ART HISTORY I
ART HISTORY I ARHI 2300
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Prehistoric Art Paleolithic art 40000 13000 BCE 2 Kinds Mobiliary art small structures that can be transported Usually animalhuman images Good because Paleolithic people were nomadic Parietal art cave paintings freezes engravings that can t be moved Meant to be seen within context Venus of Willendorf Date Paleolithic 28000 25000 BCE Medium Limestone with Red Ochre Location Willendorf Austria Oldest of many Venus statues Very first art object by mankind Not much facial detail represents woman THEORIES model is representing ideal female form reigious significance sympathetic magic her voluptuous figure represents abundance in resources refects fascination with women s ability to create life Hal ofme 5M5 creatur Pa euhthm penp e datePa euhthm13000713000 acE medmm charm znuusezrth prgrnents ucztun zvesquzsczuxm DurdugneFrznce a usethe emrywzy was 2 smzH hu e buHs nut many humanfurmsur zndxapes ermestnere wumd be 2 rerndeerwncn wasthe pnmzry Suurce ufmezt fur nu dmne unthecemngsmthedz szHsucketsmthewszsuppuned arrmdrrg nd r mz f nddrdrnuss pzwmswere e there Euchre cu urs charmz wme day 2 stherewzsz hrmted cu urpz ette E i g hurse haw guuserfezther brushes nnger pamtmg czmum carbunzte mated pzrnungswnn p znt an urznrrnz m m preserve mmz sumhned m charmz rnunucnrurnerurrnsn cu ur bmhrumefurms cu urs m chmmefur smznycumrs twistzd perspective cumbrnrngtwrsurg unwu errrerent perspemves rrunm and prams usedtu reentry Emma s ardweaded Mm mm 8450 am RMnocerosrune ur the rst human Wages THEORIES l Cave represented birth canal and life is emanating from the space 2 Shahman39s visions 3 No one lived in the caves so it was a ritual ground 4 Space used for target practice holes left in the walls 5 Sympathetic Magic because they were a hunter gatherer society wanting successful hunts they painted whatthey hoped to hunt problem they ate mostly reindeer but painted orux and horses Stonehenge creators Neolithic people date2550 1600 BCE medium stone megaliths location Salisbury plain England 3 beginningof when people started developing small societies henge the circular embodiment each stone weighed about 50 tons gt17 feet tall stones were removed by medieval builders Post and Lintel Method horizontal lintel resting on 2 posts Mortise and Tenon similarto legos Joints fit together 3 PHASES OF BUILING STONEHENGE l diggingthe henge took deer antlers as shovels and dugditch and created embankment Dug 56 Aubrey Holes and filled them back up Began creating avenue Put stones on North and South ends 2 extended avenue created headstone sothat at summer solstice it would enterthe center erected blue stones volcanic rock only found in Whales and placed in semi circle in center 3 Finished the avenue to reach a river 2 concentric circles of blue stones outside the big stones inthe middle THEORIES soar calendar Merlin the wizard created it Celtic druids created it for rituals Aliens created it Butin 2008 it was found to be part of a larger funerary complex The discovery of Woodhenge People lived in Woodhenge because there were homes THEORY when someone died the body would go from Woodhenge and would travel down the river to Stonehenge because wood symbolized warmth and life and stone symbolized cold and death Art of the Ancient Near East Mesopotamiafirst civilizations were built between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers veryfertile area because there was an oasis Sumer Advanced people invented the wheel a written language and were the first to trade with other civilizations made of citystates that were ruled individually in different ways polytheistic people deities were associated with the natural environment each citystate had a protective deity who ordained the leader ofthe citystate Sumer was a wealthy place quotRoyal Cemetery at Urquot Queens chamber had her remains 74 servants remains who took poison when she died Standard of Ur creator Sumerians date 2600 BCE medium wood inlaid with shell lapis lazuli red limestone location royal cemetery at Ur the title is MISLEADING it was found next to the remains of the soldier so that39s why they assumed it was a military standard scholars believed it was part of a larger musical instrument 2 Sides 1 was called war the other quotpeacequot 3 registers on each side WAR bottom chariots guided by horses is moving into battle and enemytroops are trapped beneath them enemies are nude sign of subjugation middle Sumerians dragging enemies to leader top captives presented to the ruler PEACE shows a victow banquet and preparation Sumerians are pictured in fringe skirts and enemies in slanted skirts Hierarchy of Scale size of a human being depended on place in social hierarchy BullHeaded Lyre creators Sumerians date 2600 BCE medium wood gold leaf shell lapis lazuli location royal cemetew at Ur What is it a string instrument heavy not portable the music box part of it is shaped like the Standard of Ur ed to the speculation thatthe Standard of Urwas part of a musical instrument the bullwith horns and beard signified divinity it was believed that the Kingwas divinely ordained contained one small panel containing possible reference to Epic of Gilgamesh andor alludes to religious beliefs and deathdangers duringjourney in afterlife aso contained animals taking on human activity Top Panel contained heraldic composition Heraldic Composition when a form is depicted at center and has 2 identical forms on both sides Ur Ziggurat historical background Sumerwas wealthy temptingterritory for expanding empires nearby Assyrians conquer Sumer made a Stele to celebrate Stele and Standard similarities presence ofa Ziggurat twisted perspective used because they wanted to showthe human body in the most clearly identifiable way Differences Sumerian leader appears less active than Assyrian leader UrZiggurat creators Kings of Ur date 2100 BCE medium mudbrick made from mixing mud and straw and dried in the sun location Ur Purpose to celebrate Sumerians defeating the Assyrians contained 2 stairwells leading to a central cite largest Ziggurat shape was meant to imitate Eastern mountains to tempt their protective deity closer to them THEORIES built to play a part in New Year39s festival to honor god Nana Most beautiful girl in community was brought together with Nana in top room to ensure good harvest idea from Herroditis Sumerians were defeated by the Babylonians in 1800 BCE D quot39 39 da 39 39 allofthe Babylonian leader Hammurabi was great leader Hammurabi s Law Code creators Babylonians date 1780 BCE medium basalt place Babylon Significance first written law top Hammurabi showing gesture of obedience and submission to a deity figure sitting on a tiered throne to represent a mountain range middle text about Hammurabi s accomplishments aw codes saying quotan eye for an eyequot gives the impression that the code of law was handed down by the sun god Hammurabi39s successors weren t as good so Assyrians conquered Babylon and Sumer NeoAssyrians Dar Shurrukin a citadel taking up 1 square mile surrounded by a thick wall 3 Parts 1religious area ziggurat temple sacred spaces 2residences for diplomatsvisitors 3palace of Sargon artwork on walls carved into the mud brick Lamassu creators NeoAssyrians date 720705 BCE medium limestone location Dar Shurrukin l beast with human head beard horned crown wings Purpose protective leader or creature meant to scare visitors Appeared at entrances to important places relief sculpture projects from medium surface high relief projects Very far beyond surface usually casts shadow econtains relief and twisted perspective because the Lamassu appears to be in stride emore Lamassu structures meant the room was important eLamassu in entrance had inscriptions of the citadel NeoeBabylonians ecreated own citadel in celebration eNebuchadnezzar II was responsible for hanging gardens and other architecture had a Ziggurat Ishtar Gates creator NeoeBabylonians date 575 BCE medium glazed bricks location abylon fentryway to the Babylon citadel eblue glazed brick with dragons and bulls and lions on the outer wall edragons were Mushooshoos representing the deity of Babylon ebulls represented the storm god elions represented Ishtar eln 1980 s Hussain wanted to reclaim past glory of Iraq and rebuild Babylon but it was rebuilt differently but the Iraqi people were happy Art of Ancient Eg Rosetta Stone discovered by Napoleon s French Troops top hierogl hics middle ancient Egyptian script lpossibly demonic bottom Greek rEgvptian civilizations around the Nile River l ows South to North Upper Egypt wasthe grasslands area lower Egypt waswetlands and farmland rbecamewealthv through exportation rPharaoh united lower and upper Egypt Palette quarmer creator Predynastic Egyptian date 3370072320 BCE medium sla e placezTemple of Hathor in Hierakonpolis Egyptl per Egypt 7 39l l law Purpose makeup palette used to mix and make eye makeup rmade from charcoal animal fat rmake up was used to protect the eyes from suninfection TH EORlEs to ura i r quot 39 upper e Egypt important because 2 sense of cultural exchange taking place lseen in artistic similarities consistent low reliefrforms barely projectfrom surface rMorethan vz depth of the material is high relief Almost all Egyptian art is low v iconographvrthe study ofsvmbolswithin a historic context symbols can mean different things in ditrerent cultures Side 1 of the Palette of Narmer top Hathor Hieroglyphics represent a word or idea but the meaning doesn t change middle King Narmer largest figure wears the crown of upper Egypt wears a bulls tail representing strength represented in composite view twisted perspective interior lines represent musculature Slave is the sandal bearer Falcon represents Horace last not human Pharaoh protector of ruling line supports King Narmer bottom submission ofenemies Side 2 of the Palette of Narmer top King Narmer wears crown of lower Egypt features a scribe in front of the King holding paper in front people hold military standards pierced placentadivine ordainment enemies are defeated middle symmetricheraldic composition makeup palette references unification of Egypt bottom warning from Narmer to anyone who threatens the peace of Egypt composite view of landscape bull is reference to Narmer FUNCTIONS 1 utilitarian eye makeup palette 2 ceremonial votive offering to Hathor 3 commemorative commemorative of unification of lower and upper Egypt CHARACTERISTICS OF EGYPTIAN STYLE 1 stylization cookie cutter forms everything looks alike relied on the Canon of Proportions informal formula creating consistency 2 hierarchy of scale 3 use of registers to compartmentalize 4 conflation of perspectives figure twisted landscape aerial and profile 5 simpli ed compositions focused on figures 6 at color no shading no highlighting no volume Pyramids of Giza creator old kingdom Egyptian date 25512472 BCE medium granite and limestone location Giza Egypt imestone was stripped offthe Pyramids and used to build Cairo however some is seen at the top of the Pyramids PURPOSE tomb for Pharaohs why do they look the way that they look 3 Theories inspired bythe Egyptian creation story 1 Primeval Mound Theory built to mimic rising of mound of Earth rising from water 2 Solar Theory a pharaoh upon death goes on ajourney through afterlife with Osiris and then reunites with Ra Mimic ramps leading to the heavens and attracts rays of the sun 3 Stellar Theory Pyramids assist Pharaoh in trip to meet Ra because air shafts point to Orion Egyptian Creation Story Life started from the dirt from Nile River creator god was born Ra and creates wife Hathormother goddess chidren Osiris god of peace and Seth god of chaos Osiris brought civilization to Egypt and Seth gotjealous Seth killed Osiris and spread his pieces throughout Egypt sis traveled and collected pieces of Osiris and brought him back to life Osiris and Isis have child Horace who kills Seth and takes over Egypt as Pharaoh 3 Pyramids3 Pharaohs Khufu largest pyramid also called the quotgreat pyramid Khafre middle Menkaure smallest All part of a larger funerary complex mastabas where the nobility and Pharaohs were buried massive rectangular mud brick paced atop burial chamber chapel and serdab in chamber Ka figure in serdab priest goes into chapel to give offerings to Ka to honor pharaoh Stepped Pyramid at DjoserSaqqara creators Imhotep Old Kingdom Egyptian date 26302611 BCE medium stone location Saqqara Egypt Wk Expansion of base of initial Mastaba square base instead of rectangular underground burial chamber chapel and serdab exterior first sign of funerary complex turns into pyramids Mastaba turned into Stepped Pyramid which turned into true Pyramid True Pyramids had false chambers to trick tomb robbers entryway was difficult to find 2 million stones were used to Khufu s pyramid How did they build the pyramids 20 to 25 years to be constructed built by farmers who felt idle when delta was flooded by the Nile THEORIES huge ramp to top miles long ramp around pyramid ramp within the pyramids Funerary Complex necropolis city of the dead ex Giza Saqqara valley temple closer to River took the place of the Serdab mortuary temple in front of the pyramids took place of chapel faces of Pyramids perfectly aligned with cardinal directions Pharaohs started theirjourney in the East Funerary Procession body carried down the Nile River taken to valley temple mummification 70 day process organs were removed and some were preserved taken to mortuary temple for prayers body was taken from the pyramid to the gallery to the chamber with the goods that the Pharaoh would use in the afterlife wals decorated to guide Pharaoh s journey Ka Figures object in serdab orvalley temple Ka soulspirit of Pharaoh when Pharaoh died Ka lived on and journeyed in afterlife if Ka didn39t have physical body to inhibit it would be doomed for life if mummified remains were compromised robbed disturbed the Ka figure was the space for the spirit to dwell Ka figures usually looked like Pharaohs on thrones Ka figures were sometimes depicted standingwith theirwife Menkaure Menkaure and Wife creator Old Kingdom Egyptian date 24902472 BCE medium diorite strong because permanence was important location valley temple at Giza Egypt too large and heavy to be moved by tomb robbers was found among other Ka figures quot0peningofthe Mouth Ceremony for Ka figures involved draping royal attire on the figures sacrifices milk rubbed onto lips to stimulate Ka figure to receive Pharaoh39s spirit reductive sculpture artist taking a large block and carving away at it most ancient art is reductive additive sculpture clay ceramics adding of materials to make sculpture closedform structure don t see spaces between limbs most Egyptian art is closedform because of permanence openform sculpture space between limbs weaker more common in Greece and Roman art this piece is reductive and closedform darnn nrs Ka sd ne m dn ljmnlhe gdds Akhenaten Nefertiti and Three Daughters sunken teller arms appear sunken mm malena cAhEnalEn appearsweak and scrawny sch dren ddk Mk9 rmm aduus because amsls slmgg ed m drawrng h dren sch dren were 3 50 wewed asydungaduus appear ba d wrtn dne brard dn nead symbuhzmg ruya ty sch d Tudcdnen inherited tne tnrdne and returned tne pa ylheis rEHgmn r ged narnetd K g utt rwnhenledlhrune ate and dred aus chest kndwnvdrnrs lamb Mrsudrnb undrsturbed drscdyered mlhe 1920 s A ngTutt sTumb smummmed remams recdyered death by nead mjury cremams secured by senes d1 cases rnsrde eacn dtner sarcuphagus sarcdpnagus pdrtrayed nrrn as tne ydung buy that ne was ART OFANCIENT cmc cGrEEEE Sa penmsu a economy was based on olive oil traded with Egypt mertime people meaning surrounded by water became wealthy through trade and port cities divided into citystates governed independently but they all considered themselves Greek because of shared religion Athensdemocracy Spartakingdom 4 Categories of Ancient Greek Art geometric predominantly in Athens archaic Kouros figures classical Hellenistic Geometric Krater creators Geometric period ancient Greek date 740 BCE medium black slip and clay location cemetery in Athens Greece Kraters were large openmouthed bowls used for mixing water and wine there is a purposefully created hole in the bottom THEORIES used to give offerings to the gods to help deceased in afterlife base is decorated with linear motifs Athens was the great producer of these vases meander ornamentation of interlocking linear forms continuous 2 registers of funerary processions deceased individual being prepared for cremation women close to deceased tore hair out maybe not literally blackfigure technique black figures redfigure technique red figures ancient Greeks had potters wheels for small Kratersvases arger Kraters were constructed in parts and stuck together by slip Greeks learned to sculpt from Egyptians Kouros young boy creators Archaic Period Ancient Greece date 600 BCE medium marble location Athens Greece currently resides in the Met many Kouros figures were made figures have cinched waist almond shaped eyes large head thighs too short stands like Menkaure and wife not convincing as naturalistic art Kouros represented male dieties sometimes athletes or warriors when city states weren t at war they put on the Olympic games forfriendly competitions over time the Kouros figure changed to look more naturalistic archaic smile abs were exaggerated because that is what the Greeks focused on because they wanted to display sculpture taking a breath to increase liveliness Contrapposto naturalistic position One leg bent other leg straight Weight shifts hips shift shoulders counter balance direction of hips Straight arm counter balances bent leg and vice versa embodies symmetria and rythmos 450 4OO BCE originaly Greek medium marble Delian League each city state pays taxes to build military defense system had delegates from city states Pericles was Athens rep and a former Hero in war he convinced the league to make Athens their headquarters Acropolis Parthenon was dedicated to Athena goddess of strategic warfare Pericles wanted to rebuild the Acropolis 2 THEORIES 1Pericles used the Dqunds to fixthe Acropolis so that it could protect the treasuw 2Pericles embezzled funds from DLto consolidate power in Athens Parthenon creators lktinos and Kallikrates date 447438 BCE High Classical Period medium pantelic marble ocatio thens Greece 3 only one entwway into Acropolis Doric temple with ionic elements and linear refinements Doric capitals doric frieze ionic frieze along pronaos ionic columns in treasuw 3 Linear Refinements 1 curved stylobate meant to trick eye 2 entasis columns larger at bottom 3 inclined columns lean into building All linear refinements were meant to trick eye into thinking all the lines are straight when really none of them are Frieze stow of centaurs and lapiths centaurs abducted brides and bridesmaids apiths resuce bridebridesmaids from centuars SIGNIFICANCE Athenians can lead Greeks to victories Inner Frieze panethanic recession celebrated olympic athletes and athena peristyle u u slamabate simeuime srylnlme calla or was slylnbme vlln promos gt Wklyle Anln culmmade pmlmos a n in Anus IOILII o perilnatal m pcliplnval Temple or Paesmm llaly gs 579 5 Hum l l mllmnon Allwns 7435 uL39r t sin in mg mm l0l peristyle porch space surrounding the building pronaos enter into and prepare to enter sacred space treasury back room not open to public naos interior space in temple in front featuring sculpture of Athena the Virgin by Phiclias P E llllEl il mm 5m P31513539 summit mum 39 apnu C lllMll smnmt STEEEUEglii quot iurnmre1l 0262 ill lm DMD omin lliue immune m name Stylobater steps Column capitalitop shaftr base Entablaturer on top of column architraver bottom directly on capital frieze decorative relief sculptures pedimentr top filled with sculpture cornicer trimming where wall connects ceiling Capital Styles doricr basic undecorated ionicr scroll eyes mum Shafl mlumn e corintianr elaborate Doric nrdel Ionic order rdoric frieze has tryglyphs and metopes rionic frieze is continuous Wet drapery drapery appears wet to emphasize human form rWhen Greece found out about Pericles the Peloponnesian war broke out Peloponnesian War Athens and Allies vs Sparta 727 year war rSparta wins rThen Macedania invades because Sparta can39t rule Alexander the Great becomes King at age 20 He conduers Persia dies before invading India Hellenistic Style naturalistic idealistic greater drama emotion facial expressions Battle of Issus creator Philogtltenos of Eretia date 310 BCE Hellenistic medium mosaic location Pompeii taly ARHI QUIZ 2 Medieval Style feudalism politicaleconomic system based on familial loyalty obligation exchange of labor or service for protection Christian converts manuscript in Northumbria ruins of structure along coastline vikings sacked Lindisfarne Abbey Roman construction Romans introduced Christianity to great production structures for learning end of 7th centuryPriest Cuthbert is in Lindisfarne Abbey converts locals to Christianity old man hermit living in a cave was made bishop and forced to live in Abbey after his death Cuthbert s gospels were created by the next bishop to honor him Lindisfarne Gospels creator Bishop Eadfirth date 698 721Hiberno Saxon medium tempera and gold leaf on vellum location Lindisfarne Abbey in England would have been a collective endeavor vellum is dried stretched animal skin 250 pages bueexpensive colors showed wealth of the church e good word i iquot i decorated h 39h p 39 39 thechurch 2 practicaie used in reiigious ceremonies Excerpts wouid have been read in Latin and most Europeans didn39t know Latin Peopie iearned the stories through pictures paintings and stained giass egospeis written by Matthew Mark Luke Jo n isynoptic gospei Matthew Mark and Luke rfocused on the iife of Jesus 7cannon page evangeiist page carpet page initiai page text as FUNCI39ION th 1 y h 7John wrote about abstract ide cover adorned with jeweis and the Greek cross 7geometric interweaving of forms common in Ceitic art Inside the boo 7the cannon page contains the ta bie of context and the index Saint Matthew Carpet Page creator Bishop Eadfirth date 6987721 medium tempera and goid ieafon Veiium iocation Lindisfarne Gospeis 7Ceiticdesign around a cross atthe oenter emodi ed Version of the cover finterlacing39 interweaving of geometric circuiar shapes to make a pattern anamorphic oomesfrom Ceitic metai work ranimai forms in interiacing econtinues onto initiai page carpet page recto side ieft feva ngeiist page tiai pageverso side right Saint Matthew Evangelist Page lquot l a creator Bishop Eadfirth date 698 721 medium tempera and gold leaf on vellum location Lindisfarne Gospels Latin and Greek text winged man in background guy behind curtain might be Moses the winged man is Matthew s tetramorph tetramorph each evangelist has a form that stands in for them in their absence St Matthew was the winged man because his writings emphasized Jesus as having human and divine ancestry image of Matthew is stylized almond shaped eyes Byzantine ish no sense of human form 1 Byzantine style was still around 2 General loss of knowledge Roman naturalistic sculptures were missing TETRAMORPHS St Luke winged Ox patron saints for artists emphasized the sacrifice of Jesus St Mark winged Lion ion cubs were dead and came back to life emphasized the resurrection St John eagle stands apart eage ascends into the sky emphasized ascension CYCLICAL CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY Franktgn ngdum m Germany pegtnmng uf kmgdumsbeczuseuf manta autanees cnanemagne mhentedtemtuw and Expanded t r as carunngtanmea ey cnanemagne cruwned m op st Peters and was made F RST Hmy Rumzn Emperur buhcsuccessurtu Cunslzrmne prumutescnnsttamtytnruugn payatrg pruyeets cnanemagnetureed penp etu cumenth cnnsttamty swarmedth reeaptaretne greatness ume enuvatmtmpem Rumznwquotenuvzhun uttne Rumzn Emper under Cnnslzntme Aachensczpm utEmptre rwhere ne na munks set up Ch suzn and seeatar aenutargmp cnanemagne based pa zce utt uf st Juhn tateran pa zce Cunstanttnes pa zce wt sCunianne Equestrian Portrait of Charlemagne Germany newestne gtupetu eympunzewuna puwer attempt at naturzhmv aH nur wzsnutgmngtu pe gumg mtu hall s pap prupnmunshuked hke newasnatrg a smaH puny s mesenseut budy un ertne drapery a 3 net cunvmmng as a hvmg persun Charlemagne brought back cardinals to elect the pope catacombs raided and trinkets were distributed Charlemagne dies and leaves the throne to Louis the Pious who divides territory causing the Carolingian empire to fall apart new dynasty Attonian emerges Attonian Period 3 consecutive ottos rule primarily Austria and Germany Otto the 339d gave gift to tutor Bishop Bernbart relic part ofthe true cross Bishop built St Michaels and bronze doors Bronze Doors of Bishop Bernward 41 creator Bishop Bernward date 1015 medium bronze size 16 ft high location St Michaels in Hildesheim Germany each door has 8 relief panels vary between low to VERY high relief high relief at top so they are easier to see Left Door images from the old testament creation of Adam top to the murder of Abel by Cane at the bottom Right Door images from new testament bottom shows the enunciation to the ascension at the top didactic relationship images on the right correlate with the left Jesus fulfills prophecies outlined in old testament figures not naturalistic but expressive in body language styized vegetation top left panels creation ofadam and eve top right reappearance ofJesus before Mary Magdalen reate because God created and also resurrected midde left temptation ofAdam and Eve Adam points to Eve Eve points to salamander satan midde right crucifixion scene rlesusbewrgjudged by PumusPHzteznd Sa zmznder Curre ztmn cundemnztmn urwgwnz smthztlesusdwedfur Furtherduwn buttum e Adzm and Everemuvedfrum Eden Jesusbemg mtruducedtu Spmtuz wur d abunrg buttum Hg se men mung Mary curre ztmn Evemtruduced 5m Mary mtruduced sa vztmn bythe mm uflesus tum wen Cane kmmg Abe mm m nut msmmzmty curre ztmn hfevs death puwosg OFTHE DOOR mam mm Rumznesque ehcubject assumzted WM 2 hmy gure hcswere behavedth havespemz puwers penp e suLghtthem um bytzkmg p gnnges m date 107071120 medmm stuns ucztmn Tuu uuse France 752 n1 Sem n adds zdwztmg ch2pe swerew chevetambu zturyzpser2dwzurg empex isles were extended so that more people could access the apse 2 Reasons for these changes 1 accommodate more pilgrimsplace for locals and people passing through to worship accommodates them while something else is going on 2to housedisplay relics displayed at all times so anyone could see them at any point reliquarybejeweled encasement for relics to be displayed most important relic housed in gold reliquary remains of Saint Sernin outside depicts his martyrship tied to a bull and dragged through a city pilgrimages took place on The Way of Saint James intentional proportions aisle of crossing narthex V2 of crossing barrel vault ribbedarch that continues archkey to Romanesque NOT gothic xgroin vaultingwhere 2 barrel vaults intersect nterior of Saint Sernin different from Old St Peters 1 Crossing no longer depicted by triumphal arch instead arches are used in nave barrel vault 2 Old St Peters had a flat roofline 3 Saint Sernin was taller than Old St Peters by a lot 4 Different mediums Saint Sernin was made of stone not timber so it would not burn and also allowed for better acoustics CHARACTERISTICS OF ROMANESQUE CATHEDRAL 1 roman arches and barrelvaulted ceilings 2 dark interior space stone not many windows 3 tribune gallery second floor space to occupy CHARACTERISTICS OF A PILG RIMAGE CHURCH 1 house a relic 2 incorporate features to accommodate influx of pilgrims wanting to see relics chevet 3 located along major pilgrimage route Saint Pierre NOT a pilgrimage church on way of St James pilgrims could enter holds no relics monastic church small not meant for ceremonies for monks sideway entry Maiestas Domini 1 r date 11151135 medium stone location South Portal of Saint Pierre in Moissac France PARTS OF THE PORTAL Umpanum image on top of entry inte on top of the doors trumeau supports lintel between doors sidewall walls on sides decorative jamb props the lintel archivault go around entire area In Maiestas Domini doorjambs beneath the meanum images of prophets to convey idea that the second coming of Christ fulfills prophecies saiah on the right Old Testament St Peter on the left New Testament sblized drapery elongated on these figures Trumeau 6 lions on top of each other with NO wings lions were good guards because they sleep with their eyes open Tympanum quotChrist in His majestyquot showed enthroned Christ denotes sacred protected space almond shape around Him a lot going on not much organization Romanesque qualiW 4 tetramorphs around Christ 24 elders alluded to in Revelations byJohn Gothic Art Chartes Cath dra Date 11451155 medium stone location Chartes France dedicated to the Virgin Mary hit by lightning and partly burned was reconstructed over time two towers different because they were built in different times quotcult of cartsquot townspeople contributed to Churches construction cathedra represents civic pride for locals crossing central large apse for emphasis double ambulatory emphasis on relics and enabling more people to see them mutiple entrances to allow more people great influx of pilgrims ocated on St James Way PLGRMAGE CHURCHGOTHIC groin vaulting along nave gothic groin vaulting everywhere intersection of pointed gothic arches different from Roman arches in Romanesque churches Royal Portal date 11451155 medium stone location West portal of Chartes pointed arch highy decorated archivault in gothic old testament royal figures prop up new testament figures above far left references ascension angels Christ zodiac signs referencing heavens in archivault middle references the 2 d coming of Christ Christ in almondshaped form tetramorphs and elders below sight naturalism knee right references Mary with the Christ child life of Mary s life and Jesus life nativity scene and Mary separated from Christ because divinity was emphasized more than His humanity idea Marywisdom because God chose her so she must have been special and wise archivault decorated with philosophers and liberal art symbols because of Mary s wisdom Gothic taller churches pointed arches stained glass windows lightcolored light colored lightcloser to heaven flying buttresses larger apse Romanesque round arch dark interior no flying buttresses normal apse windows would hurt structural integrity so there weren t any Both stone medium Latin cross plan lux nova new light colored light stained glass around apse references llcult of carts which was not religious CHARACTISTICS OF GOTHIC CATHEDRAL 1 pointed archesgroin vaulted ceilings 2 stainedcolored glass and more light 3 triforium2nd floor 4 flying buttresses Italian Renaissance Trecento art provided in two groups Northern and Italian renaissance North is Germany Holland early renaissancetrecento1300s renaissance refers to quotrebirthquot rebirth of knowledge ancient philosophies are first translated ancient sculptures unearthed brought them out of the dark ages Rise of the notion of the artist artists used to be artisans laborers economicsocial status aspiring artists H 39 39 under r f 39 and could quot become masters themselves artisans educated 39 39 in I 39 quot 39 to role shift from artisan to artist cultured individual Pisanopremiere Italian sculptor in Trecento more naturalistic depiction of human form sculptors got their first because they found ancient sculptures Pisa Baptistery Pulpit I I patrons r creator Nicola Pisano date 1260 patron Archbishop of Pisa medium marble and wood location Pisa Baptistew in Pisa Italy PURPOSE baptisms took place in separate building outside of cathedral baptistew filed civic documents reigious and practicalfunctions cyindricawith a dome SHAPE IS SIGNIFICANT shape of baptistew circular God eternal God was is and always will baptistew font octagonal represents Jesus being resurrected on the 8 h day In baptism the stain oforiginal sin is washed away and people are born again pupit hexagonal 6 h day when Christ was sacrificed Remind people how they are able to be born again because Christ took their sins forthem n baptismal rituals font and pulpit represent formerself dying and rebirth as a Christian pulpittall 5 panels around the top Iecturn place where gospels were placed to be read Eagle representingJohn was featured here because of John39s emphasis on the word made flesh underthe eagle39s feet there is something being crushed showingvictow of Christianity trefoi had Romanesque arches Nativity Panel date 1260 patron archbishop of Pisa medium marble location Pisa Baptistery Pulpit various stories compactly depicted top left enunciation angels telling Mary about the coming ofJesus Mary s nativity still separated from Christ child ower left Joseph looking tired theophany story proving divinity of Holy figure in this case Christ is bathed in Chalice midwife did not believe Jesus was son of God her defective hand was healed after it went into the water she bathed Jesus in she converted and proved Christ s divinity top right sheppards approached by angels to give gifts to Jesus flock of sheep followers of Christ ooking at goat which represented evil sheep protect babyJesus from the evil goat n Christian art stories are retold often Pisano uniquely showed the bathing of baby Jesus Figu res different from gothic figures stoic faces inconsistent with high classical sculpture drapery shows human form beneath it cuttered composition like Romanesque not gothic Pisano looked at early Christian art most as seen with the crowding of figures also on the pulpit old testament figures one is nude Fortitude creator Nicola Pisano date 1260 patron Archbishop of Pisa medium marble location Pisa Baptistery Pulpit story of Daniel who was saved from the lions first male nude in the renaissance nudity is significant because there wasn t a lot in the middle ages except Adam and Eve unabashed nudity musculature of human form Pisano modeled from Doryphorus heroic male nude represent perfection of God in man strength in the service of God God created man in His own image so these nudes celebrated God femae nudity was not in churches except Eve Giotto premiere painter interior fresco design in Arena Chapel private family chapels Arena Chapel creator Giotto date 1305 patron Enrico Scrovegni medium Fresco location Padua Italy the Scrovegni family made their money from loaning and charging interest Dante was friends with Giotto and wrote the quotDivine Comedy where he described the inferno mentioned the Scrovegni family in hell so Enrico freaked out hiring Giotto was supposed to preventthe Scrovegni family from goingto hell giornate amount of fresco that can be painted in a single day sight overlap of one days paint on another day39s paint buon fresco what Giotto used Wet technique artist applies pigment to wet plaster fresco secco dwtechnique pigments added to dried plaster talians preferred buon fresco because the moist climate caused plasterto dw slowly and evenly fresco secco tends to break off 3 registers top Marion style stories of Maw s life childhood to marriage Expulsion ofJoachm creator Giotto date 1305 patron Enrico Scrovegni medium fresco location Arena Chapel Maw39s father offers a lamb to God to help them conceive offering rejected by the rabbi Anna conceived and prayers were answered cap on the rabbi halo on Joachim body language tells the stow Chiaroscuro modeling of form using light and shadow to create illusion ofvolume rabbi39s shadow and light on his arm chiaroscuro only works ifthere is a single light source assume light is on top right and casts shadows on figures intuitive perspective references how temple appears tilted towards us for sense of depth actual space that people can occupy attempt to make architecture look 3D without mathematics midde Jesus childhood and early ministries Nativity creator Giotto date 1305 patron Enrico Scrovegni medium fresco location Arena Chapel Joseph depicted using chiaroscuro to create depth Christ child not separated from Mary mother and child gaze face is stoic emphasis on humanity of holy figures to make them relatable Joseph appears tired human like Mary embraces child human like bottom passion of Christ Lamentation 39 creator Giotto date 1305 patron Enrico Scrovegni medium fresco location Arena Chapel refers to the mourning over Jesus body before bu rial groups of mourners surround Jesus Giotto explores different ways to grieve some males are more reserved john is expressive females are the most expressive Mary appears similar to nativity scene hooded figures stand in observe scene to reference passion plays which were plays about the Passion cycle of Christ Giotto makes conscious effort to direct your gaze towards Christ39s head by focusingthe gazes of the otherfigures on Him soping hill creates diagonal to His head angels are appearingto quotpop out at us foreshortening RENAISSANCE CHARACTERISTICSGOALS 1 Rendering human form in a naturalway 2 Conveying psychological insight 3 Creatingthe illusion of 3dimensionality considered pictures a window looking into anotherworld chiaroscuro vawing expressions think lamentations Trecento Maesta creator Duccio date 13081311 medium tempera on wood with gold leaf location Siena Cathedral in Siena Italy tempera dries quickly ong process creates luminescent surface most significant of Duccio39s work because he signed it panel on an alterpiece screenlike form located in apse on altertable or behind one commissioned to create it by the bishop his piece took the place of another other panels depict scenes from the passion ofthe Christ when Napoleon invaded the panels were broken apart and moved Byzantine and Early Renaissance some stylization similar shaped eyes some individuality chiaroscuro gold background intuitive perspective 2 new things he used 1 creates unified composition different figures all in one panel used to be separated Man and Saints 2 sacra conversazione sacred conversationwhen in a single composition multiple holy figures are in a conversation The figures lived in different time periods and couldn39t have talked in reality Quattrocento Forence was the birthplace of humanism humanism 1 General study of humanity histow art sociology 2 Belief in glory and greatness of humanity 3 Knowledge as path to understanding God phiosophica movement begins in central Italy continues today interest in people different inclinations increase in secular knowledge didn t conflict with church because to understand the worldhumanity you can learn more about God because He created it all artists were elevatedbetter appreciated Vasori s publication ofartist biographies patrons also climb social ladder by patroning art individuals with good taste 1401 competition to determine which artist would decorate doors in east Florence baptistery Ghiberti won and created a door with 10 panels of bible scenes Michaelangelo called it quotgaze of paradise Donatello created sculpture stone makers and wood workers guild Saint Mark creator Donatello date 1411 patron Woolworkers guild medium marble location Orsanmichele in Florence Italy didn t create niche that the statue was in ooks to classical past Contrapposto naturaistic face ooks like he s going to step into the world and his gaze is to the outside DRAPERY EMPHASIZED woolworkers guild wanted emphasis on drapery fine wool fabric adorns the Saint convinced of Mark s sense of form under material proportions aren t right torso too long legs too short because viewers would be looking up at St Mark so proportions look perfect Prehistoric Art 8172011 20500 PM Prehistoric separated into three sections Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Venus of Willendorf title from discovery location Limestone very fine and porous not from Austria believe venus was transported from somewhere else Figurine small portable sculpture Figurine of female form simplified human form abstracted to decorative nature In Paleolithic figurines generally of nude female form Early archeologists named figurines Venus gave it an unintended purpose and association May be used in fertility rituals signify health of community abundance of food and supplies Because of abundance of female rather than male or animal figures may show Paleolithic preoccupation with woman as procreator Caves of Lascaux unlike many Paleolithic caves there are human forms not just animal Used whatever they could find to make paintings not extracting from plants hence all the earthy colors Discovered in 1940 by boys playing in a field Hall of Bulls largest interior space in caves decorated all over There wouldn t have been much light and ceiling high up Created wood scaffolding placed in holes in wall and made candles of animal fat and moss Used water to bind the ground pigments Used hands brushes of fur and blowing through hollow reeds or bones to apply pigment Painting became more advanced outlines of figures then monochrome one color and bichrome two color at end of period polychrome many color Auroch horses some reindeer surprising so few since main source of food and others less plentiful Birdheaded man one of few Paleolithic depictions of 2D human form Colocation placing an object based on the natural coloring in the background to differentiate Twisted perspective conflation of different perspectives when depicting a form done to make form easily recognizable only prehistoric art only 2D art Curving lines represent movement Caves were not for living but for use by a community early theory was artists depicting life around them but animals dominating weren t dominating in real life sympathetic magic bring animals they wanted to hunt to them shaman visions shaman in hunter gatherer communities connection with spiritual world use animals to strengthen that connection used for rites of male passage learn how to hunt use animals as target practice Mesolithic Ice Age ending so new civilizations sprouting up takes Europe longer to grow than further south since equatorial regions warming faster Stonehenge being created at same time as pyramids Stonehenge means stone circle Other henges throughout British isles Triithons three stone constructions Not sure how stones moved before invention of wheel and weigh at least 45 tons Post and lintel simplest architectural method lintel over two posts Mortise and tenonprotrusion in posts fits into holes in lintel Continuous cycle with two lintels sharing a post Created over a series of time in three stages 1 On a natural drainage ditch that faced sun dug large ditch and made embankment English dirt chalky so white circle Made two barrows with no purpose Dug Aubrey holes probably filled with small blue stones from Wales may have had medicinal qualities represented ancestry of people cremated remains of males in Aubrey holes 2 Made an avenue and small blue stones in center 3 Erected large trilithons inside In ruins because medieval rulers used them to make castles Purpose 0 Middle ages Merlin 0 Celtic rituals sacrifices 0 Solar calendar when sun rises on summer solstice illuminates alter stone sun sets on winter solstice illuminates altar stone 0 Part of larger funerary complex near Woodhenge and Durrington Walls Neolithic homes inside made at same time as Stonehenge funerary procession would begin at walls for death or twice a year for change of seasons Art of the Ancient Near East 1122011 31500 AM Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia between Euphrates and Tigris Rivers Sumer Southern Mesopotamia Polytheistic linked via religion Deities lived in eastern mountains Each deity had a favorite citystate and ruled via an earthly representative priest king Credited with inventing the wheel and first to record and write down law codes Leonard Woolley o Led team into Southern Iraq and excavated o Discovered series of underground chambers he said were burial tombs o Found bones he figured were kings and queens and other remains of servants etc mass suicide Standard of Ur o Title given by Woolley o Thought it was a military standard since it was found over shoulder of soldier o Not a military standard scholars figure it is part of a musical instrument o Panels War and Peace earliest discovered visual narrative o Registers series of bands that distinguish one part of a picture from another part c On Standard 3 different registers left to right bottom to top War 0 Same info as Standard of Ur 0 Enemy usually depicted as nude loss of identity trampled by chariots animal changes to show acceleration of chariot 0 Top panel presenting captives to leader who is the largest figure size used to delineate power Peace 0 Bottom procession of war spoils continues through middle register 0 Top leader largest and nobles with fringe skirt 0 Hierarchy ofscae scalesize of figure changes according to status in society deity largest then king nobility slaves 0 Figures in twisted perspective Bullheaded Lyre o Decorated with bulls head horns represent divine authority and beard represents earthly power o Another element in assuming royal cemetery o 4 panelsregisters beneath bulls head that may or may not be related to each other o Reference to Epic of Gilgamesh o Scorpions o Funerary banquet o Heraldic composition perfectly symmetrical from right to left o Top panel bearded figure of possible authority flanked by animal figures Ur Ziggurat o Reed mats inserted so when it rained the mud bricks wouldn t dissolve o Huge covers two football fields o Each tier a different color that varied depending on significance to the people o Function religious temple constructed on manmade mountain in attempt to tempt patron deity to visit hisher people Babylon Citystate until King Hammurabi who is credited with uniting all citystates of Sumer in alliance to fight Known as peacemaker created written law code Hammurabi s Law Code Stele shape carved vertical sculpture placed as memorial marker for a life battle etc First known written law code but not first example of writing Stele divided into two sections Top Hammurabi standing before another figure that is larger than he thus assumed to represent Shamash Patron Sun God of Babylon Hammurabi offering gesture of respect and Shamash is handing over building tools representative of handing over authority to create order within a community o Seat Shamash is sitting on abstracted version of mountains or Ziggurat o Bottom cuneiform script o Begins with prologue of Hammurabi s accomplishments o Bottom of script is brief epilogue that celebrates him as a peace maker o Between law codes eye for an eye o Setting laws in stone people know what to expect and the ramifications of their actions Akkadians Assyrians See success of southern Mesopotamia and make several attempts to take it into their empire Attack from North and take small villages Victory of Naram Sin commemorates victory over Lullabe people o Bad condition because of material pink sandstone o Religious beliefs similar to Babylonian people polytheistic o New type of victory work usually horizontal registers staggered approach flat background emphasizes vertical quality and Naram Sin s eventual godlike status o Associated with gods at top and everyone looking up at Naram Sin focal point Horned helmet associated with power and gods o Naram Sin s attack unsuccessful Babylonians unite under Hammurabi and defeat Assyrians Assyrians eventually successful and expands empire Dur Sharrukin built by Sargon II in celebration of Assyrian success in expanding over Babylonian empire and to reconfirm Assyrian presence in the area o Surrounded by thick fortress like wall shows that people inside feared attack from the people they had overcome o The palace would have been the most elaborately decorated o Carved clay 0 Scenes of hunting and fishing 0 Strange hybrid creatures human headed bulls Lamassu LamassuCreated to flank entry ways at Dur Sharrukin o Made of expensive materials show wealth of Assyrians o Meant to scare and create awe in visitors o Believed to have power to protect Sargon o Would have originally been painted Reliefscupture not freestanding appears attached to the wall carving projects from the surface they are attached to Hierarchy for Lamassu o Different perspective 0 Front appears standing still 0 Side looks as if they are striding forward Assyrians overextend themselves and begin to collapse and shrink back in Babylonians reassert themselves and start to grow expand from Persian Gulf to Mediterranean into Egypt Babylon Build palatial complex to celebrate growth based off Dur Sharrukin but much larger o Built along the Euphrates River by Nebuchadnezzar II o Gardens Ziggurat tower of Babel Ishtar Gates leading into city on Ceremonial Processional way one of 13 entrances Ishtar Gates Around important entrance ways sculpted bricks each had own spot put thin layer of glass over clay when it was fired Animals represented specific gods religious beliefs have merged with others 0 Dragon Mushushu represented Marduk patron deity of Babylon Bullhorned Bull Adad the storm god Lion Ishtar the female deity not on the actual gates but around them on adjoining walls 0 O Art of Ancient Egypt 1122011 31500 AM Rosetta Stone large stone with written script Found by Napoleon s men in Saqqara Has allowed scholars to understand hieroglyphics Same inscription written in 3 different languages Demotic Ancient Greek Hieroglyphics Able to now understand ancient Egyptian beliefs history and culture Everything in Egyptian life based off the flow of the Nile flows South to North hence Upper Egypt below Lower Egypt Upper Egypt drier grassier location of first necropolis Lower Egypt more fertile less elevation delta of the Nile floods and leaves fertile soil that makes it the Bread basket of the Mediterranean make them very fertile Early on Upper and Lower ruled separately Pharaohs believed to be gods on earth rule ordained by gods His Ka soul would return to gods with death King Narmer united the Upper and Lower Palette of Narmer Used to mix eye makeup 0 Eye makeup worn by both sexes to protect against glare of sun and protect against eye disease A votive offering to deity to Hathor in temple of Helps to distinguish between dynastic and predynastic period Shows evidence of cross cultural influences trade exchange of ideas Sumerian sculpture of entwined lion necks similar to lions on Palette Egyptian style of art which is pretty similar for 3000 years Low relief no example of high relief sculpture in Egyptian art favor low relief because they want it to last for eternity since most objects meant to be used in afterlife high relief has greater chance of breaking Iconography study of symbols and their meanings within their cultural context Top register Horned Bulls Hathor w hieroglyph in center Narmer Narmer easy to pick out on front because of hierarchy of scale 0 Crown of Upper Egypt H N LA U1 6 7 Bulls tale symbol of power and potency Composite view twisted perspective created by Egyptians because they wanted to depict human body in most characteristic and attractive way 0 Lines are attempts to display musculature symbolic not naturalistic sculpture Subjecting a Lower Egyptian Servant behind carrying shoes bare footedness akin to godliness o Horace father of pharaohs overlooking Narmer on stylized papyrus grown in Lower Egypt o Bottom register fleeing defeated o Other side top register Narmer wearing Lower Egypt crown followed by scribe and servant defeated lying with decapitated heads between legs o Middle heraldic composition represents the joining of Upper and Lower Egypt o Bull attacking a man represents King Narmer warning to anyone threatening peace of unified Egypt bull defending city Utilitarian used for mixing makeup o Ceremonial votive offering to Hathor o Commemorative unification or reunification of Egypt power of pharaohs O O O O Stylization figures look the same no distinguishing characteristics only tell because of crown or size Canon of proportions Mathematically based why all figure have same proportions Hierarchy of scale Registers Conflation of perspectives a Figure frontal and profile or composite view b Landscape aerial and profile Simplified compositions Flat colors Earliest Egyptian tombs were mastabas rectangular sloping walls mud brick built for private citizens as well as pharaohs Two rooms in mastaba a chapel with a waist high partition wall that allowed you to see into the other room serdab with it s statue of the Ka Stepped Pyramid at Djoser Imhotep first known artist Came from stacking multiple mastabas on top of each other Change the shape of the base square more symmetrical and sturdy Made of stone instead of mud brick Moved the chapel and serdab outside the pyramid beginning of the funerary complex Pyramids of Giza Pharaohs tombs Khufu Khafre and Menkaure Primeval Mound Theory created to mimic first earthen form when Ra comes out of the water in a mound Solar Theory Coated in polished limestone ramp by which pharaohs could get to sun god Ra Stellar Theory airshaft inside aligned with Orion makes it easier to have Orius help pharaohs along their way to Ra Date of the Pyramids coincides with the beginning of the building of Stonehenge Built multiple burial chambers to confuse thieves Facing four cardinal points 2 million stones of 1 to 2 tons base covers 13 acres Stones pulled along lubricated wooden tracks 20 years to build but slaves were not involved in construction more likely agricultural workers waiting for Nile to stop flooding Placing the stones 39 Large ramp would have been a mile long and taken as much material as pyramid Ramp along the outside but it would have obscured shape of pyramid ii39 Internal ramps with small exterior ramp to certain point Coated with limestone removed to build early Cairo Other family members and favorite scribes etc would have been in surrounding pyramids and mastabas continue serving pharaohs in afterlife o A necropolis city of the dead o Valley tempe serdab furthest away from the pyramid mummification process done there most important organs stomach lungs liver kept in canopic jars decorated with the head of a deity representing forms of death o Mortuary tempe chapel right by pyramid final ceremonies done there o Sarcophogus and other bulky images would already have been in place in chamber chamber decorated with scenes of afterlife and Book of the Dead guide book to the afterlife made for a specific person o Sphinx human headed lion 0 Next to Khafre s valley temple 0 Made from the extra stones of Khufu s pyramids o Believed to be a protector of sacred sites o Ka figure sculpted figure meant to represent pharaoh o to go on journey to immortality in afterlife needs a body why bodies mummified in case remains are compromised they made the ka figures Usually sitting Stiff rigid position in full pharaoh dress stylized In order to take on ka needs to be prepared Opening of Mouth Ceremony Elaborate ceremony ending with preist rubbing milk on figures lips to make it tempted to open mouth Menkaure and Wife o Different standing and with wife o Believe wife was favorite of many o Not quite life size o Made of diorite very durable material means it will remain undamaged for afterlife Reductive sculpture has a block of material and chips away at it until the figure emerges Menkaure Lamassu Willendorf Additive sculpture start with a material clay etc and builds up until form is made 0 O O Closed form sculpture no open spaces it appears the figures are emerging from the stone o Favored by Egyptians since they were so concerned with permanence since figures less likely to break in closed form Open form sculpture open spaces between limbs torso figure seems less attached to the base better sense of naturalism Egypt will be reductive closed form sculpture Akhenaten was Amunhotep throws out polytheistic religion for monotheistic religion of sun god Aten of whom he is the only son Desolves religious brotherhoods begins constructing own religious compound at Amarna So despised by people his tomb and images were destroyed Akhenaten Nefertiti and Three Daughters o Ankh sun god breathing life into the royal family Curving lines give a sense of movement Feels relaxed and intimate More naturalistic can identify the characters within More able to be read iconography Sunken relief image appears sunken into the surface rather than carving away material to raise image chisel image out of sun Succeeded by 9 year old son Tutanhotep changes it to Tutenkamen Reverts to polytheistic religion Dies at 18 his tomb is the only one found that hasn t been looted Layered sarcophagus at least one layer would represent pharaoh as Osiris Tries to revert to Old Kingdom style of art after Amarna but not entirely successful Tut appears to be a boy king Art of Ancient Greece 1122011 31500 AM Ancient Greece becomes powerful through maritime trade because they have rocky coastline inconducive to agriculture do export olive oil Begin taking over coastline of Greece to set up trading posts Four stylistic periods Geometric Orientalizing borrow from Egypt and Near East o Archaic o Classical o Hellenistic Geometric Krater Dipylon o Weren t using glazes yet used black slip o Had a functional purpose kraters used for mixing water and wine o Served a ritualistic function helped living relatives of deceased honor him o Polytheistic culture made sacrifices to gods in hopes of favors o Meander interlocking geometric form at neck o Two registers showing funerary procession and battle forms o Figures made of abstracted geometric shapes Vase painting techniques using slip o Black figure technique vase where figures appear black o Redfigure technique the figures appear red Archaic art characterized by Egyptian influence o One leg forward o Stoic expression o Stiff pose o Stylization no distinguishing features o Idealized Preferred sculpture material was bronze in Greece seen more in classical and Hellenistic Kouros o Influenced by Minoan cinched waist braided hair and Egyptian menkaure and wife art o Attempting more naturalism by dropping closed form sculpture did not have the bone structure however o Nudity doesn t represent defeat in Greece like Near East and Egypt o May represent warriors who died in battles between the many Greek citystates Make jump in 70 years to more naturalistic sculpture Kroisos o Relies less on line and more on modeling o Has bone structure muscles fleshiness o Less stylized o Wanted sculpture as lifelike as possible so paint the sculptures Greeks attacked by the Persian Empire Xerxes and band together Aftermath of attack gives rise to Classical period feel secure from attack and devout resources to culture Greek states made Delian League defensive alliance loosely composed of the more significant leaders of each big citystate make sure there is always a defense system in place levied taxes in all states to pay for soldiers Pericles convinced them to have headquarters and treasury in Acropolis in Athens Acropolis o the sacred space of Athens dedicated to the gods o Destroyed by Xerxes and rebuilt by Pericles using Delian League funds eventually leads to Peleponnisian War o Makes large wall around acropolis with one gate the Propilia which serves as both secure entrance and transition space Polykleitos creates canon of proportions that is used through the 19th century Doryphorus Favored bronze but melted down by invaders for weapons Romans made marble copies Tended to sculpt pictures of athletes Sculpture in the round sculpted on all sides and meant to be walked around and viewed on all sides Contrapposto naturalistic stance that represents the shifting of weight in movement alludes to impending action comes from conception of o Symmetria o Rythmos Contrapposto lends greater sense of naturalism Made the idealized nude youth Polykleitos s canon is adapted to buildings Parthenon Made of pantelic marble name from location of quarry eventually most sought after marble Dedicated to Athenas Parthenos Athena the virgin Doric temple with Ionic elements and linear refinements o Doric columns but within on second row naos there is a continuous freize Columns within Treasury are Ionic Linear refinements optical allusions to make us think the Parthenon is perfect 1 Curved stylobate stairs look completely flat 2 Entasis columns around peristyle bulge from bottom and taper at top 3 Inclined columns tilt inward slightly Most sculpture in Parthenon done or designed by Phidias had assistants to do actual carving Each metope shows Greeks coming together defeating barbaric enemies restoring order Building celebrates the Greeks together with an emphasis on the Athenians Inside freize panathenaic procession Athenian Olympic athletes Pediment has actual sculptures inserted wet drapery clinging cloth on sculptures to emphasize human form Parthenon in bad shape because early Christians defaced pagan temples and Turks stored gunpowder inside accident Sculptures now called Elgian marbles after Lord Elgian an archeologist who took the pieces of the Parthenon to Britain Temples O O Humanism mimm i u to In in go Hi im m n a m is mcwn Surrounding columns are Peristyle Front entrance is pronaos o Large inner area is the cella naos o Treasury of the Delian League Columns o Doric frieze separated into trigyphs and metopes where relief is o Ionic continuous freize more ornate Macedonians see the Turmoil the greeks are in and take over Greece under Philip II but dies almost immediately after His son Alexander takes over and conquers much of Aegean world dies in 323 starting the Hellenistic period Hellenistic period less restrained than Classical in action emotion in face Battle of Issus o Mosaic made of individual colored tiles called tesserae to create an entire picture usually done outside in less preservable areas o Battle between Alexander the Great and Darius II of Persia shows how headstrong and dangerous Alexander is since no helmet as compared to Darius who is well protected o Can see the expressiveness on faces but little attention to background which emphasizes action
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