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by: Foster Morissette


Foster Morissette
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Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Foster Morissette on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 1020 at University of Georgia taught by Wolkow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see /class/202164/clas-1020-university-of-georgia in Classical culture at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Study Guide First Half CLAS 1020 l Spring 2014 MW 230 to 320 PM I Park 265 Instructor Dr Benjamin M Wolkow The following names and concepts appeared in the lecture and are fair game for the Opportunity This guide more or less proceeds in the same order as the lectures so it should be easy to coordinate your notes with it In addition to the material in lecture a number of stories you have read will be part of the Opportunity We shall either cover them later in the semester or they are important enough to know although we shall not have time to discuss them For these stories you only need to know the main characters and the basic plot structure You will not be asked to analyze these myths nor are you expected to know them in great detail I Introduction A What is m h 0 de nition of myth 1 pure myth cosmogonytheogony ritual prestige eschatological etiological forerunner of theoretical science 2 legend forerunner of history 3 folktale forerunner of romance novel 0 example of mixed genreiMidas Silenos golden touch Pactolus Marsyas Apollon barber reeds B Sources I literature 0 oral tradition 0 rise of writing I Greek writers in Roman period Pausanias 150 AD Apollodoros lg2n01 AD 0 problems with literary sources artistic sources Attic vase paintings sculpture murals mosaics 0 problems with artistic sources 0 Artemision bronze I cultural in uences o IndoEuropean Sir William Jones Gave speech 1786 said many languages were similar bc he was uent in many different patterns of sounds but all same background comparative linguistics Migrations dialects developed after people left their homelands wide range of movement ex Ireland to W China but no direct physical evidence of language or culture Myth Common words indicate society ex Domesticated animals cows sheep or Fish must be near water Study Guide l CLAS 1020 l Spring 2014 lpg 2 0f14 Calvert Watkins How to kill a Dragon book written in 2001 reconstructed a phrase for how to kill a serpent talked about IndoEuropean poetics O nonIndoEuropean Greeks enter Greece Pelasgians were the people who were there assimilated to greek culture Asia Minor Hittites North Africa Egyptians Middle East C Belief II A Greek religion 0 Polytheism many gods 0 Decentralization Religion comes from what people make it explains why myth changes 0 ProcedureRitualistic not a question of belief just actions that they perform rationalism o Xenophanes 639h5m Believed in god but argued that god should not be made in mans image 0 Sisyphus 400 BC Story used to argue that Greek gods were created to make humans behave aka act out and be punished o Euhemeros 300 BC Claims Greek Gods are beloved people that were glori ed to the point of divinity personal contact domestic oracles dedications magic mystery cults Prose Edda o Snorri s purpose Preserve oral tradition trains skalds to keep culture teach how to tell a story through story 0 Euhemerism A rationalizing method that treats mythological accounts as a re ection of historical events 0 ChristianityGods as magicians keeps the god part out of it and allows for good Christian readership 0 Role of deception Gyl he is a king and disguises himself as Gangleri Ooin disguises himself as 3 personalities High one Justashigh Third 0 Contest preserve oral culture in a Christian light contest with questions Myths ofthe Gods Pure Myths Creation Hesiod T heogony Study Guide CLAS 1020 Spring 2014 pg 3 0f14 o Khaos Chasm Abyss He is a living being so it s not just nothingness Produces life and 5 beings Gaia Earth ErosLove Erebos Darkness NyX Night Tartaros Misty Gloom o ErebosNyx N Aither Bright air Himera Death 0 Gaia inspired by Eros N Ouranos Sky Mountains Pontos Sea 0 Ouranos Gaia N Kyklopes HundredHanders Titans 12 titans 2 Titans Kronos and Rhea produces the Gods Proper aka the Olympians o Anthropomorphism Human attributes to nonhuman things personi cation I Homer Iliad 14153360 o Oceanus Okeanos and Tethys argue in the sea water mixing suggests that they were the ultimate parents of the earth Story comes from a story Hera tells Aphrodite 0 Night Zeus is afraid of NyX Gods generally fear their elders o Hieros Gamos sacred marriage part of creation myths EX Zeus and Hera get together after Hera distracts Zeus with Aphrodite s help Father Sky Zeus and Mother Earth HeraiRepetition throughout myth I Orphic 0 water Its unknown if it started with water but it s still possible 0 Time and Necessity snakeform Khaos Aither Erebos 0 Time lays an egg in Aither N Phanes Bright oneProtogonos First one The egg splits NTop creates Ouranos Sky and Bottom creates Gaia Earth some versions 0 NyX is given queenship by Protogonos physical world and celestial bodies 0 The rest is the same as Hesiod Titans Olympian gods Dionysos considered King of Universe common themes biological process abstract gt concrete personi cations gt monstrosities gt anthropomorphic I 6 I Prose Edda o Ginnungagap Yawning Chasm lst thing in universe but not specified to be living 0 Muspellheim Land of hot sparks lst world N came out of Ginnunagap o Ni heim Land of dark fog Rivers and rain said to be venomous Rain fell into Ginnunagap o Ymir Living ChaosDisorder He was a Frost Giant His sweat produced more Frost Giants 0 Ymir is fed by Auohumla Wealth cow cow lives by licking ice bolcks Buri comes out of the ice Buri wife N Bor O Study Guide l CLAS 1020 l Spring 2014 lpg 4 0f14 o Bor Bestla Frost Giant N 06in Vili Ve 0 World created from carcass of Ymir Thus chaos turned to order and the world Comparison with Hesiod I Similarities o Ginnunagagap N Khaos N Both are locus of rst stage of creation 0 Erebos amp NyX N Ni heim Darkness I Difference 0 Creation I Hesiod creation is a birth comes from a living being Chaos I Norse Ginnunagagap is not alive it is a place NIt s more physical and scienti c of an explanation I En ma Elisv tablet 118 4135566 0 Creation begins with 2 beings Aps Fresh Water Tiamat Salt Water lVIingling of waters creates the Gods N Similar to Homer water mixing in creation 0 Tiamat is defeated by Marduk a monster 0 Carcass of Tiamat creates heaven and earth N Connects with Snorri Ymir s carcass I Heliopolis o Primeval ocean Nun N Ahill rises out of the waters 0 Atum sits on the hill 0 Atum coughs out Shu Air amp Tefnut moisture o Shu Tefnut N Geb Father earth amp Nut Mother sky 0 Shu holds up Geb and separates the two 0 Geb NutN Ennead group of 9 beings I Hermopolis 0 Begin with Ogdoad Group of 8 beings 4 males Frogs amp 4 females Snakes Ogdoad is original chaosincludes Nun primordial water 0 Nun NaunetN water darkness void airinvisibility o All 8 lay an egg together out pops Atum controls chaos and create physical world created by Ogdoad being arranged m I process of differentiation I Begins with chaosdisorder strife welernents in a heap Study Guide l CLAS 1020 l Spring 2014 lpg 5 0f14 I Ordering of elements by unnamed god earthheaven separated Earth water earth Heaven air re four elements make basic substances Ground Sea Air Ether Fire upper atmosphere Process focused on differentiation of substances four substances substances make physical world I modern version peotic written for an audience that knows the stories well In uenced by greek philosophy and science Evolutionary rational and scienti c Developed simple to more compleX structured development Signi cance for Metamorphoses I Creation was the 1st metamorphosis lst changing of the body I Matter of order vs chaos Process is not complete Chaos still remains There is a constant tension of structure and chaos analysis and comparison chart Elements of Creation myths I Reoccurring primeval elements 0 Idea of void chasm o Darkness 0 Water 0 Snake orphic hermopolis motifs separation disorder gt order rationalization origins of theoretical science I Seperation 0 Usually Sky amp Earth I Protogonos egg Norse Ymir Heliopolis Geb amp Nut by Shu Ovid unnamed god 0 Disorder to Order I Norse Ymir living embodiment of chaos Babylonian Tiamat as living chaos Hermopolis Ogadoad when stopped earth is formed Ovid Chaos overcome by structure 0 Origins of theoretical science Rationalization I Ovid 1st to rationalize myth treat water as an element Norse Merging birth of gods and birth of universe things physically generating Study Guide l CLAS 1020 l Spring 2014 lpg 6 0f14 B Succession M hs intemal strife I KronosOuranos Ouranos pushes kids back in womb Gaia Gaia conspires with kids for ambush with sicle Kronos youngest son is the only one to step up Castration of Ouranos separation motif Blood falls on Gaia and produces Furies Spirits vengeance Giants Ash Tree Nymphs Nymphs Female nature spirits Beautiful and harmless Fallen member produces Aphrodite in ocean sometimes seen as daughter of Zeus RheaTitan married Kronos new Father Sky and Mother Earth only Titans freed from womb I ZeusKronos analysis Gaia and Ouranos tell Kronos the prophecy What happened to Ouranos will also happen to him Kronos swallows all of Rhea s children Olympians but youngest son Zeus I One ups Ouranos Ouranos failed b c he left the control in Gaia s hands but swallowing kids would give Kronos the control right Logic Rhea disguised rock for Kronos to swallow rather than giving him Zeus Zeus is hiding in Krete I Apollodoros another writer of the myths who uses more rationalization Says men on Krete Kouretes drown out the sounds of baby Zeus crying Amaltheia Wonder Goat nurturesraises baby Zeus Zeus grows quickly Theme miraculous growth Apollodoros says Metis gives Zeus a drug to make Kronos throw up the children in reverse order I Rock comes out rst Stone lands in Delphi called belly button Delphi believed to be center of the earth Omphalos Stone with net on it Thought to really be meteorite Kronos mad Titanomachy big battle lasts 10 years Zeus wins Zeus frees uncles Hundred Handers amp Kuklopes Zeus divides world with brothers I Hades Underworld Poseidon Seas Zeus Sky Zeus marries Hera new Father Sky and Mother Earth I Zeus has a Failed succession myth Study Guide l CLAS 1020 l Spring 2014 lpg 7 0f14 o Gaia and Ouranos warn Zeus that Metis will produce a daughter who is equal to Zeus in wits and then a son who is better than Zeus Cycle of violence between father and son has potential to continue 0 Zeus afraid Tricks Metis and Swallows Metis again one ups father Zeus the councilor in greek Zeus Metieta o Zeus gets Headache Son Hephaistos takes axe and pops Zeus head 0 Out pops Athenefull panopy war clothing Athene Virgin Goddess Goddess of wise council war Has Potential to t patter of succession myth but does not succeed see chart analysis and comparison see chart I Orphism Phanes gt Nux gt Ouranos gt Kronos gt Zeus gt Dionysos Orphic transferences are peaceful additions Mirror views of cults Life is suffering Bliss after death Traditional tale surrounded by peace I Hittites IndoEuropean people same family as Greeks conqured non IndoEuropean peoples Obscured the cultures of others Had contact w Babylonians Egyptians Akkadians Collapsed at end of Bronze age Text on tablets is fragmented Hittite Succession Myth Alausking has Anus as cupbearer for 9 years Anus revolts amp wins Alaus goes to underworld Anus 7 Babylonian God Anu Sumerian god An Sky or Heaven Anus has Kumarbis as a servant Kumarbis is son of Alaus Kumarbis revolts Anus ees into sky Kumarbis catches Anus by feet and castrates Anus impregnates Kumarbis w 3 gods Tasmisus Tigris River Storm God Text is fragmented Mountain impregnated Storm god looks for exit point Kumarbis swallows war Battle Myth w Storm God and Ullikummis Comparison Hittite vs Greek I 4 generations Hittite instead of 3 Greek I Anus Sky N Oranos I Kumarbis N Kronos Study Guide CLAS 1020 Spring 2014 pg 8 0f14 I Storm God N Zeus Lightning I Similities 0 Discussions in womb Castration of sky Earlier generation goes into underworld Swallowing child rock Vengeance leads to war I Aps Tiamat N noisy and hyper gods Apsu gets angry at Hyper gods I Tiamat not hostile preaches patience Apsu threatens Tiamat and gods I Ea not youngest son but great grandson attacks Apsu with magical spell I Strips regalia and kills Aps Anu becomes king Ea s father I Aps becomes watery place that is Ea s home I Tiamat gets upset and wants revenge comparison with Greek I Children in mother I Hostility of father children afraid I Ea and Kronos are clever and deceiving chart Some Succession Myths C Wars group external strife I Titanomachy Hesiod I Kronos rouses titans to war I Gaia advises Zeus chooses side in battle I Zeus frees Hundred Handers Apollodoros says also Kuklopes freed I Lasts ten years I Hesiod s focus on Zeus power imprisonment in Tartaros I Gigantomachy Apollodoros Not mentioned by Hesiod I Gaia s revenge angry at the imprisonment of titans Calls in Giants for battle I Zeus steals magic plant that could help giants I Herakles Demigod and Zeus son helps by shooting and defeating giants I Lasts only one day made up of individual battles individual battles ors I One long con ict of Gods and Frost Giants Thor s job is to whack them on the head daily Series of combat myths I Ymir N connection to Greek Titanomachy Ymir s story was the 1st big battle Study Guide l CLAS 1020 l Spring 2014 lpg 9 0f14 Monstrous Figures predated the gods and defeated Ymir After death there is an establishment of new world order Creation of world and creation of man I Ragnarok N Greek Gigantomachy Ragnarok The fate of the gods Monstrous gures all postdate gods except for Suit Battles involved Loki s children and Frost giants New world order developed after final battle 06w Fenrir Loki s child FreySuit I ThorMiogaro Serpent I HeimdallLoki s indiv1dual external strife 7 Divine Division eek T ho I Hesiod postTitanomachy O O Gaia angered at results of Titanomachy Titans still in Tartaros Gaia Tartaros produces chaos creature Typhon living chaos and disorder Fiery eyes multivoiced multiheaded O O O Zeus kept watch sky god motif fall seeing Simple battle shows power of Zeus cf Titanomachy Destroyed monster sent to Tartaros etiology of evil winds Typhoon I Apollodoros says there was more to the story 0 O O O O O O O O O postGigantomachy Gaia Tartaros Monster appears in Kilikia Asia minor Gods are afraid gods ight to Egypt Change into animal forms Explains Egyptian gods really just Greek gods in disguise Zeus rst tries air strikes to monster but no results move to hand to hand combat Adamantine sickle same one used in castration by Kronos Zeus grapples to Typhon and tries to strangle Zeus sinews muscles cut by Typhon Zeus is taken to Korykian cave by Typhon Cave guarded by Delphyne Marks the death of Zeus Hermes and Aigipan go to cave and rescue Zeus Pan and fried sh Oppian pursuit of Typhon continues from Asia Minor to Sicily Moirai fates give Zeus ephemeral fruit used to trick Typhon Mountains thrown at Zeus Etiology Mount Haimos O 0 Study Guide CLAS 1020 Spring 2014 pg 10 0f14 SicilyZeus throws Mount Etna traps monster Etiology N Volcanic b c of monster comparison with Hesiod Differences Flight Defeat of Zeus Trickery and deception Hesiod didn t need it Dif culty of victoy I alternate birth 11 Apollon O O Hera s revenge N Hera as earth goddess can give birth on her own nurse Python like father like son directly connects father and son I Python I h Apollon O O O O O O Apollon is looking to build a shrine comes to Telphousa Phlegyes mentioned Spring nearby and Apollon comes to Korykian cave where Zeus was trapped b4 dragoness Delphyne nasty dragon Nurse to Typhon Apollon kills with one arrow impressive and gloats I Puth Imake to rot revenge on Telphousa pushes her off cliff I Python 11 Apollodoros and Ovid 4041 I4l6451 O O O O O I Tityos O O O Apollon is young encounters Python male dragon at Delphi guards oracle Gaia or Themis Delphi N womb andor dolphin Holy place Python hinders apollon s approach gaurding chasm 1001000 arrows Apollon has blood guilt and performs puri cation Etiology N Apollon returns home and starts Pythian games Musical contest along with athletic Sakadas of Argos Ninstrumental about slaying Python giant brigand is near Delphi with babies of Leto Zeus father of babies attempted rape by Tityos of Leto baby Apollon and Artemis kills Tityos son of Gaia Tityos One of the Great Sinners of the underworld Punishment 2 vultures eat his liver everyday which always grows back Study Guide l CLAS 1020 l Spring 2014 lpg 11 0f14 Pyreneus Ovid 123124 V268292 O O O O Pyr Fire No hero but Muses are protagonist of stoy example of ery humans cf Phlegyes attempted rape of Muses Muses trick him and y of the tower but he falls to his death preliminary analysis motifs chart I Greek I Miogaro Serpent three encounters in Prose Edda origin 0 Son of Loki and Angrbooa o F lung by Ooin into sea and grew to surround middle earth I Hymir o Thor disguised as youth goes to Giant Hymir o Thor wants to sh but Hymir s reluctant Hymir tries to leave wo him in the morning 0 OX head as bait rowing o bait takentug of war Thor has to put feet through boat to get traction o Hymir cuts line bc he s afraid Monster may or may not have been killed I Hrungnir 0 Com is in Giant Land and brags about Sleipnir Horse with 8 legs 0 Hrungnir is angry horse race Chases Ooin into Asgaro o Hungnir challenges Thor to duel after inebriation Thor must accept reputation o Mist Calf Clay Man heart of a mare Meant to help battle destroy Thor o HrungnirStone head and body Weapon hone on shoulder stone shield o Thjal s trick Tells Hrungnir that Thor will attack from below so shield is placed below Hrungnir o hammer meets hone Hone shatters and pieces become Hone Quarries Etiology o Thor is squished by Hrungnir and son 3yr old helps free Dad Hone shrapnel stuck in Thor s head 0 Groa Tries to remove it but fails LAW OF MYTHOLOGY You only get one chance at things chart II Greek and Norse Study Guide CLAS 1020 Spring 2014 pg 12 0f14 I Ullikummis Ritual text Recited yearly at a festival 0 Story picks up After war with Kumarbis o Kumarbis sleeps with rock Irsirras try to hide stone in sea on Ubelluris right shoulder o Kumarbis and rock make Ubellurisbaby stone thing miraculous growth 0 Sun God notices theme of perceptive sky god 0 Storm God Tasmisus Ishtar investigate o Ishtar tries to seduce him Storm God attacks and is defeated others defeated o Ullikummis in heaven 0 Ea talks to Ubelluris and nds that he has a pain on his shoulder Ullikummis feet 0 Ea lives in Apsu as underwater city 0 Ea takes copper cutter and depeditates Ullikummis 0 Storm god armed with thunder and lightning final battle Tablet lost I The illuyankas I Ritual text as well 2 versions unknow which was right so both were preformed 0 Storm god ghts illuyankas at Kiskilussa Connected to Kilikia where Zeus fights Typhon 0 Storm God defeated 0 Gets help from Inaras prepares banquet Hupasiyas also helps 0 Banquet illuyankas is gluttonous and rude o Hupasiyas hops out with net Storm god nishes deed I The illuyankas II 0 Storm God s son with mortal slave 0 Marriage of son and daughter of illuyankas 0 Son asks for heart and eyes of Storm God from illuyankas 0 Storm god restored to former glory death of the illuyankas amp son chart 111 Greek Norse Hittite I The illuyankas and Typhon I Tiamat o vengeance Tiamat now wants to ght children agrees with Apsu O O O O O 0 Study Guide CLAS 1020 Spring 2014 pg 13 0f14 lVIarries children Kingu Tiamat makes host of monsters gods scared Marduk challenges but only if he can be king Duel Marduk confused throws net around Tiamat arrow shot into heart Defeat of Tiamat Body splits creation of world Kingu dies N Creation of man chart IV Greek Norse Hittite Babylonian summary celestial chthonic light darkness civilization savagery connection with creation myths I combat myth and ritual texts En ma ElisV Ullikummis the illuyankas Egyptian Apophis ritual and structure myth as act E RacesAges of Humans I Hesiod ve races metals 0 O O O O 0 Golden Kronos king eternally young perfectly good no agriculture death sleep bene cial spirits end with Titanomachy Silver Zeus creates 100 years as babies rapid growth violent and impious Zeus destroys still honored Bronze Zeus creates ash trees violent warlike metalworking shortlived kill each other off Heroic Zeus creates bronze race 207 morally better but violent kill each other off epic tradition Islands of Blessed Iron no creator mentioned Hesiod s time sign of end old babies morally depraved sophisticated society Zeus will destroy summary moral decline but technologicalsocial advancement age dynamic cf decreasing life terms in Sumerian Babylonian and Biblical tradition Hesiod s father emigrated from east I Ovid 3133 189150 four ages metals 0 O O O 0 Golden innocence complete lack of legalsocialeconomic institutions no sailingwars eternal spring Saturn rules Silver seasons shelter agriculture Jupiter now ruler Bronze violent but not evil Iron moral depravity wealthgreed violence onto earth sailing Giants defeated worse men born ood summary rationalizes Hesiod antediluvian no heroic age political considerations ethical decline and technologicalsocial advance cf Rousseau


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