la goullietteire l869 even at their most objective there is still a degree of subjectivity Monet said he wants to have painterly effects without interference from the mindThe eye is just responding to what they see Degas In a cafe l873 His work is more different loose brushworkWe see this absinthe addict and we see a different use of space not head onWe see these flat planes ofthe table and an acknowledgement ofthe canvaswe are painting on a flat surface so its okay to make things look flatWe are dealing with the psychology ofthe gure in the actual look in her face but also the formal characteristics of the style dark shadows strange angleswe see that the shadows aren39t black now really a focus on sensory data Looking back at the academia training there are so many sketches and drawings that the artists makeAcademic training does gure in as a source for impressionismThese sketches look a lot like impressionist work Degas Laundresses l 884 Not a posed gures but more like looking in on gures who don t know he s watching lnfluence from japanese prints as well He painted the ballet dancers and also did the bronze sculptures with a use of real multimedia in the statue Mary Cassat Portrait ofa lady I 879 Mainly painted women strong intellectual women and women and a child Whistler arrangement in grey and black portrait ofartists mother nocturne in black and gold falling rockets Nocturne in blue and silverthe lagoon POST IMPRESSIONISM coined by the curator at the met roger fry Looking for a term that was rising out of impressionism but different it said the least about themthere are similarities but its not quite a movement where people know each other Seurat l884 Sunday afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte Divisionism instead of pointilismnot all ofthem used dotsthey used slashes or something like that He is disturbed by the impressionist lack of form and solidity He wanted something eternal instead of fleetingThey wanted to bring their art back to what hung in museums but doing something new Color theory was the main reason behind this Charles henry was a main influence behind that He was looking at the psychological effects of color Michelle chevreul was also a chemist and tapestry restorer and had the idea of optical migtlting of colorsif you want to paint a color of green but green and blue next to each otherwhy not just paint it It gives it a certain luminosity and intensity when the eye migtltes Charles Blanc taking these ideas and turning it into an art theory for these artistsThe scienti c approach to color He also looked at proportions and mathematical studies and ratio to make the gures and spaces perfect He s looking at the parthenon sculptures and also egyptian gures Signac Port of portrieugtlt l888 More towards divisionism Egtltpressive use of color and form to express emotions ideas sensations theories etcrather than to reflect on something tht your seeing HI 7 cezanne house ofthe hanged man l873 painted outdoors and used small strokesi want to make impressionism solid and durablenot just a recorder of sensory datahe is crafting something He is known for depthhe makes us analyze how we look at depth in a paintingpassagecomparing to blvd de capu same sort of paint style in these quick strokes gulf of marsilles seen from l39estaque and detail l884 he has a constructive phase and baroque phase increasingly subjective and less concerned with details reducing forms monte sainte victoire though painted many times he is trying to come up with a timeless version ofthe view like the great art in museums and he wanted to redo nature after poussin and taking a timeless view and remaking it not trying to capture the light like monet was doing He is looking for geometry in nature and making cones spheres etc relationship within canvas as forms and tones rather than seeing a recognizable image In constructive phase he believes in the solidity of forms and acknowledging painting as a 2d actAnd things suggesting spatial depthbut all in all he wanted you to realize that this is a painting Denying atmospheric perspectiveno blueness like in the l6th c work He uses pt perspective and shifting vantage points Cezanne acknowledges the fact that we look at things with two eyes and that we do not just stand stillWe see looking back again at l6th c paintings from caravaggio and using this large gure in the foreground and it shows the depth RepussioreA sense of space though he is not denying the space in the picture he is showing you he is using painterly tricks and that he made that depth himself Denial ofthe illusion of painting and the illusion of perfect space After l890s we see a baroque phase Much looser and subjective and ends up looking even more impressionist Spatial ambiguity is shown in Still Life with Pluto l895 Not trying to give you this perfect space in his studio that isn39t real ld doesn39t matter anymore how far away the objects are from each otheryou end up reading up the canvas instead of into it He compresses the space so that when he paints its is all the same distance Completely opposite from the illusions of space from 6th c art Still life with basket of apples perfect view of multiple perspective because of the different heights of the table He is looking for a truth in nature 2 pt perspective and l vantage point is a lie so he is showing the truth in his paintings In different parts of the a looking down view and a straight on view same thing with house ofthe hanging man this compression of space that is even better shown in a landscape more than the still life In the still life with a fruit basket l888 9O his other important addition is color modeling Instead of adding black and white to one color to show the depth of an object he uses completely different colors to make as form Large bathers I906 Purposefully did not use models to prevent extremes of distortion an keeping them genericalso so he would keep it timelessWe see triangles as stable and timeless so in the composition and the grouping ofthe gures they are all in triangular forms Cezanne was under appreciated during his own time but later in his life it was nally noticedAt this point ofthis painting it starts to become known He is working purposefully ti be egtltpressive and subjective But in this painting it was a total view from his mind so it is solid durable and timeless Van Gogh Night cafe l888 Doesnt like the scienti c approach to his paintings and especially color If he isn t reading blanc and the scientists that seurt is reading he39s rejecting it Color is drawing from his own feelings and ideas and reactions His writings are to his brother and very clear not deeply philosophical The potato eaters Was painting these dark backgrounds genre scenes working class people Maybe alluding to rembrandt prodigal son lntentionally crude style cafe terrace still painting these outside views as an impressionist looking a lot life monet uses more ofa somber palette so more depressing a bitAlso very influenced by the japanese prints Lots of studying the nature reducing things down to their essence Non naturalistic color flatness to the objects strong outlines Had no problem copying work and was very related to bernard Market in brittany breton woman in the meadow l888 bernard He said his big contribution was the outlinecloissone was the closing in outlining Back to the night cafethere are these bright non naturalistic colors where a person could just go madA perspective tilt from Japanese prints Giving a sense of uneasiness One could go mad and commit a crime there like he said to his brother Purposeful distortion and egtltaggeration Pere tangue who was an art dealer who gave van gogh Japanese prints and began to show his workWe see his egtltpressive brushwork that is lose but not like the impressionists Egtltpressive in the way to make the feeling chaotic and energeticWe also see the clashing colors or red and green that creates very brigt and contrasting colors In Vincent39s bedroom in arles we see a much softer palette and composition that isnt so slanted Not such a rushing composition so not meant to be chaotic self portrait is to show the contrasting colors again and to show the ultimate tortured artist but to also see a sense of hope starry night I889 either basing this off of a meteor shower and such but he is not using that to paint it as he saw itThat was a jumping off point to make his own creations Egtltpressive use of color and form even though it might have been seen in nature it was made for his own egtltpression Could compare to the Japanese print of the wave to show this movement Van gogh and gaugin were working together and both have very egtltpressive and vivid paintings Around this time there might have been a quarrell and van gogh had cut off his ear around this time he was having epileptic seizures van gogh almost always had a model to begin with and gauguin usually just painted from his head He was painting very thick imposto Gauguin vision after the sermon l888 Very flat painting Embracing this idea ofa more authentic primitivism He is trying to escape from a world that is holding him down and con nes from civilization He came from being a stock broker Left is family moved to paris and then moved to tahitiWe see these bretton women again just as the other artists were painting Race and gender and time and space that t into primitivism and this idea of a power structureThese primitive people and styles as more authenticAnd these so called primitive societies still are just as complicated and still have a heirarchy within the socitetiesThese women are still wearing these hats and carrying these baskets because there was a strong tourist trade in this HI 9 ln quiz talk about general philosophiesthe cultural context going on around during the time of that painting and the heart of what the painting means and talking about articles and info from the book in readings MAKE SURE you have a thesis that is supported my essays Gaugin Winter Landscape with Houses I879 o Still calls himself an impressionist and becomes increasingly critcal ofthem Very atmospheric in open air quick and loose nice and wintery o Comparing to monet and cezannes gulf o Mid l880s he is developing hsis simplicst style Self Portrait Les Miserables l888 in l888 there is nally a mature style we see in the painting les miserables self portrait Comparing himselfto the character Comparing himself to the wallpaper there is once again this condensed space and a very flat surface But he said he is treating this as wallpaper and that art is decorative o Strong outline with flat bold color taken from this jewelry making technique Dectorative once againThe abstract and decorative nature ofthe design is big for him Vision After Sermon o Once again we see vision after sermon looking at this primitivism type of culture and moving towards an authentic lifestyle Offers a more direct egtltperience with nature and authentic access of knowledge o Egtlttremely flat by compositon and the red full colorYou see that tree that is like the japanese printsAlso from the prints are the strong contour outlines Egtltpressive color meant to suggest the vision and take you out of the ordinary world o do not paint too much like nature art is an abstraction Though some ofthe things are realisticthis is still completely out ofhis head and a made up world Thought it was much better to paint from memory 0 Our experience through the world is only a shadow of a higher stateAllegorical cave NABIS formed really around gauguin and his ideas Denis vouilard Brunnard and serusier de ned by style but also by association with eachother and their work SerusierTalisman l888 o This idea of vivid egtltpressive colors and forms and the relationship ofthose on the canvas are better than the actual subject Reaching this higher reality o Painted on a cigar bogtlt Melancholy l89O This egtltpressive color makes the painting look depressing not only because of the subject Flat areas of color and light palette Gaugin has this idealized view of the tahitian world again He has all of these foreign structures of gods and bare breasted women etc and he pants these idealized worlds with color Spirit of the dead watching l892 he paints this nude but not in this sensual confronting view She is frightened by the spirits ofthe dead and has this blue color in there to de ne fear and believing that colors have different effects and believes colors have these different feelings Rousseau the dream I9 I O the naive and selftaught artists are more of ways to escapre from the shackles of civilization and this idea of primitivism again He was more of an outsider and udually deals with non western societies gypsies jungles giant flowers egtltotic animals etc He had his own style which people liked Redon Orpheus I903 making literary refernces a lot and more abstracted Ensor Entry of christ into brussles l888 and this idea that if christ came back no one would careA very impersonal society hoards of crowds and this is his critique ofthat Munch pretty much doing german egtltpressionism but it doesnt egtltist yet Mask like faces again Sense ofalienation Egtltperience hard life comes throughTilted plane egtltpressive color and mask like faces Sort of a self portrait and an overwhelming sense ofangtltiety Rushing plane strong diagonals These very vivid colorsVisualizing very psychological states Painting psychological traumas and thins from peoples life like what we see in puberty and in the screamWe see the black thing coming out of her and there was a theme going on during this time of spirituality mysticism ghosts and all these different things Spiritual photography and other things were going onArt is capturing the invisible forces around us Photographing started using tricks to show this FAUVISM Matisee Bright non naturalistic colors a sense ofdivisionism Looking at gaugin and his colors very interested in expressive use of color Bright flat areas of non naturalistic color Not interested at all in the effects of light on the eyeWants to have a classicizing effect Matisse Joy oflife I906 And ideal view of life Classicizing in the sense that it is making reference to mythological stories a view of harmony and beauty Shocking in the sense that these colors are almost straight from the tube very bold Made to make a bold statement also like cezanne s large bathers Could be a response to that Matisse loved cezanne and he was challenged by it and wanted to respond to it Shared interest in an ambiguous gure typeThis idea of simpli cation and bringing things down to its bare essence so it will have a greater impact He loves the graceful lines and shocking use of color But he wanted his paintings to be soothing and meant as an escapeTrying to offer escape in the sense of harmonizing and a balanced composition Both pantings are presented like a stage set Frames by trees to present these new ideasA lot of similarities to gaugin He is looking at primitive sources but still more interested in simplifying to get the essence to get the greater impact USing african sculpture and referencing this by distortion ofthe form like we see in the blue nude and in sculptures The portrait of mdm matisse really shows the reduction of form and the great similarity to the african masks Becomes more intersted in decorative qualities like gaugin and only a little bit of color value from cezanne but this is getting even more simpli edVery flat one colored simpli ed shapes Dance and Music I9 I 0 were commissioned by a russian tegtlttile manufacturerA clever play on musical notes and a staffWe see again from the things gaugin wrote about how painting is like musicThough these are becoming more abstract its not totally like his future work In dance its some ofthe most simpli ed work we have seen of his FAUV means wild beastsThe idea of intuition egtltperiencing something rst hand and then basing egtltperiences to other egtltperiencesAnd the idea ofduration talking about the impressionists picking up a fleeting moment but instead putting together a succession of moments and to instill in that one grand idea GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM de bruckie artists Kirchner Even more bright and distorted forms More about an egtltpression than anything Egtltaggerated divisionist strokes of colorThis is very interested in metropolitan life and what it does to the psyche Street dresden KirchnerWe see this tipped up ground plane from japanese prints and we also see very dark corrupted colors claw like hands mask like facesThese are very much critiques ofthe metropolitan world and the alienation of it a lot like munch Kirchner was trained in architecture and artistically trained but he obviously did not follow through with that Jugendstil the artist trained himThese crude shapes of forms are there to come from africa to show this primitive society and still to show corruption by society The best known images of german egtltpressionists are city life to critique how life was lived in the cityThe nature scenes were what they were embracing so it was not harsh and critiquing ln dresden and bremen there was an interest in the return to nature and it was famous for health resorts and promoting a culture of natural medicine and rejuvenation and a lot ofthat involved nudityThis ides of segtltual freedom and once again the return to natureAnd we see again this flatness to the painting Then we see the Berlin Street Scene and Potsdamer Platz I9 I 3amp l 4 shows this real view of German egtltpressionism and the critique of itThe name they call themselves de brucke the bridge a personal and spiritual development and a bridge from the past to the future realizing this transitional state in art and really pushing the boundaries from what is acceptable Nietzsche had this idea This scathing critique in city life the women shown are prostitutesA harshness and angularity and these women look like birds of prey purposefullyThe sharp angles uses form as an egtltpressive outlet He is really meant to make you uncomfortable and poke you into an awakening Echoing the shapes of the buildings Relating the people to the buildings an alienation overstimulation hard col feeling Fingers are more like claws and very anonymousThe idea is not to paint what you see as you see it In his self portrait its not necessarily looking like him but it really just showing him as a soldier as he used to be to show that angtltiety Nolde was an artist that was really asked to join the group and embraced by the rest He was very religious and most of his work has a biblical reference but you see this approach to primitivism crude brushwork bold non naturalistic color and reference to african art Interest in simplification but also egtltaggerations and distortions in the workTrying to be as egtltpressive as possible within a strict religious subject matter Heckel Especially responding to gaugin and matisse with these very bright colors and very quick and forceful brushwork Sleeping negress really shows all of the ideas ofthe authentic african society dealing with race and genderWe see this egtltpressive form of printmaking as well Not a re ned look but more of a forcefulYou always know its wood that they are working with by the stark contrasts and big chucks in the pieces Moving south to Austria Klimt was the most popular ofthese artistsThis flat decorativeness and gracefullness was shown Freud and psychology was a big interest Picasso his early work was a focus on working class and very realistA lot like corbetA focus on the egtltpressions on peoples face and especially old menThere was his blue period which were very melancholy subjects and this egtltpressive color He was looking at gauginAnd drawing some references to that in his work He moves into a pink period as well which is again egtltpressive in his color and some of his work referenced to cezanne to this reduction ofa form and its color Gertrude Stein I906 He wanted to make this really new portrait He took break and then went back to barcelona and was looking at this iberian work He gave the lady these almond shaped eyesWe really start seeing this in Desmoiselles d Avignon which shows the prostitutes By taking out the men from the picture it alludes to us as the clientYou really see these african mask sources and egyptian figures He had a fear of std39s so this was a painting on anxiety ofthat Really seeing the looking at cezanne of multiple perspectives and the underlying geometry of an object Picasso takes the geometry much further Breaking the gure down into planesThese stiff armed gures relating to egyptian artThese artists did this reference of classicizing gures and putting them in this venus pose but then doing something totally different with it and it was shocking Braque was moving right along side picasso and they were spurring each other along Braque was even more interested in the geometry and referencing to cezanne l3l Picasso39s Ma Jolie Beginning to use lettering in contributing to flatness working in synecdotely and making reference to a popular song at the time and this gure ofa womanAn increasingly flat space and little references to other musical instruments Symbols standing in for music like the staff and clefsYou see very strong contour lines but instead of forming a strong line around a gure its making the gures fragmented and leading one into the otherThis is also where analytical comes from During this time X rays come out and you have to respond and see that there is such a limitation to our senses especially our visionAnd you see these views and reactions in picassos work Flamarion39s ideas of the waves and showing the general public what we can and cannot see and hear and this huge shift in the worldview that there is SO much around us that we dont know and then responding to that STRING THEORY up to 9 dimensions hyper cube 4 dim space The story of bragdon that is the analogy of 2d to 3d which is like our 3d to 4d French claim to say that delaunay is the inventor oftotal abstractionThough that is a very debatable thing With picasso his timeline we see his blue perios with charged emotional color and references to gaugin and cezanne with multiple perspectives Then proto analytic and synthetic cubism last 22 Synthetic cubism Still life with chair caning this begins and it is really all about collage Begins to look for a true reality being a way to prsent an objest that is more real Literally and physically pasted togetherThe whole piece representing the table chair and objects on the table Purposeful ambiguity All ofthe different parts doing different things other than just their useA very conceptual way that forms are dealt with especially from african masks Guitar guitar and wineglass He paints them as he thinks he sees themWe see these are totally flatThere are overlapping planes but the flattest we have seenAssemblage of parts Breaking down real world objects into parts and analyzing them In wineglass the drawn glass is an analytic reference and then in the music sheet its a reference to music the le jou is a reference to sound and playing Still see analytic references but still moving on to this new style Au Bon Marche l9l3 Literall colages We see Braques wor kvvhich look literal non artistic materials and using them in ne arts Combos ofdrawing and collages Leger in his salon cubism paints these overlapping planes and collages Gleizes Woman I9 I 7 Flat unmodulated planes of color same references to X ray and 4th dimension but not any more Gris Pears and Grapes on Table I9 I 3 he was really interested in the golden section and really interested in the perfect mathematical reference Princet put in many ideas to cubism almost as equally as picasso Leger the city l9 l9 this embrace of modernity and this inidenti cation of people Flat color In the three musicians the was very interested in the classical gure ofthe harlequin and how picasso almost thought of himself as that But in this diamond pattern ofthe person in 3 musicians its this reference to that and this jester type gure Duchamp was following this chrono photography from muybrisge and marey but we especially see this from Jacamo Balla s Dynamism ofa Dog on a leash where its obvious that we see this movement and almost invisible reality In Street Light you see these force lines that are especially in V shapesVery hard angular linesThey were looking as the same people as seurat and looking at these color theoriesAbove everything else you this complete embrace in technology In Speeding car we see cubist fragmentation and planes but we really see these force lines and this suggestion of movemenet and dynamic form Philosophcal point ofthis flugtlt and passage oftime where every moment relies on its before and after BergsonAll of these invisible relaityies rediocative matter ether ions gtltrays etc shows up in this work Futurism started in a literary movement by Marinetti who was a poet and who really made these claims of an embrace ofa modern world and tearing this old down Embracing violence and warA lot of these futurists are a lot like the followers of mussilini and fascismThis embrace ofan upcoming war and the loss of history Boccioni Riot in the Galleria l9 l0 these are not these simplistic peaceful scenesThey are fast and violent 27 The idea about the crowd and crowd behavior Also about feminine hysteriaThis is still going on with these ideas of war and the need for itThis violence and an embrace of everything modern The city rises This optical mizing and color theory we see again and these small fast strokesThe idea of flugtlt and intuition by henry bertsonThis sense ofa moment being de ned by ever other moment before and after and every moment youve ever hadThe only way to know flugtlt is through an intuitive approach Boccioni simultaneous visions l9l l A strong response to X ray 4th dimension of space the idea ofthe limitations of our vision Also responding to the ffench cubists right after the flugtlt artists went to visit the cubists The street enters the house l9l this sense of penetration how noise does that an interest in the connection between the invisible transmissions how there are vibrating wavelengthsThe idea of etherphysics and how everything thing is vibrating in the same ether Futurism embraces anything modern and making egtltplicit references to modern technology such as planes cars etcWe see these hard angular lines and fragmentation just as cubism States of mindfarewells l9l We see more of a reference to cubism with the fragmentation but also the stenciling of letters numbers Figures reduce down to geometric formsThis is not just cubist because there is such a sense of movementThere isnt a reduction in form or an idea of primitivism like cubism No interest in looking back at history Only looking aheadA real sense of inner penetration Severini The blue dancer An evokation of sight sounds and painting the egtltperience of what being in a dance hall sounds like Movement and dynamism Use of non artistic materials Responding to contemporary events VORTICISM Really not a lot of extreme differences from cubism and futurists More ofa response to the look of machines Like Leger who was embracing the machine aesthetic but these vorticists show it even moreAn idea of a vortegtltThere is a middle part of calmness where you can egtltperience this flugtlt and dynamism around you There are many of these that are complete abstractions and they are very avant garde many have references to music and thats why these are so abstract Bomberg In the Hold I9 I 3 You can make out little bits of gures and that there is a subject matter But in the verge of total abstractionWe see this grid that breaks the whole piece up


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