History of Architecture 2- Week 2- 9-8-15
History of Architecture 2- Week 2- 9-8-15 ARCH - 20112 - 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Schmidt on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH - 20112 - 001 at Kent State University taught by Elwin C. Robison (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 199 views. For similar materials see HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE II in Architecture at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Kayla Schmidt History of Architecture 2 9815 0 Pisa Baptistery 11531265 Dioto Salvi 0 Gothic vaults o Pulpit o Pisa Campanile 11741271 0 Bananashaped Started tilting during construction started to sink on one side A simple bell tower Blind arcades surrounding construction No guardrails Soft soil soil failure I Pumped in groutcement I Increased rate of leaning I To solve it put weight on the opposing side extracted soil 0 San Miniato al Monte 101862 Florence 0 Face building subconscious bilateral symmetry 00000 0 Looks like a Greek temple or Roman temple 0 Polychroming 0 Arcade 0 Shed roof over aislescross hatched facade 0 Small mosaic in the center 0 Pilasters o Iconic and Corinthian pilaster capital 0 Interior I Open timber truss large interior I Nave arcade I Clerestory windows relatively small I Northern Europe has more lively windows introducing light in vs this type of situation I Split level format in the eastcrypt 12 story I Arch in the center splitting the church in two I Roodbetween the east and west end 0 Rome left behind a lot of timber roofs I Old StPaul I Old StPeters o Clicker quiz The most important element that distinguishes San Minato al Monte as an Italian Romanesque church I 3 answers 0 Pilasters o Pediment o Polychromy o S Ambrogio 10801128 Milan OOOOOOOOOOO Kayla Schmidt Brick due to geography Early use of masonry vaulting made of brick not stone Doesn t have a transept Smaller chapels Atriumarched corbtable on the cornice Following format of earlier churches Gallery above arcade Vaulting has ribs semi circle and then filled in the webs Ratio of the height of the rib to the edge of the vault or span 12 Dark interior sense of permanence religious idea Archhorizontal thrust outward o Pilgrimage Road Churches 0 Clicker quiz Monks accommodated pilgrims by adding a O to the basilican plan Answer ambulatory o Santiago de Compostela o Ste Foy 10501120 Conques O O O Pilgrims increased commoners Very dark interiorcross sectional view Quadrant vaulthalf barrel vault Lively sculptural stories I God heaven on left and Hell on right S Sernin 10771119 Toulouse O O O O O O O 0 Mostly brick facade Morning mass that sometimes would Wealthy merchant pay clergyto give mass for past mother Alternate circulation path avoiding mass and visit other chapels 5 aisle plan Radiating chapels around ambulatoryneed to know I quotAn apse chapel in church architecture is a chapel radiating tangentially from one of the bays or divisions of the apse It is reached generally by a semicircular passageway or ambulatory exteriorly to the walls or piers of the apse Aps Radiating chapels and ambulatory I Chevet I quoteastern end of a church especially of a Gothic church designed in the French manner Beginning about the 12th century Romanesque builders began to elaborate on the design of the area around the altar adding a curved ambulatory behind it and constructing a series of apses or small chapels radiating from the ambulatory Chevet design became most elaborate during the 13th century and examples can be seen in the cathedrals of Rheims and Chartres In echelon chapels in a rowneed to know I quotA level of command authority or rank 91015 Kayla Schmidt 0 Ambulatory quota place for walking especially an aisle around the apse or a cloister in a church or monastery 0 Masonry vaulted I Big buttresses Continuous barrel vaults People don t mind the darkness of the interior no task lighting At the East End lies the alter Quadrant arch 0000 Abbey Church of St Pierre 10881121 Cluny Nuns would retire from life and move into the monastery The only way you would learn to read or write would be to be a part of the monastery Grandest church in northern Europemajor cathedral of France No longer existspurchased landloca peasants tore the church down in the late 18th century 2 transepts rare in France to add alters Long extensive nave Ste Madeleine 110432 Vezelay Building sagged and had to take down the vaults and rebuild them Experimenting with light partly unsuccessful Flying Buttressesadded on later on during gothic period 13 century They didn t have enough buttressing to begin with Barrel vault with transverse arches 0 Cut in clerestory windows into the barrel vault 0 Transverse archespolychromatic stones which was rare for France 0 Callenet I Respond to ribs 0 The facade helped support the barrel vaults 0 Almost groin vault anticipating 0 Structural stand point not successful Signs of the Zodiac were used in sculptural purposes Column capitals Monastery giving wealth to the poor 0 Crop rotation 0 Education 0 Innovators Simple design 0 quotbig barns o Buttresses on both sides of the doorway on the facade Kayla Schmidt I Because of the arcade I To balance each other out I Aspe at the other end East End I No towers on the west front 0 InteriorLittle decoration I Plain I So that your thoughts could go to God I Cloister Courtyard 0 Covered walk way 0 Because it rains a lot in France 0 Pray exercises o Stations of the cross Norman Architecture St Etienne Caen 10681120 vaults built 11151120 0 Normans rule Englandafter the Hastings battle 0 Twin tower facade o Buttresses nave arcade 0 Tribute gallery above nave arcade 0 Exterior wall is massively thick for horizontal vaulting 0 Created groin vaults 0 Not much light coming through thick wall St Cuthbert 10931180 Durham England 0 Transept arm 0 Clerestory windowsclerestory passage 0 Buttresses thicken wall 0 Thick piers supporting nave and tribute gallery above that 0 Not a tall building Aquitaine and Provence St Pierre 11051128 0 Influenced by San Marco Venice 0 Dome in the center 0 Masonry vaulting 0 Instead of a barrel vault independent domespendentive supports dome 0 Thick drum StFront Perigueux 1120 1150 Kayla Schmidt 0 Domes 0 In P rigueux is the SaintFront cathedral built in the 12th centuryruins burned in 1120 0 One of the largest in France 0 Greek cross topped with 5 lofty domes and numerous colonnaded turrets 0 Cloisters and bell tower built in 12th 13th and 16th centuries S Trophlme 11501180 Arles o Elaborate portable 0 Series of columns supporting pediment form 0 Mimics Triumphful arch 0 Roofing system stonewhich sits right on the vaults 0 John is shown as the angel stories carved in Throughout this course there are a lot of definitions to know Here is a list of words that we have explored afterjust these two weeks of classes words that l have taken in importance through his lectures And here is the website that used to define these words so be free to explore that more httpwwwlearncolumbiaedumahtmswma site resource glossary fhtm Definitions abbey An independent and canonically erected monastery ruled by an abbot if occupied by monks and by an abbess if occupied by nuns abbey church The main church of an abbey constituting one part of the building complex that may also include Cloisters and assembly rooms chapter houses Abbey churches are usually designed to accommodate any special liturgical requirements of the monks or nuns ambulatory The passageway surrounding the apse or hemicycle located at the east end of a basilican church plan Chapels located along the outer perimeter of the ambulatory are sometimes referred to as radiating chapels apse The semicircular or polygonal space containing the high altar located at the east end of a basilican church plan arcade a series of round or pointed arches supported by a row of columns or piers atrium An open courtyard or vestibule located before the principal entrance of a church sometimes surrounded by covered aisles The atrium of the Early Christian church was originally a place for the catechumens people awaiting initiation into the faith of the church to wait during the celebration of the Eucha st barrel vault Roundheaded stone vault supported by parallel walls or arcades Also called a tunnel vault blind arcade Wall decoration composed of arcades arches resting on columns or pilasters set flat against the wall and therefore closed at the back buttress Pierlike vertical masonry elements built to strengthen or support walls or resist the lateral thrust of vaults Kayla Schmidt Clerestory Literally a clear story In a basilican church the uppermost section of the nave wall located above the triforium and rising above the roofs covering the lateral aisles pierced by a row of windows to admit light into the nave Clerestory windows often contain stained glass depicting Old and New Testament subjects Cloister Enclosed spaces composed of a garth garden and surrounding walkways which are generally arcaded on the courtyard side facing the garden and walled on the other usually found in Christian religious building complexes such as monasteries and used for contemplative purposes diagonal rib Slender stone moldings or arched supports called ribs arranged in a diagonal formation and positioned along the groins or joins of a vault crossing in the center used either to mask the groins or to support or decorate the vault east end Term used to describe the apse or hemicycle portion of a church containing the main altar More broadly may refer to the area of the church including the choir apse ambulatory and radiating chapels Most Medieval churches were oriented on an eastwest axis with the main entrance at the west end and the high altar at the east end facing the direction of the Holy Land flying buttress Exterior stone supports in the form of arches located between an upright pier or buttress and the building wall designed to transmit the thrust of a vault or roof from the upper part of a wall outward to the pier or buttress The exterior of Gothic cathedrals is characterized by flying buttresses usually located along the sides of the nave and around the choir or east end of the building gallery Substantial interior spaces at the level of an upper story eg second level in a threestory church elevation that overlook the level below eg nave and usually extend the full length of the church The term tribune may also be used Distinct from a triforium in which the passage way is usually very narrow Greek cross plan A ground plan designed in a crossshape with four equal arms and a central space groin vault A vault characterized by sharp ridges or edges on the interior surface formed by the intersection of two or more tunnel or barrel vaults historiated capital A capital designed with one or more figures of humans or animals sometimes combined with architectural settings or foliage The figures may be decorative or carry symbolic moral or narrative meaning and may constitute a narrative sequence such as scenes from the Life of Christ Historiated capitals were most commonly used in the Romanesque from the late eleventh to midtwelfth centuries and are sometimes found in monastic cloisters Latin cross Church buildings whose plan is designed in the form of a cross with two short lateral arms transept arms and one long arm nave monastery Complex of buildings used to house a community of monks or nuns including a church and cloister refectory for meals dormitory for sleep and usually a hostelry for guests and a scriptorium for the production and copying of books manuscripts nave The main central space of a basilican church interior extending from the entrance to the crossing or choir The pierced side walls usually opening onto sideaisles are composed of the nave arcade columns or piers supporting arches the triforium and the clerestory covered by a vaulted or wooden ceiling nave arcade The row of columns or piers supporting arches along the lower section of the nave in a basilican church The nave arcade is usually surmounted by a triforium and clerestory Kayla Schmidt pilgrimage church Churches designed and built primarily during the 11th century to accommodate crowds of visiting pilgrims along the main routes to the shrine at Campostela Spain may also be used for any large church designed to receive large numbers of pilgrims and characterized by the arrangement of entrancesexits aisles and chapels to facilitate a steady movement of people through the building radiating Chapels Chapels located along the outer perimeter of the ambulatory in the east end of a basilican church plan Chapels may be defined as any space used for worship or veneration in a Christian church often dedicated to an individual saint or Christian episode rib Arches or raised moldings of masonry supporting or decorating quadripartite fourpart or sexpartite sixpart vaults ribbed vault Vaults that include slender arched moldings or supports called ribs used either as structural or decorative elements arranged in a diagonal formation on the surface of the vault and crossing in the center The brick or stone covering spanning each section between the ribs is called the web Ribbed vaults are usually composed of four quadripartite or six sexpartite sections thrust The downward andor outward pressure exerted by an arch or vault resulting from the weight of the structure and the effects of gravity transept Transverse arms of a basilican church plan set at right angles to the nave The lateral spaces of the transept are referred to as the north and south transepts or transept arms The area where the transept and nave intersect is called the crossing sometimes surmounted by a tower and providing a monumental space separating the nave and the choir transverse rib or arch Monumental stone arches ribs located at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the nave in a basilican church dividing the space and the vaults into regular bays or compartments triforium Arcaded register or level of the wall in a basilican church interior located between the arcade and clerestory that corresponds to the space between the sideaisle vault and the leanto roof above that vault The triforium may be blind no passageway or may include a passageway set behind it The triforium may be glazed eg the wall behind the triforium is pierced by windows vault A ceiling or roof constructed of brick or stone built on the principal of the round or pointed arch designed to transmit outward and downward thrust along structural members such as columns piers and buttresses Major vault types include barrel or tunnel vaults groin vaults and rib vaults web webbing vaults The stonework filling the area between the ribs of a vault Also called infilling west end The structural elements built on the west end of a Christian church including the main facade The term is used to distinguish the entrance and nave area from the choir and hemicycle located at the east end