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by: Foster Morissette


Foster Morissette
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Foster Morissette on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 1010 at University of Georgia taught by Corrigan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/202161/clas-1010-university-of-georgia in Classical culture at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
January 30 2012 The Civil Wars and Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar 10210044 early lifehis father was a prietor Not console his father died when he was fairly young aunt was married to Gaius Marriusblood ties to popularis cause so it is not surprising he ended up being a Popularis himself While Sulla was a dictator ended up on his proscription list Able to avoid being killedproperty confiscated thanks to his friends WifecorneliaDaughterJulia Although he was proscribed he was able to escape with his life and his friends persuaded Sulla to pardon him Went into the army proscription civic crown nicomedes of bithynia return to romegot civic crown for saving another man s life Sent to bithynia to negotiate a fleet of ships Said to be gay may not be true Caesar was able to obtain the fleet for the romans only after then and sulla s death could caesar return to rome and resume his lifewent to greece to continue education capture by pirateson way to greece The pirates held him captive and said they would ask for 20 talents of gold for his ransom He said he was worth 50 He stayed until his ransom was paid said he would kill them after his release Got together with friends went after them crucified them granted them one mercy Slit their throats so they could die more quickly military tribune quaestorlater entered senate Lent his support to Pompey supported Pompeyurging senate to grant him a military command Wanted to purge meditteranean pirates Pompey had only military experience but in order to command an office one had to be a prietor or console Pompey was neither but casesar supported him Pompey was successful Got rid of pirates in three months aedile affairs pontifex maximus praetor propraetor in further spain Aediles are responsible for many administrative duties like putting on public games and running festivals Can gain you a great deal of political support the better the games are when you try to climb the ladder Caesar spent lavishly on these games and caused him to go into debt Affairsdifferent women of his senators including the wife of pompey He could sleep with another man s wife and learn what the man was about to do politically Good source of his information Pontifex maximushighest of the priesthoods in rome Overseer for all official sttae cults An office held only by a patrician Gained religious clout with this office Propraetor spain is divided into 2 colonies rome had acquired Require strong military hand to be governed effectively Casear was a good match for this The first triumvirate with Crassusrichest man in rome and Pompeycompetitiors with one another held consulship together at one point Pompey has problem with crassuspompey completed military commands in east wanted to settle his veterans on land Crassus blocks these efforts Caesar acts as a go betweensupporting each for whatever they want if they agree and form a coalition with him that becomes called the first triumvirate to run the roman state Swap on provincesconsulships 59 consulcaesar is elected Julia marries pompey Julius casear marries calpurnia his last wife She is the daughter of the leader of the populares proconsul of Gaul5 yearswild province In a great deal of debtPeople wanting to sue him triumvirate renewed command in gaul extended Julia died54during childbirth Her death means he no longer has personal tie to pompey Purely political relationship Crassus died53 fighting parthians Went to conduct a campaign parthians killed him Pompey switches to Optimates Ends up marrying the daughter of Catoleader of Optimates Julius Caesar attempts to run for consulship in absentia crossing of the Rubicon 49 1senate flees to greece because they panic along with pompey 2 Rump senate and dictator created by Caesar 3 Campaign against pompey s troops in spain Crack legions in spain by pompey loyal to only him Caesar defeats these legions makes them his own 4 Consulship battle of Pharsalus 48 casear fought against optimate troops gathered there His troops were outnumbered but pompey was not ready to fight Caesar wins 1 pardon for all roman citizens who fought in the conflict pompey flees to egypt seeking safety Casear follows him Alexandrian War1048647caesar spent about 8 months there Cleopatra wants to rule in her own right ptolemy does too but he is only 13 He must be advised but his advisors are not trustworthy 1 Ptolemy X13 yrs old and cleopatra V1921 yrs old married couple 2 library burned accidentally Bulk of library s holdings were safe 3 caesarion Presented with son by cleopatra disturbances in asia minorveni vidi vici quotI came I saw I conquered casesar takes care of unruly client kings back in rome mismanagement by antony Caesar must do some housekeeping Antony did not do a good job caesar must set straight battle of thapsus 47 Enlist the aid of Juba north african prince Suicide of Catooptimate leader Missed aorta and gutted himselfdid not die Doctor called sewed him up cato took stitches out 4 triumphs when he returned to rome gauls egyptians pharnacesasia minor juba battle of munda 45 sons of pompey gnaeus and sextus Able to command troops of their own Caesar defeats them triumph over Gnaes pompey 1 Triumph over another roman citizen unusual 2 Appointing all major magistrates Men were no longer running for election he was just appointing people to major offices himself If someone would die he would appoint the replacement 3 Issues coinage with likenessHad been representative of the state no individual pictures This reminds the roman of eastern practices like in the case of Alexander the great Romans were not considered to be monarchs 4 Statues adorned like godsDraped in garlandsDoes him no good 5 Laurel wreath purple and gold toga gilded chair inscriptions to llinconquerable god wreath was only for people who had competed in olympic games Usual toga color was white Purple and goldroyalty Everything reminded him too much of thronesroyalty dictator perpetuusoffer of diademPerpetual dictator If someone gets too powerful dictator does what he has to do puts aside the office Caesar is granted perpetual dictatorship Offered diadem by marc antony A golden cord made of medal worn around the forehead indicating royalty 1 Preparing for pathian campaign march 15 44 Murder 1 Portico of theater of pompey Senate had meant here Casear showed up despite warnings from wifeothers telling him not to go 2 60 conspirators brutus cassius decimus brutus G treboniushad actually served with caesar 23 separate knife wounds only one of which was fatal Caesar had a long standing affair with brutus wife Some thought brutus was actually caesar s son 3 Kai su teknon Greek And you brutus All of them just wanted to kill caesar didn t actually have a plan February 1 2012 Marcus Tullius Cicero 10643 born at Arpinum small town outside of Rome to equestrian familyrich but never held office educated at romerhetoric and philosophy studied under follower of Aristoltle 89 served in social war under pompeius strabofather of pompey the great 81 debut as advocatelawyer 7977 traveled and studied in athens academy asia minor rhodesreturned to rome in 76 75 elected quaestor sent to serve insicily After this became a senator 70 prosecutuion of man named Verresformer governor of Sicily group of civilian citizens went to cicero and begged him ot prosecute Verres for plundering the province Odds were against cicero He made sucha defense that he ended up winning Verres went into exile This example makes him the chief lawyer advocate in rome 69 curule aedile 66 praetor supported pompey novus homorare accomplishmentConsulship by someone who did not have politics in their family 63 consul catiliniarian conspiracy Sergius catalinapatrician optimate politician who ran several times for consulship and was defeated each timeTried bribingraise objections Cataline ran against cicero and lost got together with other unhappy consul wannabes who had electoral hopes shot Formed a conspiracy so that they would try to kill the consuls in officeWent further than just the consuls Raised an army of slaves criminals other people with problems with roman system and was going to lead army and take it over Cicero and senate were informed of what was going on formed a senatus consultum ultimum a decree by the senate that the consulcicero has the power to do whatever he thinks is necessary even if it involves constitutional stretches to safeguard the state Cicero accused cataline of conspiracy and then tried to arrest all the consiprators Cataline escaped Cicero caught 5 tried them before the senate Cicero decided state could only be saved if he executed the 5 He did Catalines army was caught and cataline and most of his army were killed Comes back to haunt cataline later 60 published Catilinarians refused to join first triumvirate 58 exiles and house wrecked 57 recalled Publius clodius pulcher decides cicero needs to pay for going against conspirators 5651 used by triumvirs active as advocate and writer Cicero is in a bad position 51 proconsul of cilicia 49 attempted neutrality but joined pompey 4944 retirement rhetorical and philosophical works after casesar s assassination opposed antony 43 discarded by octavian proscribed by antony and killed Cicero s Writing speeches forensic and political rhetorical treatises political treatises philosophical treatises correspondence translations poetry Works Read in Class de Republica 5451 Somnium ScipionisDream of Scipio Aristoelian dialogue opinions already formed Latin festical of winter 129 republic at its best Scipio the younger de Finibus Bonorum et MalorumOn the Chief End of Man 45 dedicated to Brutus rival theories of the summum bonum Epicurean pleasure Stoic life in accordance with nature Peripatetic selfsufficient virtue de OfficiisOn Duty44 addressed to son Marcus Bk 1 right honestum introduction of doctrine of proprietydecorum doing what is appropriate to nature in every sphere of life be true to own individual nature as far as that does not conlfict with universal natural morality act consonantly with age and status Bk 2 expectancy utile Bk 2 apparent conflict between right and expediency no real conflict advantages of expediency shortterm doing wrong harms the soul Cicero s Forensic Speeches permanent criminal court no public prosecuter importance of character of client revised speeches for publication oratorstatesman to be actively involved in public affairs the highest function a man can discharge good orator must be good man pro caelio on behalf of Caelius 56 BCE Roman ComedyContinued Titus Maccius Plautus 254184 first to confine himself to a single genre born in Umbria Began writing later in life Wrote 205184 Perhaps acted in own plays 21 plays attributed to Plautus by ancients as genuine frequently reproduced from death of Terence to Cicero s time popularly read in 2nd century CE little known in middle ages but returned in renaissance Plautus Comedy metrical variety subject variety variety of attitudes variety in dramatic structure variety in length romanizesquot allusions gods greek setting gleefully uses contaminatio style resembles Aristophanes no stock names Terence born in Carthage Afer freedman associated with Scipio Aemilianus and Gaius Laelius Wrote 6 playstranslations of adaptations of Greek plays after producing plays went to Greece and never returned survived by daughter who married equestrian Terence s Comedy all plays produced by the same actormanager L Ambivius Turpio and music all by same slave Flaccus 4 plays based on Menander 2 on Apollodorusgtmain interest in portrayal of character distinct preference for high comedy favorite plot improbability and coincidence only slightly alters Greek models more movement onof f stage than Plautus short no omniscient expository prologue dramatic dialgoue rather than monologue all characters speak uniform Latin less lyric meter and recitative than Plautus asides no direct address to audience avoids roman allusions Stoicism and the Romans Stoicism nature controlled by reason whatever happens is in accordance with divine reason live in harmony virtue goodshow moral weaknessevil everything elseindifferent endurance bravery selfcontrol justice universal brotherhood of mankindcosmopolites Benevolence justice still detachment from and independence of outer world Roman Stoics 1 Panaetius ca 185109 Scipionic circle active virtures magnanimity and benevolence subordination of private ambition to good of state same standard of virtue in public and private suppression of selfindulgence 2 Posidonius ca 135ca 50 Roman empire embodies kinship of all humanity Roman empire reflects divinely ordained afterlife of philosophers and statesmen 1 Supression ofall emotion and freedom from external circumstances and material things 2 acceptance of whatever happens 3 subordination of self to world order and acceptance of place in society 4 adaptation and resignation of self to external circumstances Neoteric Poetry and Catullus Catullus Born at Verona to wealthy family nonRoman Associations with politicians and literary figures Memmius patron ofLucretius Affair with Clodia Metelli Apuleius Apology 10 In 57 accompanied his patron Memmius to Bithynia where Memmius served as governer left behind 116 poems over 2000 total linesroughly equal to 2 plays by Terence 160 brief light nature polymetrics 6168 carmina docta Longer poems for the most part epyllia from the term epyllion Short epics by greek writers who did not like long epics iliad16000 linesepyllia16 h the length catullus tried to imimtate the epyllia popular during hellenistic times 69116 elegiac couplets elegies very structured metrically Order believed to be work of others Poems referred to according to numbers Order can t tell us much about his poems Neoteric Poetry Mos maiorumcustomstraditions acted against these When you follow the mos maiorum at this time frequently it led to death Eruption into violence against one another Otiumfreedom to do as one wills Always associated with peaceCannot have otium and war Lyric personal poetry Poets are educated within system wealthy upperclass


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