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Popular in Art
This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Meda Rosenbaum on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARTS 2000 at University of Georgia taught by Li in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/202176/arts-2000-university-of-georgia in Art at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Art of India 11112009 41900 PM Taj Mahal o Influenced by Islamic art Persian culture the ornamental dome minarets high towers 4 calligraphy on the walls Corbelled Arch 0 Square and pyramid like on top 0 Disadvantage doesn t open up the interior space rather reduce the interior space 0 Not as mathematical as a round arch Hindu Temple 0 Lots of sculpture lots of carving from the Hindu culture Mandala Buddhist Art Form 0 Bright colorful paintings o Symmetrical and balanced o Complementary colors contrast 0 Circles and squares 0 Buddha is the center Torso from Harappa Indus Civilization 2000 BC 0 Has no head or legs only the torso and groin area Sculpture 0 Thin waist o ldealized o Sculpt things that should be 0 Ditties dressed but clothing not overly pronounced implied o Bodies rounded because of their practice of yoga youger haha 0 Buddha meditating like in yoga meditation 0 Believe their body is not as perfect as the AngloSaxon bodies Buddha Preaching the First Sermon from Sarnath 46585 CE 0 Focused on his inner thought 0 Dressed but it is not elaboratedimplied 0 Very peaceful figure form and facial features Buddhism and Art in India 0 Great Stupa Sanchi India 3 Century BC 1st CE 0 Buries the Buddha s remains pieces scattered in different countries 0 Can jump out of the circle of life and death by practicing Buddhism and become enlightened 0 Can walk around the railed walkways and meditate 0 Purpose to calm people down to help the to focus on life and death and the meaning of life 0 Archways entrance comes from the Hindu religion I Lots of carvings and decorations I Elephants and other diatties I Yakshi goddess dancing and laughing under a fig tree D Symbolizes fertility D Very attractive and sexual D Very lively dynamic Hinduism and Art Jain Art Vishnu Dreaming the Universe relief panel Deogarh early 6 h Century CE 0 Believe that you enjoy life 0 Vishnu wife is rubbing feet 0 Dreamt that he gave birth to all these deities Shiva Nataraja lndia 10 h Century 0 God of reconstruction and destruction 0 One had holds drum people at feet begging for mercy 0 Has 4 arms 0 Surrounded by a circle with fire on it Central Temple complex at Angkor Wat Cambodia 111350 CE 0 Still there today 0 Hindu more an individual style The birth of Mahavira Gujarat 1400 CE Shallow painting no depth 2D perception Use atmospheric perspective Use proportion figures in the back or on the top of the painting are smaller than in the quotfrontquot Very bright vibrant colors Figures painted in profile but eyes are not in profile Art of China 11112009 41900 PM Context About the Culture Country 0 China Is a Culture 0 a history of 5000 years 0 The inventor of ink and paper besides many others 0 Calligraphy and ink painting as the highest art form yet china plates is the best received and valued in the West 0 China Today Since Late 1970s 0 Reforms and open up to the West 0 Market economy and the economic takeoff 0 Political decentralization and ideological selfreflection Collage 0 Boat sun tree dragon fish butterfly flower 0 Letters decorated with the above common objects called collage because of overlapping forms of art ClassicalHistorical Art 0 Terracotta Horses amp Warriors Qin Dynasty 210 BC Xi an China 0 Made by 1st Chinese futile emperor o Believed in life after death so they were made in hope to protect him after death 0 Full size 0 Each one is different no to are the same 0 Very detailed and vivid o All warriors face the east 0 lnk Painting 0 Medium four treasures hair brush ink ink stone and wrinkledrice paper 0 Use ink stick to rub against ink stone with water to control the intensity of the black ink 0 Permanent 0 Traditional is calligraphy written right to left top to bottom in columns 0 Contemporary uses as well 0 Li Cheng A Solitary Temple and Clearing Peaks Northern Song Dynasty C 960 hanging scroll ink and slight color on silk 0 Way to learn art is to copyimitate the masters because the admire them 0 Landscape painting the most popular form of artwork o Humans located in the picture but SUPER tiny because of Daoism 0 Li bi indicates the blank spots on the art like the water and the sky 0 Non paid artist made living because they are already very wealthy o Wealthy educated become officials take test based on calligraphy and acid writing painting calligraphy and poetry 3 perfections 0 Have passion and love for the art 0 Focused on landscapes tend to idealize nature not overly realistic O 0 Identity wealthy educated and sometimes officials in the court Longing for escape from their human struggles ink painting Paint from memory or imagination Moved by Confucianism stability family society etc Layout a painting in response to a social hierarchy 0 Some Characteristics of Chinese Ink Painting 0 O O O 0 Water and mountain often as subject matters Life as a journey road through a mountain Paint an ideal place out of imagination for escapism Suggestiveness philosophy of life Taoism Mountainsthen very lightly drawn other objectsan object is just barely draw only suggested Religions in landscape painting Confucianism national buildings Taoism emphasizes nature Buddhism The expressive and the elaborate styles 3 Perfections a tradition of literati painting Journal Compare 2 religious beliefs and see how it influences their art amp how it embodies the religious beliefs Art of Japan 11112009 41900 PM Japanese people use space to indicate their emotions indirectly Haniwa Figure of a Horse Japan 3rd6 h CE Earthenware with traces of pigment o Idealized but realistic at the same time o Proportions of the horse are almost perfect except for the tail 0 Some parts simplified legs 0 Saddle included to show you the function of the horse 0 Visually pleasing Inner Shrine lse Japan Early 151 century Rebuilt every 20 yrs 0 Emphasis is imitation of the previous masters o Emphasis on tradition and respect of the elders 0 Simple shrine 1st built about 2000 years ago 0 Originally made of hatching and wood and mud and hay 0 Reason for having to rebuild the shrine every 20 yrs 0 Always keep the originally design shape and type of material 0 Pillars in the same simplified shape of the horses legs The quotFloatingquot Torii at ltsukushima Shinto Shrine 0 Very plan pillars and beams 0 Located in water 0 Eliminated all nonessential details 0 Shinto religious belief and cultural belief 0 Think everything has life 0 Le worship trees that live long and grow tall 0 Function to mark special place the water 0 Very symmetrical has complementary color green and red 0 Colors there to impress you to form the contrast and draw your attention to it Zen Buddhism Ryoanji Temple Kyoto Japan 0 Branch of Buddhism is very popular amongst the scholars and intellectuals 0 Temple located by the water and surrounded by trees 0 Temple very simple and clean lines 0 Not much detail 0 Colors simple and dull pastel yellow and white 0 People go to sit and look at the empty courtyard and the flowers and wildlife 0 Courtyard random stones surround by a small patch of grass and the rest is pebbles o Pebbles raked by monks zen garden 0 All the exciting ornamental distractions have been eliminated to make the view focus on life and nature 0 Aplace to calm down and simplify yourlife 0 Force viewer to think about time while the monk combs the ground Sesshu Toyo 14201506 ZenMonk Landscape 1495 hanging scroll ink on paper 0 Tree on a rock or small hill 0 Wide space between the tree and the mountain that is way off into the distance 0 Tree is like in a lump of ink not very detailed o Emphasizes sudden enlightenment zen monk o Poured out a lump of ink on the paper 1 and then branched it out and made it into different lines splash technique 0 Shape not as organized or planned 0 Values are different Kosho Kuya Preaching Kamakura Period before 1270 Namu Amida Butsu wood sculpture o Buddhist monk o 6 small sculptures coming out of this mouth to represent a famous phrase 0 very realistic sculpture 0 many sculptures depict practices of the religion real people Hanging Scroll of Priest Xienzi Catching Shrimp Nanbokucho Period 13331392 CE 0 Free Kitagawa Utamora Hairdresser Kamiyui 179899 Woodblock Prink Japan 0 Subject matter is more related to everyday life and human activity 0 Woodblock printing is so well know it is the best in the west Japan 0 Can be repeated and reproduced very colorful 0 1st art form that came to win favor over the western audience Hokusai between 1826 amp 1829 ThirtySix Views of Mt Fuji 0 Had to carve out where you wanted different colors to go 0 Very time consuming process Architecture 11112009 41900 PM Architecture 0 Site 0 Materials and Construction 0 Skeleton and skin construction 0 Castiron o Steelframe 0 Glass 0 Prefabrication o Reinforced concreteferroconcrete o Cantilever o Geodesic dome 0 Mass Interior Space 0 Electricity 0 Elevator Purposefunction Styles 19 121st century 0 IndustrialEngineered Style 18502003 0 organic Style Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright 19001950 International Style 19451985 0 o Postmodern Style 19802003 0 3D in itself 0 serves a function can go inside it inclusive space Modern Styles 0 19 h century great demand to build more buildings modern architecture developed 0 Industrial Style steal and skeleton construction 0 London was the 1st most famous o ProtoInternational Style 151 of the international style transitional period 0 Can be characterized by some universalbasic geometrical form but still has some classical architectural elements I From floor to floor there is no change easy to construct o Adopted a frieze carving floral patterns borrowed images from the fine arts made of terracotta o Emphasis on efficiencyfinish construction very fast 0 Organized 0 Has a simple but defined roof 0 International Style very geared to the economy O O O O O 0 Very efficient straight even lines Nothing very fancy everything very structured Reduce everything to the basic nothing playful no decorations Taller buildings and no defined roof Appears in many different countries Glass serves as the scheme of the building Ex World Trade Center 0 Organic Style appeared a little earlier than the International Style 0 O O O O O Represented by the Falling Water house I Frank Wright I Used stones to make the house that came from the mountains nearby I Built the house over a stream Characterized by the use of natural materials Use of space is natural as well as materials Inside open floor plans I Reduced the number of interior walls Colors mimic nature you can see the outside from the inside Wants to blend the construction in with the natural world 0 Late 1990 s Post Modern Style 0 O O O 0 Combination of all of the previous styles Very complicated I Reflected in the shape color and materials of the building Playful I Roofs as entrance I Interesting shapes that respond to the function of the building Breaks the rules I Curvy lines I Irregular shapes I Construction difficult I Unnecessary parts Used to show skill and creativity Aggressive colors bright Eccentric Complex Irregular Decorative Colorful Breaks the rules Stops looking forward looks to the past and to anything else Plays with architecture of the past and with motifs from variety of sources Art of Early amp High Renaissance 11112009 41900 PM Italian Early Renaissance Florence 14001500 originating primarily in Florence the llnew Athens Growth of commerce and competition between cities New merchant patrons in addition to church and state Renaissance of Classical antiquity humanism Focus on the natural world on the individual as God s most perfect creation amp on subject matter derived from classical antiquity eg mythology nude Naturalistic or illusionistic style based on modeling Chiaroscuro cast shadows linear and atmospheric perspective foreshortening study of anatomy and proportions and expression of emotion painting is a window through which we see the natural world Painting sculpture and architecture elevated from manual crafts to intellectual activities based on science and understanding Artist gains new status and modern concept of art emerges Donatello St Mark or San Michele Florence 1413 amp St Theodore Chartres Cathedral 1230 1413 very relaxed more defined 0 hips shifted o implied potential movement 0 face very detailed 0 book indicated his knowledge 0 Sitting in a pointed arch gothic 0 More realistic lifelike and vivid 1230 back is connected to the wall look more stiff amp mechanical 0 high relief 0 not as individualized o props indicated their characteridentity o robes stylized don t reflect the movement of shape of their body wrinkles and creases Birth of Venus Botticelli 1480 Said to be the lover of Mars Legendary Birth born out of the water daughter of Zeus o Blown by Zephyr god of the wind to the shore on her seashell o Greeted by nymph of seasons giving her a cloak to cover Venus Demonstrates Revival in Ancient Greek and Roman Art 0 Similar posture to Venus de Milo o Implied triangle she serves as the central line I Implied by color 0 Brightest Object most important in the middle 0 Now there is a background and paintings instead of mostly sculpture 0 Now She s naked instead of being covered by clothing to show dignity I Nudity now show s their beauty I Male pleasure Shape of cloak and movement of the hair implies the blowing of the Zephyr Neck is believed to be out of proportion longer than regular humans Right Shoulder is cut off too much irregular form amp proportion Skin is flawless Bellini St Francis in the Desert 1485 Picture clearly divided into foreground middle ground and background Good illusion of depth in the painting Subject matter bible based Landscape is a necessary part of the painting 0 Characteristic of Northern Renaissance Francis believer in god embraced by the marvelous light to great the lord in the morning Sheep amp Sheppard God is our Sheppard amp believers are his sheep Donkey fertility Bible behind him wearing no shoes ltalian High Renaissance Florence and Rome 15001525 0 most famous artist to come out Michelangelo Raphael amp Da Vinci Begins in Florence and fully develops with Michelangelo and Raphael in Rome quotRenaissancequot man and concept of artist as quotgeniusquot ldealized perfection of human figure Grandeur balance stability and harmony Leonardo do Vinci Studied the human body animals objects and new objects Leonardo da Vinci Self Portrait 1512 Last Supper Refectory Santa Maria delle Grazie Milan 1495 0 Linear perspective one point 0 Painting extends the hallway further 0 Jesus 6 disciples on either side of him grouped in threes either by physical distance of by the eye direction Mona Lisa 1505 o Mysterious person 0 Face with sharp contrast with the background and her robe I Naturally draws eye to her face brightest part of the painting 0 Landscape is somewhat unrealistic 2 sides doesn t connect not continuous o Mysterious smirk o In the style of modern day photography captured a quick moment in life 0 Sfumato invented by da Vinci applied translucent glazes of color to create perceptions of depth volume and form blending of colors or tones so subtly that there is no perceptible transition I without lines or borders in the manner of smoke or beyond the focus plane I eyes tip of mouth nostrils Michelangelo 0 David Florence 1504 Duomo and Palazzo Vecchio 0 Originally supposed to be placed on to of the Duomo o Captures the moment when David is about to throw his sling at Goliath 0 Very fleeting short moment 0 Very detailed I Furrowed brows frown right hand with the veins 0 Contrapossto stance S shape of his body 0 Prisoners for unfinished Tomb of Pope Julius ll 1508 0 Shows process of his work I Doesn t do body in order 0 Sistine Chapel Vatican 15081512 0 Most well known masterpiece o 4 years to complete 0 Divided into rectangle and triangle pointed arch shapes I Served as frames 0 Creation of Adam I Very dynamic and active I Central focus is their hands I Figures painted like a sculpture Details rosy face eye direction looking at where their fingers are going to meet implied directional line God s hand very direct determined powerful Adam s hand passive figure hand limp and quotsloppyquot Raphael 0 Madonna of the Meadows 1505 o Painted Virgin Mary and the baby Jesus and John the Baptist in a triangle form I Jesus is located in the middle dividing the triangle I Very stable form for the figures and ink general 0 Madonna looks very upper class lady but background doesn t match with her identity open unidentified space I A lot of paintings the landscape is forced into the painting not necessarily connected serves as decoration of fill the space 0 School of Athens Stanza della Segnatura Vatican 1511 0 Has all of the scholars of that time o Fresco 0 Linear perspective with round arches to mimic the setting of the building I Walls within walls arches within arches o 2 in the center centrally focused I Aristotle and Plato D Plato finger pointing upward concern about metaphysical world I Aristotle hand stretched out concern about physical world foreshortening 0 Well balanced painting like the last supper Northern Renaissance 11112009 41900 PM Northern Renaissance Includes the art of Northern France the Netherlands BelgiumHolland amp Germany Fascination with and minute observation of the details of the visible world near and far Michelangelo complained that Northern Renaissance artists just looked without understanding the underlying order and structure Painting like a mirror of nature and therefore of God through His creation Christian symbolism in the everyday Genre scenes of everyday life Origins of painting in manuscripts illumination to show the characters in the bible Use of Oil Paints Italian Renaissance Venice Oil paint Color Brushwork Sensuous surface Poetic landscapes quotfete champetre Bellini St Francis in the Desert 1485 0 Picture clearly divided into foreground middle ground and background 0 Good illusion of depth in the painting 0 Subject matter bible based 0 Landscape is a necessary part of the painting I Characteristic of Northern Renaissance 0 Francis believer in god embraced by the marvelous light to great the lord in the morning 0 Sheep amp Sheppard God is our Sheppard amp believers are his sheep o Donkey fertility 0 Bible behind him wearing no shoes Campin Merode Altarpiece 1426 o Commissioned by the figures in the left panel 0 Scene when Mary finds out that she is pregnant with Jesus by the angel central panel 0 Right panel Joseph 0 Very detailed characteristic of the northern renaissance I Lots of decorations in the background very meaningful I Lots of symbolism in objects located in the painting I Real backgrounds meaningful settings 0 Small cross carried by a small angel flying in through a window 0 3 flowers in the vase 0 Joseph not idealized What is Art 11112009 41600 PM Edward Weston Cabbage Leaf 1931 Silver Gelatin Photograph Fine Art Print Collection Functions of Art Art as Beauty 0 Botticelli Birth of Venus 0 Venus is considered symbol of love and beauty 0 Gesture skin color everything is traditional conception of women s beauty 0 Art served as a way of shifting people s view of beauty 0 Used to please the eye 0 Beauty is Objective Art as Beauty 0 Goya Chronos Devouring One of His Children 0 Used to evoke a certain emotion out ofthe viewer 0 There are subjective ideas but there are objective bottom lines Art as Self Expression 0 Not to imitate reality but to express one s subjective view of reality 0 Express one s own feeling or view Art for Religious Meditation o Michelangelo Creation 0 Commissioned by the church 0 Made for target audience not made for one s own personal expression 0 Used to meet the churches requirement 0 Helps people to conduct a religious meditation Art as Representation of Reality 0 Scene of everyday event reality 0 more so photography 0 Some events are not real they are staged scenes photography can lie PaintingDrawing Sculpture amp ArchitectureArt About Media and Skill 0 Everyday objects claimed as art 0 Conceptual Art ordinary objects considered art more about the idea than the object Representational Naturalistic and Abstract Approaches o Representational Art represent a object that bears the real object in life imitates life 0 Naturalistic closest to real life object 0 Abstract Something that doesn t mean to imitate real life objects Non Representational Art 0 Doesn t depict any likeness to an object color used to invoke an emotion Rothko Art and History 0 To record an event in history significant or non significant events Art in Culture 0 Cultural icons are considered art Art in Politics 0 Used to persuade an audience about a political issue or movement or to inform the people of their political nation government through art Art and Economy as Commodity 0 Van Gogh Wheat Field and Cypress Trees 0 Used to show social class based on artworks obtained Art and Life 0 Egyptian and the what they put in tombs 0 Used for story telling form of communication religious encouragement Art as Therapy What is Art 0 Artwork 0 Artist 0 Audience dealers collectors historians critics etc 0 Space museum gallery street shops etc 0 Material 0 Tool 0 Idea skills knowledge passion etc Interpreting Works of Art 0 Subject Matter medium form content meaning 0 A work of art allows for multiple interpretations o Interpretations are not so much right as more or less reasonable convincing informative and enlightening 0 There are good and bad interpretations o The object of interpretation is the artwork not the artist 0 Interpretation implies a world view 0 Good interpretation tells more about the artwork than about the interpreter The Making of Meanings Several Terms Style characteristic visual featuressubject mattermedium associated with a culture time and place group of artists or individual artist MeaningContent what a work is about Form visual characteristics the way a work of art looks Subject Matter object or events depicted conography identifying describing and interpreting subject matter 0 Van Eyck Arnolfini Double Portrait 1434 believe to be full of icons Context life of the maker tradition the work of art comes from occasion the work is made for etc in sum all connections the work of art has in relation to the larger world of human culture Paleolithic and Neolithic Art 11112009 41600 PN Paleolithic Period 30000 BCE 5000 BCE Old stone age Agriculture Hunting Cave habitation Every day interpretation art Lion Panel Chauvet Cave Ardeche Valley France 30000 BCE o Named after its explorer 0 Blew the soot on the wall 0 Maybe made for storytelling but there are only animals so most likely not The Hall of Bulls Lascaux Cave France 15000 10000 BCE 0 Looks more like storytelling because there is a human figure present in the scene Venus of Willendorf from Austria c 25000 20000 BCE o Limestone 0 Very small can put it in your pocket lucky symbol to increase fertility rates 0 Fertility statue wide child bearing hips large boobs naked 0 Big was beautiful because it meant she was healthy making her lustful 0 Artist left out parts in what is not as important no face small arms and legs head covered Neolithic Period 5000 BCE 1000 BCE New stone age Domesticated animals Agriculture Pottery Stonehenge 2000 15000 BCE Salisbury Plain England 0 Maybe a burial site Remains ofa building Flagstone has a hole and the tall stone has a peg to keep them together 0 O O Stones not produced from the local region Why do people make art Art of Egypt 11112009 41600 PM Egypt 0 One of the ancient civilizations 3000 BCE present 0 Arts and Politics 0 Social Values continuity order stability endurance o Emperors and gods 0 Pyramids and mummies 0 Huge burial tombs of the pharos Pyramid of Khufu Giza Egypt 2570 BC o Built ramps to build the various layers The Great Sphinx Giza 25000 BC Limestone rock 0 Built up upon layers 0 Believed to have great power 0 Sphinx guards the tomb the pharos tomb Kouros Archaic 580 BCE Compared with Menkaure and Khemerernebty Egyptian 2500 BCE o Pharaoh wears the same headdress as the sphinx and the queen wear a similar one o Pharoh s leg is one in front ofthe other 0 Woman needs man in the Egyptian culture 0 Clothes are not highlighted do not highlight their material possessions o Pharoh s clothes mark them as decent people 0 Kouros shows off the human body 0 Completely 3D 0 Pharaoh whole body is static attached to the stone 0 Shows dignity Polykleitos Spear Bearer Palette of Narmer Egyptian 3100 BCE o Devoted to the ruler o Tells a story about him conqueror of the his enemy Akhenaten and His Family From Akhetaten 1348 1336 BCE Painted Limestone Sunken relief Nefertiti From Akhetaten c 1348 13365 BCE o Painted limestone Greece 11112009 41600 PM Ancient Greece 0 Geometric 800 650 BCE o Archaic 650 480 BCE Acropolis in Athens sacked and Persians defeated 480 0 Classical 480 320 BCE o Hellenistic 320 30 BCE Alexander the Great died 323 0 City States and competition Olympics 776 BCE 0 Classical at the root of Western civilization politics philosophy literature drama architecture and arts 0 Man measure of all things and gods have human form and human behavior 0 Guided by desire for realismnaturalism and idealism o Perfection of the individual in soulmind and body 0 Human scale and canon of human proportions 0 Architectural orders Doric Ionic Corinthian Sounion Temple of Poseidon Delphi Theater and Temple of Apollo 4c BCE 0 Apollo is the sun god Athens Acropolis with Parthenon Dipylon Vases Geometric 8c BCE 0 Similar to Egyptian art body s more triangular figures still depicted the same way 0 People very organized must be important 0 Also very narrative art 0 Lack of technique no dimension and over lapping not done properly 0 No linear prospective 0 Funeral Douris Kylix Red Figure Eos and Memnon Classical 480 BCE 0 Successful with overlapping 0 Still twisted view Kouros Archaic 580 BCE o Emphasis stability stance 0 Free standing 0 Originally colored gold necklace brown hair painted eyes and lips 0 Hair braided Kroisos Kouros from Anavysos Archaic 525 BCE o Inscription on base Stop and show pity beside the marker of Kroisos dead whom once in battle s front rank raging Ares destroyed o More muscular more attention to detail in body has abs 0 Face much more individualized Warrior discovered in Riace Classical 450 BCE 0 Bronze 0 Body twisted in the shape of and S 0 Like the Spear Bearer Roman Copy 0 Contrapposto stance o More realistic more detail 0 Hair indicated the wisdom or knowledge Kore Archaic 525 BCE 0 Has clothes on 0 Face more universal 0 Has clothes on to show the dignity of women Perikles Roman copy of Greek original 429 BCE o Ordered the reconstruction of the classical city of Athens Acropolis Athens 0 Built on top of the hill and dedicated to the gods 0 Parthenon Classical 0 Made of TONS of columns I Made up of pilling of stones I Doric and Ionic order columns I Doric more plain Ionic has two swirls on each side 0 Not enclosed 0 Originally full of high reliefs I Sculptors from the Classical period I Three Goddesses 440 BCE I Reclining clothed draped and elaborate I Individualized I Horse 440 BCE I Almost in perfect proportions I Metope Battle Lapith and Centaur Reconstruction of painting Classical 440 BCE I Intense naked struggle 0 Golden Section all squares within the rectangle have the same proportions o Doric on the outside Iconic on the inside 0 Steps at base of colonnade constructed at a curve 0 Columns not evenly spaced to make up for linear perspective 0 Frieze of animals and cattle battles 0 Temple of Athena o Ionic columns 0 Conquests of Alexander the Greek at time of his death and beginning of the Hellenistic period 323 BCE and coins bearing his likeness 0 Low relief Laocoon Group Hellenistic Bronze original 150 BCE Roman Copy 0 Very dramatic 0 Man a priest of Troy serpents attacking him and his two children 0 Lots of curvy tilted lines 0 Potential to move 0 Helplessness Not communicating with the viewer Aphrodite of Melos Venus de Milo Hellenistic 150 BCE 0 Half naked not real missing arms but one once held a shield to cover her upper body 0 2 different styles within Hellenistic o goddess of beauty and love Old Market Woman Hellenistic 150 BCE o Hunched over draped clothing burdened tired 0 Common woman Ancient Rome 0 0 Rome 11112009 41600 PM Republic 509 27 BCE Empire 27 BCE 476 AD Developed complex open society agrarian to urban conquering governing and assimilating Practical problem solving engineers lawmakers and rulers Valued the real verism over the ideal Adopted and transmitted Classical civilization of Greece religion sculpture architectural Aqueduct Segovia 100 AD and Pont du Grand Nimes Early 1St c AD Used to carry water for irrigation Made of series of arches o Built on basis of mathematics 0 Arch and barrel vault 0 Used archivolts and keystone to build the arches 0 Concrete construction Colosseum Rome 80 AD 0 Pantheon 0 Used for gladiator battles Made oftons of round arches 3 stories of arches and multiple layers of them 0 All three orders of columns exist one in each layer Tons of passage ways under arena that kept prisoners and beast ticked away Used to fill the floor with water to imitate battles at sea Used to be a ceiling in the original plan with an opening at the top 125 AD Even number of columns Has its own form of the golden section therefore the facade is a lot like the Parthenon Corinthian capitals No reliefs very plain 0 To leave certain impression on the viewer Greek and Roman styles Inside HUGE and round rotunda o This is where the elaborateness is at o Coffered roof with a central opening to the sky oculus or quoteyequot I Oculus used to connect interior and exterior and a higher power I Serves as a painting hanging in the air connection with nature I Coffered ceiling used to make it more spacious Brick and concrete construction Double Portrait of Gratidia and Gratiidius 1St C BCE Husband and wife Shows loving peaceful relationship More elaborate draping and realistic than the Egyptian which was stylized Man is very aged you can see the wrinkles in his face more individualized Augustus of Prima Porta Roman about 10 AD Very ambitious emperor Commissioned by his wife Livia Hand raised to draw attention and to expand personal space Cupid placed beside the leader to symbolizes the power ofthe leader comes from his god More dignity because of his dress One leg is relaxed and showing his potential to move Carvings in his chest plate Equestrian stature of Marcus Aurelius Rome 165 AD Stretched out arms Visual Elements 11112009 41600 PM Line the trace left by a moving point Directional and Non Directional Lines 0 Directional direct your eye to where you should pay attention 0 Non Directional direction ofthe eyes Implied Lines lines made by objects not intentional out drawn line gesture that extends infinitely after the finger ends Laocoon Group used line to indicate movement twisted curly lines Horizontal and Vertical lines indicate tranquility stability and lack of movement Thomas Eakins Biglin Brothers clouds tree line and paddle all form an angle with the baseline which indicates movement Outline lines that define a 2 dimensional shape Contour lines that define the boundaries of 3 demensional forms Differs from outline in its value Shape a 2D form that occupies an area Shallow form in the pictures plane Mass a 3D form that occupies a volume of space Turn and Shape into a Mass with Color Value shade of light and dark Da Vinci Virgin and Saint Anne with the Christ Child and John the Baptist Chiaroscuro the technique of modeling mass in 2D through value Hatching and Cross hatching o Hatching same direction lines to create value 0 Cross hatching lines criss crossed to create value Hue another term for color Color Wheel 0 Primary Colors red yellow and blue I Cannot be made by mixing any other colors 0 Secondary Colors orange green violet I Mixture of primary colors 0 Tertiary Colors mixture of a primary color and secondary color Red purple orange red yellow orange yellow green blue green blue purple Value Relative Lightness or Darkness 0 Tint a color lighter that the hue s normal value pink add white to the colors 0 Shade a color darker than the hue s normal value add black to the colors Intensity Saturation Purity ofa Color Chroma o The purer the higher its intensity 0 Add gray or its complement to lower intensity 0 Color Harmonies Color Scheme 0 Monochromatic tints and shades of one color 0 Complementary opposite colors on the color wheel 0 Analogous colors that are adjacent or next to each other on the color wheel Blue and Blue green o Triadic any there colors equidistant from each other on the color wheel 0 Optical effects of color Afterimage star at one color for a long time then look at a black space you see its complementary color 0 The emotional effects of color cool warm etc Texture o The surface quality the perception of smoothness or roughness flatness or bumpiness etc Pattern o The decorative repetitive motif or design 0 Creates visual texture Tends to flatten perception of mass and space Space Implied space suggesting depth in 2D Depth Techniques to depict space 0 Overlapping Positioning Foreshortening receding objects 0 O O Perspective I Linear perspective one point and multiple points I Atmospheric Perspective Principles of Design 0 Unity and Variety 0 Unity a sense of oneness ofthings belonging together and making up a coherent whole 0 Variety difference which provides interest 0 Balance 0 Symmetrical Balance implied center of gravity is the vertical axis 0 Asymmetrical Balance has 2 sides that do not match up 0 Emphasis and Subordination o Placement used for emphasis o Subordination to allow things to not interfere with the emphasis 0 Proportion and Scale 0 Scale size in relation to a standard or quotnormalquot size 0 Proportion size relationship between parts of a whole o Rhythm 0 Based in repetition Jackson Pollaock Simmering Substance 1946 Embodies the principles of design Georgia O Keeffe 1936 Deer s Skull With Pedernal Materials to Draw on o Cave Walls 0 Fired Clay 0 Silk 0 Paper Papyrus and Parchment Materials to Draw With media 0 Pigment powdered coloring material 0 Binder substance to enable the pigment to adhere to a surface 0 Dry Media Pencil graphitelead pencil Metalpoint Silverpoint uses a natural metal as the pencil s core thin wire 0 o o Charcoal o Chalk pastel o Crayon contains fatty greasy material to hold the color together 0 Liquid Media 0 Pen and Ink Rapidograph 0 Brush and Ink I Permanent Chinese one stroke technique 0 Painting I Paint pigment mediumbinder I Support canvas paper wood panel wall silk etc I Ground Primer a preliminary coating not required I Types I Encaustic comes from Greek word that means quotburn in inherited from the Ancient Egyptian no oil pigment only wax and resin binder is the wax or resin does not damage support I Fresco type of painting made on wall painting on wet plaster done in sections because paint must be applied before plaster dries up I Tempera aqueous color retains not easy to blend dries quickly applicable to tough insoluble surface sometime on gesso I Oil blend very easily dries very slowly can harm paper and yellow or darken over time expensive 0 Types Glaze very smooth Grisaille glaze the whole area first base coat mpasto thick strokes Alla Prima spontaneously paint on white surface
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