US MEDIA HISTORY
US MEDIA HISTORY JRLC 5490
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Ms. Clifton O'Conner
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Clifton O'Conner on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JRLC 5490 at University of Georgia taught by Hume in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/202151/jrlc-5490-university-of-georgia in Journalism Core at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 2 SCHEDULED FOR FRIDAY MARCH 25 Important note As we haven t yet gotten to World War II please hold off reading Chapter 9 in Mightier than the Sword and Pat Washbum s chapter World War II until the third exam From your class notes At newspapers of the 1880s how did things like salaries the space system bill cutting tenure working hours and of ce intrigue have a direct impact on content Content value went down Journalists were trying to write as many articles as possible and were trying to make them as long as possible that journalism wasn t as good There was also a rise in made up stories and false facts How did the radical press of the late 19th and early 20th centuries use journalism to promote their causes Journalists would exaggerate or use false facts to get the outcome they wanted from the public News became more sensational purely to get more readers and make more money Accuracy took a back seat to obtaining readership What techniques did Ida B Wells use to crusade against lynching Why was getting her facts right especially important She sued different parties that were racist such as the railroads Also she wrote articles about people or companies that were being unfair and asked people to boycott them Getting the facts right was especially important because people needed to believe her more because she was black and people already trusted her less She also founded the first ever antilynching documents in America What were advertising ephemera Ephemera were items designed to be useful for only a short period of timeisuch as trade cards calendars almanacs postcards yers and lea ets What contributions did Albert Lasker make to early 20th century advertising He bought out Lord amp Thomas Newspaper Advertising He believed that readers of ads should be given a reason why they should purchase a product He hired trained copywriters He asked what is advertising and answered salesmanship in print Ad man Charles Hopkins believed in emphasizing something special about a product What s an example of one of his ads that did just that Schlitz beer campaign saying their bottles were washed with live steam In class we talked about a couple of famous ads one for Cadillac and the other for Jordan Motor Cars Describe those ads and explain why they are important to our understanding of how advertising was changing in the 20th century When Joseph Pulitzer moved from St Louis to New York he ushered in the age of New Journalism In the years prior to his famous competition with William Randolph Hearst how did Pulitzer s New York World make an impact It was known as a newspaper for immigrants He raised money for the base of the statue of liberty How did Nellie Bly land her jobs in Pittsburgh and at the New York World What kind of journalism did she pioneer She got her job in Pittsburgh by writing a letter to the editor and the editor put in ad in asking for her to come out so that he could talk to her and he then hired her She said she would do the insane asylum stunt and if it was successful then she would be hired by the New York World She pioneered stunt journalism What were the HearstPulitzer wars and how did they impact journalism They were competing to have the best more sensational articles and to have them first Journalists would try to steal stories from other journalists or they would falsify facts or stories to get stories out there as fast as possible Why did the well respected community newspaper editor William Allen White criticize Frank Munsey in his obituary The obituary read quotFrank Munsey the great publisher is dead Frank Munsey contributed to the journalism of his day the talent of a meat packer the morals of a money changer and the manners of an undertaker He and his kind have about succeeded in transforming a once noble profession into an 8 security May he rest in trustquot Why were newspapers and magazines slow to adopt photography even when the technology for reproducing them had been developed They believed that the photos would take away the legitimacy of the of the news stories One of the rst innovative and in uential uses of the news image came when Frank Leslie s Illustrated Newspaper covered the swill milk trade in New York What was the story and how did Leslie use those images both to tell it and to build trust among his readers It talked about how bad the conditions were for the milk cows in the cities They were fed leftovers from distilleries and people were getting sick They illustrated the bad conditions and included the illustrator in the pictures to make it look more honest How did the muckrakers get their nickname Teddy Roosevelt called them that after the story ofthe Pilgrim s Progress because he believed they were too busy looking at the muck to see the good Why did magazines and not newspapers provide the best format for muckraking Muckraker articles were typically longer and included photos Since magazines are bigger they can better fit the length of the articles Muckraker articles also took longer to wrote and magazines came out less frequently than newspapers so they had more time to write The January 1903 issue of McClure s Magazine is one of the most famous in history because it featured three major muckraking investigations What were they The Story of Rockefeller the Standard Oil Company Tweed Days in St Louis on corruption in big cities and The Right to Work on the bad working conditions of coal m1ners What was the legacy for journalists of the muckraking era They were known for spending months researching to write on article on how bad something was to get it changed Their work changed many things such as the meatpacking industry and some child labor issues Why did the muckraking trend fade away A miX ofthings World War I arise in political writing arise in PR and a rise in photojournalism What specific public relations techniques did Ivy Lee use to restore the reputation of the Rockefellers in an era before the term public relations had been coined He tried to make Rockefeller seem more like a philanthropist and a family man He tried to discredit the miners morally and tried to make Rockefeller good side better known Ed Bemays known as the father of public relations learned his trade in World War I and then became an adViser to many corporations What campaign did he use to help ease the taboo against women smoking in public He suggested to a female friend for her and her female friends to march in the Easter parade smoking Lucky Strikes and call them freedom torches What was the Committee on Public Information What was its purpose What kinds of things did it produce The sinking of the Titanic was an important milestone in radio history Why What were two major provisions of the Radio Act of 1912 The broadcast of Orson Welles War of the Worlds provided another milestone moment in radio history What was it and why was it important The kidnapping of Charles Lindburgh s baby is also remembered as a critical moment in radio history Why What happened to American radio stations when the United States entered World War I JRLC 5490 History of American Media Galileo password SPROUT wwwrefworkscomrefworks After the Civil War Charles Dana bought out The New York Sun and tripled its circulation in 8 years 0 Hired more educated writers and paid them well 0 Provided training to journalists 0 Gave them freedom to write about what they thought was interesting 0 Put a lot of emphasis on the editorial page and made it casual EL Godkin was the editor of The Evening Post 0 Many powerful people read his paper and his news set an agenda 0 Never more than 35K in circulation 0 Reformist and critical of many different things James Gordon Bennett Jr inherited The New York Herald from his father 0 Withdrew money from the paper for his own use 0 Ran the paper from France because he caused a scandal Newspapers began to move away from opinion and it was more about actual news Newspapers are now publicly traded Advertising became very important to monetary success of a paper Advertisers wanted to reach women so they adapted 1878 the telephone was invented and made reporters jobs easier How do the following affect content 0 Salaries reporters earned about the same as a plumber 0 Space system they were paid by the stories that got published string book Bill cutting some weren t paid for articles that they wrote 0 Tenure no unions could be red at any time 0 Hours very long no wage an hour 0 Office intrigue spies systemized gossip pitted reporters against each other Newspapers therefore had huge sensationalism reporters practices weren t always right Chicago Fire of187l 0 Story of the cow kicking over the lantern was not accurate 0 Reporters did not stick to facts exaggerated how many deaths New Technologies amp Yellow Journalism Line of Type Machine cranks up the speed of typing Spot color is now possible rst color used was yellow in a comic strip named Hogan s Allie Steam tubes to send copy between locations 1899 Marconi did the rst wireless broadcast over America s Cup Big sensational headlines became popular 0 Jerked to Jesus hanged over quoting bible 0 Brooklyn Bake theater re Joseph Pulitzer 0 Started a crusade to get people to donate money for the base of the Statue of Liberty 0 Popular with immigrants 0 Hired Nellie Bly 0 The New York World Nellie Bly 0 Stunt journalism 0 Insane asylum around the world in 72 days baby selling etc 0 Wrote in an emotional way 0 Terrific interviewer asked questions no one had the guts to ask William Randolph Hearst 0 In San Francisco and tried to copy New York papers 0 Moves to New York and buys the New York J oumal 0 Competed with Pulitzer Price cutting made up stories inaccurate facts etc were all caused by the competition Spanish American War at the tum of the century 0 Joumalists were sent down to Cuba Remington told Hearst that it was quiet and nothing was going on 0 Hearst said that he would essentially make a war for them to cover 0 Maine explodes and the joumalists go crazy with writing inaccurately about it 0 Hearst and Pulitzer urge Congress to declare war Adolph Ochsbought the New York Times for 75K in an auction 0 All the News That s Fit to Print 0 Decided that news and objectivity were most important in his paper Photojournalism Why do we inherently trust photojournalism Frank Leslie s Illustrated Newspaper First in the US 1858 Remembered for a leader in innovating news stories Understood that people had to trust what they see Milk cows were kept in barns in the city and were fed leftovers from the distilleries so people were getting sick 0 He told the story by illustrating the situation with eight images 0 To make people believed it they drew in the illustrators o Included words like accurate and correct in the captions 0 Artists were left unnamed for their safety 0 The public was very upset and some dairies were shut down 0 Continues with news related illustrations including one on oysters Developed the technology to print photographs 1880 was the rst photo in The New York Daily Graphic called A Scene in Shantytown It took 17 years to publish another because it was considered tacky and might take away from the news stories 0 Took away power from the artists and the editors Jacob Riis documented poverty They though photographs couldn t compete with art it takes an artist to tell the truth They didn t want to put the artists out of business and they started a propaganda war against photography saying that photos weren t art because they would made mechanically Ida B Wells 0 She was a black women who refused to move from one train car to another 0 Sued the railroad but the railroad took the suit to appeal and she lost 0 Tried to get blacks to move out west for more freedom Investigated charges against black people which she found to be false Exiled to the south Hired by The New York Age a black newspaper In 1892 she went to a women s convention Founded the rst ever antilynching documents in the world 0 200Lh anniversary of Columbus s landing at the World Fair but no blacks were at the fairibut without the labor of blacks America would not be where it was then and she published this in pamphlets Advertising Broadsides were placed on walls sides of buildings fences etc Ephemera were items designed to be useful for only a short period of timegsuch as trade cards calendars almanacs postcards yers and lea ets J Walter Thompson Company 0 Founded in 1864 0 Oldest agency that is still in existence 0 Advertised itself in an era when hiring an agency wasn t a part of doing business yet 0 Hired copy writers and formed the first known creative department at an ad agency RC Maxwell Company 0 Oldest existing outdoor advertising company in America 0 Billboards are mainstay People would cut out ads and keep them in a scrapbook Lux Flakes was advertised with attractive artwork and included text instructing homemakers on the care of mass produced clothing In 1990 advertisers spent 450 million to promote products in newspapers and magazines At rst messages sounded like sales pitches But later during the teens and 20s softsell approaches appeared especially image building Albert Lasker 0 Lord amp Thomas Newspaper Advertising bought it out after starting work there 0 Asked the question What is advertising Answer Salesmanship in print 0 Readers of ads should be given a reason why they should purchase a product 0 Lasker also hired and trained copywriters 0 Clients included Sunkist Van Camps and Goodyear Tires Charles Hopkins 0 Believed in emphasizing something special about a product 0 Washed with live steam Stanley and Helen Resor 0 Believed in the psychology of advertising 0 Ads should appeal to the emotion and subconscious 0 Palmolive campaign stating to keep complexion of a school girl 0 Belonged to the J Walter Thompson Agency 1915 Cadillac ad 0 Challenged the reason why approach 0 Promoted pride in the status of Cadillac you are a leader if you buy one 0 Name only mentioned once Jordan Car Company 0 Image building approach to advertising 0 Ned Jordan former as copywriter wrote the ad The wideopen 20s The Progressive Era 1900World War I Muckrakers was an insult made up by Teddy Roosevelt taken from Pilgrim s Progress Huge corporations were a powerful new force in politics society and economy Labor movements were contentiousimany unions started to get better working conditions Industrialism fuels debate about the role of government in modern society Was mostly a magazine phenomenoniinvestigated thoroughly and let the facts tell the story 0 National audience 0 Different format 0 More time 0 Able to show broad patters deal with national institutions 0 Break a local scandal without fear of retribution McClure s Magazine was the most famous one running muckraking articles 0 January 1903 issue is the most important with three articles 0 Ida M Tarbell wrote The Story of Rockefeller on The Standard Oil Company 0 Took her four years 0 18 part series 0 Used lots of documents and intensive research 0 One that was by Lincoln Steffens called Tweed Days in St Louis which grew into a series called The Shame of the Cities 0 Master interviewer 0 Exposed corruption in Minneapolis Pittsburgh Philadelphia Chicago and New York 0 The Right to Work by Ray Stammer Baker was the third written about the coal miners in Pennsylvania David Graham Phillips s The Treason of the Senate ran in Cosmopolitan about corrupt senators and voting to help special interest groups Lady s Home Journal wrote about patent medicines and cut off ads from those medicines Upton Sinclair was working for a socialist publication called The Appeal to Reason 0 Wrote The Jungle in novel form instead of like an article 1906 0 Interviewed those in meat packing plants social workers etc 0 Went under cover and disguised as worker Will Irwin of Colliers 0 Published a series investigating joumalists called The American Newspapers 0 This is the era when SPJ and state press associations began adopting codes of ethics Hamptons Magazine ran a series on railroad companies conspiracies the railroads retaliated with targeting their subscribers and advertisers Muckrakers had a great impact 0 Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907 0 8 hour days for some and child labor laws 0 Workers compensation laws 0 Prison reform 0 Amendment changing senate elections Breakup of Standard Oil and huge tobacco companies Hepburn Act of 1906 that regulated railroads Meat Inspection Act of 1906 0 Mann Act of 1909 over transporting prostitutes over state lines Legacy for journalists from muckrakers 0 Reporters learn the power and limitation of facts 0 Learned new ways of reporting and gathering facts more systematic 0 The importance of good writing If the mainstream press is angry the alternative press is even angrier such as anarchists socialists communists populists and Marxists Hundred of thousands of farmers participated in the Populist Movement Milwaukee Leader was a popular socialist paper had to bodyguards out with paperboys The Masses was a socialist magazine Public Relations Ivy Lee and Edward Bemays were the forefathers of PR essentially its creators 1914 strike by coal miners in Colorado over Rockefeller s company Bloody Ludlow United Mine Workers was union ghting for the rights of the miners Rockefeller was named as the man behind the deaths of the miners Rockefeller turned to Ivy Lee to turn his reputation for the better 0 He tried to make the better side of Rockefeller more well known 0 Tried to discredit the miners morally 0 Made him seem like more of a philanthropist Edward Bernays Wanted to turn PR into a normal practice and business Clients included TIME RCA American Tobacco Comp GE US government etc Wrote the rst PR book and taught the rst PR class The engineering of consent Committee of Public Information made a lot the WWI propaganda He opened a small office after leaving the committee to begin his own campaigns with companies He coined the term PR and called it the public consent of changing opinion Calvin Coolidge invited him to a meeting so that he could help his cold reputationi so he brought down actors to have a New England Breakfast with the president and the event ran our the rst page of the NY Times making him look friendlier Learned about Sigmund Freud s dream theories and psychology studies as a child and later in life he translated one of his booksilater used his psychology theories to make PR campaigns Helped campaign for Lucky Strikes to make it more acceptable for women to smoke publicly came up with freedom torch where he suggested to young debutante friends to march in the Easter parade and smoke in protest of man s inhumanities to women and the women made the event known to the media 0 That week theatres nationwide allowed smoking for women General Electric convinced people to all turn their lights on at the same time Pseudo Event a created planned event like a press conference examples are the Coolidge breakfast or the freedom torches to in uence public opinion Radio and Networks RCA created the National Broadcasting Company NBC Inaugural broadcast of NBC was Nov 15 1926 The New York Symphony performing in the grand ballroom of the Waldorf Astoria HG Wells War of the Worlds was broadcasted on the radio and people believed that it was real and overreacted 0 CBS stopped its broadcast 1927 Radio Act interpreted 0 Radio belongs to the people 0 Broadcasting is a unique service 0 The service must be equally distributed 0 Note everyone is eligible to use a channel 0 Broadcasting is protected by the First Amendment 0 The has quot quot y 39 quot powers 0 Government powers are not absolute Media wars are con icts between existing and emerging media that take place in times of t in A In times of economic dif culty advertising decreases Radio made more competition to get advertising Charles Lindbergh s kidnapping 0 Radio people broadcasted from his front yard People boycotted and lobbied the radio because they were angry over losing their advertising to them The Biltmore Agreement 0 Major newspaper and radio people had a meeting in NY 0 Formed a Press Radio Bureau that provided veminute bulletins only for radio 0 Regulated when these bulletins would be broadcasted 0 Nothing before 9AM and only after 9PM 0 CBS agreed to break up its news department 0 NBC agreed to not form a news department World War I People were beginning to worry about the persuasion of propaganda and the media Begins in 1914 but we entered in 1917 The us was isolationist British were trying to persuade the US to be on their side and they created a propaganda organization to distribute lms pamphlets etc 0 Set up of ces in the US and sent out news releases to small newspapers 0 Germany also was sending out propaganda A message was intercepted from the German Embassy that stated that Mexico would receive parts of US territory if they sided with the German Germans then sank a couple of our merchant ships During the war the press and the government ten to circle the wagons Censorship was a huge issue because we were scared of vital war information being leaked Journalists were sent overseas during the war and some then became very famous WWI is the war with movies and news reels Formed the Committee on Public Information 0 Edward Bemays George Creel and Charles Dana Gibson were all on it 0 Had a foreign and a domestic section 0 We also sent our propaganda overseas Tried to rally public support for the war sent a digest to small newspapers Criticized because people don t like information to be handed to them
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