CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY CLAS 1020
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Foster Morissette on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 1020 at University of Georgia taught by Bianchelli in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/202162/clas-1020-university-of-georgia in Classical culture at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Theogony 8242011 50100 PM Chaos Gaia Ouranos Cronos Rhea o Zeus 1St Part God Prometheus o Tried to trick Zeus o Tied to rock for rest of life o End of Men and God together for Golden Age 1St Female Mortal Pandora o Opens box that lets evils into the world o Made of clay o Men will always be pained by wormen Zeus fights Cronos in the battle of the titans Titans are immortal and strong but the Olympians are the winners Zeus defeats them with thunderbolt He banishes them to Tartanus o Guarded by Fluffy Styx o River in Hedes o Travel there after you die o You can t lie on water or you will get punished Typheas o Son of Tartarus o Dragon Monster o Fights Zeus Zeus Wins With Thunderbolts o Gets sent to Tartarus Zeus is Head with 2 brothers 0 o Hedes Zeus is different o Wants children to succeed o Changes swallows Matusamp Athena 0 Uses Metus to get knowledge Reflection of Greek Government o Going through power transitions Theogony 8242011 50100 PM The Greeks didn t have any religious writing bible etc Hesiod gives a lot of meaning to the stories that he tells Uranus s Castration Erinyes Furies Giants Meliai tree nymphs Aphrodite 0 Beautiful 0 Goddess of sexual love 0 Venus is the Roman Name Cronus Rhea Hestia Demeter Hera Hades Poseidon Zeus Once Zeus is grown forces father to vomit brothers and sisters 3 Hetoncheires Help Zeus fight titans Fed food of gods Olympians vs Titans Zeus Large battle Olympians win Smarter than father and grandfather Treats children differently Fights with others Helps gods who have helped him gives them powers Typical object Thunderboldt Given to him by Cyclopses Zeus Challenges Titanomachy Typhoios Child of Gaea and Tartarus 0 Representation of evil 0 Dragon Monster 0 Starts immediately fighting Zeus 0 Very major fight Good vs Evil 0 Zeus fighting all by himself 0 After fight wins validation of head god Children of Zeus Gave power to children and didn t try to overpower 0 Set example for new rulers Metis Athena o Is told that his next child will be more powerful 0 While Metis is pregnant with Athena Zeus swallows her and gets all of her wisdom So that she can not have a child more powerful next Then Athena is born from Zeus Themis Seasons Eunomia Dike Eilene Moirai Euronome 3 Graces Demeter Persephone Mnemosyne 9 Muses Mnemosyne Memory Leto Apollo ampAtremis Hera Hebe Eileithyia Ares o Hera by herself has one child Maia Hermes Semele Dionysos Prometheus Son of a Titan 0 Who had helped Zeus instead of other Titans Means Problems Ahead Gods are invited to a banquets with sacrifices o Zeus asks Prometheus to divide Ox between humans and gods Prometheus does not divide evenly gives Gods the worst Prometheus 8242011 50100 PM Friday Prometheus Theogony Works and Days Ch 4 o Read story from ELC Story presented in Theogony and in works and days o Gives different details in each Theogony o Mostly about how great Zeus is o Story of Prometheus in Theogony o Prometheus tricking Zeus into picking bad meat at sacrifice Greeks created story could not afford to give up good meat Works and Days o Starts with conflict with brother 0 Property usually divided between sons 0 Hesiod s brother wanted more than half c Find out first woman is named Pandora o Charms Prometheus opens the jar that spreads the evils throughout the earth Moira Destiny Zeus takes away fire to make equal Not punishing making things equal Hesiod resentment towards women Prometheus o Schemer sneaky o Gives fire back to humans after it is taken away o Zeus gives humans Pandora made by Hephaestus to make it equal again o Hermes makes Pandora capable of cheating slutty etc Pandora o Bad person Not really Aeschilius One of three tragedians who we still have stories from 455 526 BC Wrote o Prometheus Bound o Prometheus Unbound Only a few fragments o Prometheus the Fire Baron Nothing left Created at end of 6th century but works come from 5th Wrote Prometheus Bound 0 One of 3 tragedies presented at same time Starts with Prometheus bound to rock for rest of life Never more than 2 actors interacting Chores comes in and stays the whole time Prometheus making excuses for his actions Question What Prometheus says about Zeus What is hubris Is it possible that Prometheus can change moira Do greeks believe in physical pain 0 O O O 0 Visits Prometheus Story comes form dialogue Zeus fell in love with he and when she had dreams about it her father realized Zeus wanted her so he sent her away Zeus wanted to disguise her so he mae her into a cow Hera wanted cow Zeus sent Hermes to kill monster Hera puts a fly with cow cow gets mad shows up where Prometheus is Family of Zeus Prometheus tried to change destinies hubris Prometheus knows zeus will have a mortal child that will overtake him 0 Eagle eats out his liver every day Argos Monster who never sleeps lots of eyes Put eyes of argos on peacock Many gods some known as Olympian Gods o All live on Mt Olympus 1St Child of Zeus Athena Then twins Apollo amp Athens Hephestus Aphrodite Greek gods are Anthropomorphic o Shaped like human beings but awesome ones 0 Don t have blood flowing in their veins 0 Don t eat regular food Major Characteristics 0 Greek and Latin Name 0 Symbols 0 What objects are associated with them 0 Learn their area what they supervise Zeus o Supervises The Sky 0 Originally he was a fertility god 0 Animals Associated Eagle Bull Cow IO 0 Areas of concern Protects Moira SenyaConcept offriendship 0 over 100 Children Poseidon amp Amphitrite o Supervises The Sea 0 Son Triton o Unpredictable personality Family of Zeus 8242011 50100 PM Hades Hera Goddess of marriage Very protective of her own marriage not very happy Can be mean towards women Zeus is interested in and offspring Fertility Goddess Ephestus Child Hestia Sister of Hera Roman name Vestia Goddess of Domestic fire Vestia Roman counterpart of Hestia In charge of keeping fire alive temple of Vestia Represented fertility of the state Great honor to be selected as Vestal virgin Not allowed relation with men Reservoir of fertility moment they had relation with men part of fertility would be used up Demeter o Fertility goddess o quotSereusquot 0 God of Wheat Persephone Gods of the younger Generation 0 Children of Zeus Apollo 0 Apollo Belvedere 0 God of Prophecy the Arts the Plague o Aristocrat Ares Which class represented by each god Founders of Rome were children of Ares Really liked to represent him in their houses Ares favorite lover Venus Athena gives diomedes permission to wound him Thetis ampAchilleus Hephaestus Athena Hermes O O O God of something artisan god Was in Theogony Works and Days Put semen on someone s leg she wiped it off which created half human half snake Only deformed Olympian Born without Father to Hera Working class Not especially well respected Vulcan Goddess of wisdom And arts God of Merchants travelling people thieves Very smart god Little wings on sandals Mercury Homeric Hymns Not written by homer Dedicated to certain gods Talks about Hermes being born in a cave mother is Maia Very active little boy o Steals things from brother and denies it 0 Think in terms of social classes 0 Who is author of Hymn and who is he supporting Apollo Belvedere 8242011 50100 PM Apollo 0 See in relation to mother and sister 0 Twin sister is Artemis 0 Respect for family form trio 0 Hera was not happy with Apollo s mother being pregnant put up obstacles for their birth She forbid anyone to let Leto have her children there 0 Born on floating islands which were then turned into real islands 0 Island Apollo was born Delos I Sanctuary for Apollo 0 Artemis helped deliver Apollo 0 Very handsome young 20 s 0 Associated With 0 Laurel Crown I Winners of games and poets crowned o Lyre I Nobleman poet interested in the arts 0 Bow and Arrows I Connected with the plague 0 Oracle I Consulted to learn the future I Mediator between Zeus and the fates I Very popular 0 The Sun I Much later Association I Sister associated with the moon I Greeks already have a sun god I Helios amp Hyperion Apollo s Oracle at Delphi 0 Apollo fell in love with Nymph o What caused love what caused girl to run away 0 Composed during time of Emperor Augustus o Overpowering kind of leader 0 Ask yourself 0 Does Apollo represent augustus Someone Was in love with Apollo Gave her the gift of Prophecy She decided she didn t like Apollo 0 He made her look crazy so no one would believe his prophecies Seble of Cumae Coronis O Asclepius Chiron Apollo gave her years of life as many grains of sand that she could hold Then she decided she didn t like Apollo 0 So Apollo made her age Kept gift of prophecy Apollo fell in love with her too She was expecting child with Apollo 0 But was cheating on him 0 Apollo incenerated her I Before She asked him to save the child I Child was born grew up to be Asclepius Apollo s son Associated with Medicine Symbol Stick with two snakes Centaur CLASlOZO TEST ONE Lectures August 12 2013 What is a myth o A story which is passed down quottraditionquot 9 llto hand downquot 0 Ex little red riding hood I Can be told in so many different ways and mean many different things The Greek World 0 Established centers and colonies throughout the Mediterranean Ancient Greece 0 0 Very imaginative people Be familiar with some sights I Mt Olympus tallest mountain in Greece home of the gods I Crete I Olympia Olympic games I Athens very cultural center democracy invention of tragedy Timeline of Greek History 0 0000000 0 C 2100 incursions of ndoEuropean speakers into Greece 21001600 middle bronze age 16001100 Mycenaean late bronze age C 1250 Trojan War 1100750 Dark Age 750480 archaic period C 750 liad composed 480323 classical period 32330 Hellenistic period Timeline of Roman History 0 O O O 753 BC traditional date for the foundation of Rome 753509 BC seven kings 50927 BC The Republic 27 BC476 AD The Empire Major Greek Literary Sources 0 O O O O O O The Iliad C 750 BC The Odyssey C 725 BC Hesiod s Theogony C 700 BC Homeric Hymns 7 h century BC and later Lyric poets 7 h century BC and later Tragedians Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides 5 h century BC The Library of Apollodoros C 140 BC or later Major Roman Literary Sources o Vergil Aeneid 7019 BC 0 Livy s Ab Urbe Condita 59 BCl7 AD 0 Ovid s Metamorphoses 43 B017 AD August 14 2013 Hesiod and the Theogony o Hesiod 0 Author 700 BC contemporary of Homer trained similarly 0 From Boeotia agricultural area 0 Father was a merchant turned farmer 0 Major literary works I Theogony tells how Hesiod became a poet 0 Ending his shift visited by the muses 9 I Works and days I Catalogue of women 0 Shepherd 0 Moira sisters of fate think Hercules singular form destiny everyone is born with a certain moira o Theogony 0 Chaos I Void I Out of the void elements arise see below 0 Gaea mother earth I Uranus I Mountains I Pontus form of water oceans o Tartarus under the earth 0 Eros sexual attraction 0 Children ofGaea and Uranus mother earth and sky I 12 Titans 0 Oceanus 0 Coeus o Crius o Hyperion o lapetus o Cronus youngest o Rhea o Themis o Mnemosyne o Phoebe o Tethys o Theia I 3 Cyclopes kyklion a circle I 3 Hecatoncheires hekaton 100 cheir hand hand and arm I All forced back into Gaea 0 Which one of you is going to face your father with sickle o Cronus o Cuts off his genitals o Uranus s Castration I Erinyes Furies I Giants I Meliai ashtree nymphs I Aphrodite born from the actual quotmemberquot from Uranus that falls into the sea 0 Children of Cronus and Rhea older Olympians siblings and spouses I Hestia I Demeter I Hera I Hades I Poseidon I Zeus youngest allowed to grow and develop outside his father s belly example of a good kinggovernment o Prometheus I Shows how Zeus in a moment of crisis knows what to do I At one point Prometheus is asked to divide the sacrificial ox between humans and gods Gives the gods the bones and humans get the llgood partsquot bad decision Zeus intervenes to bring things back into balance He takes fire from humans and then gives them women I Prometheus is a schemer He loves the idea of tricking Zeus I Zeus ends up punishing Prometheus by attaching him to a rock and sending an eagle every day to eatmunch on his liver The gods believed that you felt emotions from your liver His liver grows back every night 0 Zeus Challenges I Titanomachy battle with the titans o Happens when Zeus overcomes Cronus and frees his brothers and sisters Zeus and siblings vs Cronus and siblings Zeus seeks the help of other creatures alliances Prometheus supports him son of a titan cousins sees into the future knows Zeus will win Zeus is someone who knows how to reward those who are loyal to him good model ofa good leader I Typhoios Typhoeus Typhon child of Gaea and Tartarus battle against Typhon o Typhon is the embodiment of evil 0 No one helps Zeus He takes on the challenge and wins alone 0 Children of Zeus I Metis Athena o Threatened by Athena s possible power so he swallows Metis he acquires her powers and prevents Athena from being more powerful Themis Seasons Eunomia Dike Eirene Moirai Eurynome 3 Graces Demeter Persephone Mnemosyne 9 Muses o Inspire poets Leto Apollo amp Artemis Hera Hebe Eileithyia Ares Hephestus response to Zeus having a child without a mother did not end well lame god Maia Hermes Semele Dionysos August 26 2013 Prometheus amp Greek Drama 0 Works of Days 0 0 How is it that human beings have to work so hard to make a living Pandora and Prometheus o Prometheus Made out to be the bad guy Destroys the order of the world 0 O o Aeschylus Prometheus Bound 0 000 Greek tragedy Author of about 90 plays 13 victories Introduced the second actor as opposed to a series of monologues Does not mean that there are only two characters actors played multiple roles Never a scene with more than two people 7 surviving plays Persians 472 1St prize Seven Against Thebes 467 1st prize Suppliants 463 151 prize Oresteia Agamamnon Libation Bearers Eumenides 458 1st prize Prometheus Bound uncertain o Prometheus is tied to a rock 0 Talks about the reasons he is stuck there he had helped human beings 0 As you read it he comes across as a hero 0 Tried to save humans felt pity for them saved them from Zeus wanting to destroy them 0 How is it that he is presented as a hero when he has been known as a schemertroublemaker all along 0 Whatwho is Aeschylus supporting 0 Against authority against Zeus 0 Suffer anything for his own ideas o The world needs to stay as it is rather than the idea that you should rebel up for personal interpretation 0 Hubris excessive pride generally the downfall of a godperson form of arrogance 0 Always connected his three tragedies presented as an evolution of a certain story 0 Greek Tragedy 0 Should be called Athenian Tragedy o Introduced in Athens around 535533 BC during the rule of the tyrant Pisistratus as part of the city Dionysia the very important festival dedicated to Dionysus god of wine 0 Each year 3 poets were selected to present 3 tragedies and one Satyr play each on 3 consecutive days The best play was given a prize 0 Introduced by Thespus August 28 2013 Introduction to the Olympian Gods must know Greek and Roman names 0 Divinities listed in Linear B tablets o Zeus Already worshipped by the M Poseion yceneans Hera Hermes Athena Artemis Apollo Ares Dionysus 0000000 0 Olympian Gods Older Zeus I Hera Poseidon I Demeter Hades I Hestia Younger 39 Ares Athena Apollo Artemis Hermes Aphrodite I39 39 Dionysus There were limits to their power They could not change the moira quotassignedquot to a human Zeus c 460 BC Jupiter 0 Eventually married Hera 0 Lots of stories of his involvement with other goddesses and humans 0 Sky god Poseidon 0 God of the sea very important because Greek culture and such was so dominated by the water 0 Representation of the sea I Gift calm and nice travel I Unpredictable o Fertility god 0 Animal horse stallion 0 Wife is Amphitrite 0 Son is half fish and half man 0 The Odyssey 0 Attributed to the same author as The Iliad 0 Originally oral poems September 4 2013 Introduction to the Gods continued 0 Gods of the younger generation children of Zeus o Ares Mars 0 God of war I Represents brutal fighting I Athena s interventions are more about strategy 0 Child of Zeus and Hera 0 Associated with Aphrodite o Hephaestus Vulcan 0 Only god who is not llgood lookingquot 0 Response of Hera to the birth of Athena I If Zeus could produce without a woman she was going to produce without a man I Kicked off of Olympus for being ugly I The fall made him become lame 0 God of the forge I He is a warman I Always around the fire I Necessary for life 0 Associated as lower class 0 Hermes Mercury 0 God of merchants travelers Thebes Messenger of Zeus guides the souls to the underworld Usually represented as a young god Started off as a fertility god Born in a cave I Child of Zeus and Maira I Needs to hide from Hera I Immediately mature at birth 0 Invents a lot of things within the first few hours of life 0 Lyre 0 Very resourceful from the beginning 0 Brother is Apollo I God of merchants vs god of noblemen September 9 2013 0 Apollo name is both Greek and Roman 0 God of the arts 0 Often shown with the lyre I Remember Homeric Hymn to Hermes o Arrows 9 spread the plague and save people from the plague 0 Associated with healing 0 God of prophecy 0 First Reaction prophecy arts plague 0 Son of Zeus and Leto brother of Artemis 0 Born aton Delos I Small floating island 0 Aegeus and the Pythia on a tripod stool 0 Temple at Delphi 0 Hera Juno 0 Goddess of marriage and marital life 0 Children of Hera and Zeus I Hephaestus often Hera s only child I Ares god of war I Hebe goddess of youth I Heileithyia goddess of childbirth I Eris o Demeter goddess of domestic fire I On Olympus all the time guarding the hearth o Hestia o Vestal Virgins I Perceived as a reservoir of the fertility if the city I If they were to fornicate they were stealing fertility power from the city crime against the state 0 Athena o Aegis breastplate borrowed from Zeus September 11 2013 0 Athena o Dracma I Athena on one side I Bird and olive branch on the other side 0 Artemis Diana 0 Goddess of the hunt and the hunted 0 Virgin goddess o Daughter of Leto 0 Twin sister of Apollo 0 Remember story of Niobe I Apollo and Artemis killed all of her children I She was so upset that she turned into stonea stone that was always wet from her tears 0 Artemis and Actaeon I Stranded hunter I Saw naked Artemis o Callisto and Jupiter disguised as Diana I Artemis turned Callisto into a bear for having relations with Zeus I llbig bearquot constellation o Aphrodite Venus 0 Goddess ofattraction and sexual love 0 Fertility goddess 0 Remember her birth from Theogony I Depicted as an early goddess need attraction in the world 0 Hermaphroditus I Child of Aphrodite and Hermes I Both male and female quotcharacteristicsquot 0 Aeneas Anchises Aphrodite 0 Mars and Venus 0 Married woman having a lot of affairs 0 Demeter and Persephone 0 Always together 0 Represent the life of women as well as humans in general I Childhood maturity death 0 Hades is Persephone s uncle I Takes her to the underworld o Demeter is working toward making a child immortal I Caught when the mother sees her holding him over flames I Demeter is offended and leaves 0 Pomegranate is a fertility symbol I All those juicy seeds I Have you had any relations with men while you were in the Underworld Friday Breakouts August 23 2013 0 Ages of Humanity 0 Golden Age 0 Silver Age I Grow up then make bad decisions 0 Bronze Age I War and fighting 0 Age of Heroes 0 Iron Age 0 Greek Theater Thespus One person conversing with the chorus Strophe and antistrophe More than one role Aeschylus 9 first playwright to have two people speak at once Always written in threes generally thematic OOOOOOO Athenian landowning men I Drunk by the end I All day extravaganza o Theogony o Pandora I Doomed to fail I nnately curious I Beautiful good I Portrayed neutrally Reinforced women being quotpunishedquot 0 Never supposed to leave the house 0 Zeus o Arrogant 0 First successful god 0 hubris excessive pride or arrogance I Generally the root of gods failure 0 Turned into a cow by Zeus o Hercules 9 free Prometheus 0 Remember while reading that those reading the story originally ancient Greeks knew already that everything turns out well for most people o Zeus actions against Prometheus 0 Fire removal 0 Maintain balance in the world August 30 2013 o Prometheus Bound 0 Remember that Prometheus is the underdog not the antagonist o Odyssey vs Metamorphoses o Ovid 9 lltoo much a lover of his own genius o Epic poem highest form of poetry o NAMES o Zeus Jupiter Jove 0 Apollo Pythion o Hera Juno 0 Athena Minerva Pallas o Odyssey Books 1 amp 2 o Odysseus is missing o Calypso goddess keeping Odysseus I He just wants to go home oikos o quotxeniaquot 9 your duty to entertain someone when they come to your home I Telemachus was a great host 0 Good examplequotproofquot that Homer was not the author 0 Metamorphoses 0 Include as many even minor stories as possible to show how educated he is o Begins with story of creation I quotsome god 0 Little more scattered than Odyssey 0 Likes complications 0 More concerned with themes than chronology o Etiological stories 9 where things come from o Omits Age of Heroes 0 After the flood people are made of stone 0 Zeus vs Lucaon SP I Gets angry and tries to kill someone and feed the person to his guests 0 Evil born from giants blood 0 Relate to Prometheus Bound I Exterminate bad humans 0 Apollo and Daphne I She is turned into a laurel tree sign of Apollo I CupisEros 9 Apollo falls in love with Daphne and she cannot love any one person I Victory against the python I Rabbit and hound analogy 9 hunting I Falling madly in love is a common punishment from the gods I Daphne modest begs for eternal virginity 0 Death of ArgosIo Story I Has 100 eyes 9 supposed to be a fly I Juno comes off as crazy 0 Asks Jupiter for the cow Io as a gift 0 Tom between shame and love September 6 2013 o The Odyssey Books 3 amp 4 o Sinister look at the suitors I Want to destroy Telemachus o Continuation of welcoming into the home I quotxeniaquot 0 Athena up and flies away eagle 0 Helen I Hated in The Iliad I quotback when I was a whore o Odysseus dresses as a beggar to sneak into Troy to steal the statue of Athena o Odysseus Trojan Horse I Cunning o Menelaus story of the Trojan Horse I Helen circles the city 3 times I Begins singing in lamentation 0 Men begin thinking of their wives I Odysseus tells them to shut up ruin their cover 0 Alexander the Great 0 Double ended spear Hystos womb 9 too much blood in virgins and they would go insane Horse money 0 You could fight if you could furnishprotect yourself Odysseus o Wants people to know he s king but gets his power other ways Olympian Gods 0 Artemis I Goddess of the hunt and forests and animals I Eternal virgin I Apollo s twin 0 Always young no bear 0 God of the arts 9 higher class 0 Hephaestus I Lame I God of the forge I Looked down upon 0 Hermes I Messenger of the gods I Creator of the lyre 9 traded to Apollo I Patron of thieves an merchants I Guide to the underworld I Trickster I Merchants current car salesman September 13 2013 o The Odyssey Books 5 7 0 Finally see Odysseus Seemed pretty weak 0 0 Away for 7 years 9 living in paradise o Spends all day weeping I Mentally strong 9 still wants to go home 0 Wrath of Poseidon I Odysseus blinds the Cyclops son I llmy name is nobody 0 Athena makes the princess fall in love with Odysseus
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