Modern America- Week 2 notes- 9-7-15
Modern America- Week 2 notes- 9-7-15 Hist 12071
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Schmidt on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 12071 at Kent State University taught by Brenda Faverty in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Modern America in History at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Kayla Schmidt Modern History 9715 Chapter 17 This is an online class so the text book information is important Text Book REVEL for American Stories Volume 2 Access Card 3rd Edition H W Brands T H Breen R Hal Williams Ariela J Gross 2014 ISBN13 9780134082370 Chapter 17 171 What were the challenges of setting the country west of the Mississippi 172 How did white Americans crush the culture of the Native Americans as they moved west 173 Why did Americans and other move to the West 174 Why was the West a bonanza of dreams and getrichquick schemes Introduction Lean Bear s Changing West 1 863 0 Indians wanted peace but were a small in population compared to the whites 0 Lincoln accepted the agreement to keep peace with the IndiansLean Bear 0 Troops then attacked the Indians just as Lean Bear had thought would happen 0 After the Civil War in 1865 0 Americans wanted to expand o In doing so damaging the culture of the Native Americans 0 Ignoring minorities I Chinese miners I Mexican herdsmen 0 Creating borders and states while moving west 0 Including I Colorado I Washington I Montana I North Dakota I South Dakota I Idaho I Wyoming I Utah 0 1900 0 Arizona New Mexico and Oklahoma were the only territories Kayla Schmidt 0 1890s 0 Change from plateaus and buffalo to towns and cities 0 Plans for irrigated agriculture 171 Beyond the Frontier 0 1840 whites didn t settle past Missouri 0 The Rocky Mountains 0 From Alaska to New Mexico 0 The Great Plains o Treeless and tough soil 0 sea of grassy hillocks 172 Crushing the Native Americans 0 After the Civil War Native Americans settled in about 12 of the US 0 1880 0 Native Americans were forced into smaller territories and then eventually dominated by the whites about 10 years later 0 1865 0 250000 Native Americans lived in the west some tribes were located east but forced out by the whites These tribes include I Winnebago I Menominee I Cherokee I Chippewa 0 South westPueblo groups farmers and herders I Hopi I Zuni I Rio Grande o The J icarilla Apache and Navajo settled in Arizona New Mexico and Texas Camp dwellers I Navaj oherded sheep materialistic with silver 0 Presented Day California a civilization was made I Klamath I Chinook I Yurok I Shasta 0 These tribes were craftsmen in wooded materials 0 Houses and canoes l870s Tribes had been crushed I 1855 0 Ute gave up their Utah lands to the US 0 Forced to Great Salt Lake Kayla Schmidt I 1 865 1 873 0 Navajo and Apacheretaliated but lost and were compressed into smaller reservations I 1849 0 California tribes were defeated by contagious diseases that whites in icted during the Gold Rush I 1880 0 20000 Indians lived in California Life of the Plains Indians 0 MidNineteenth century 0 23 of the Native Americans lived on the Great Plains 0 Great Plain tribes included I Sioux Minnesota and South and North Dakota I Blackfoot Idaho and Montana I Cheyenne Crow and Arapaho Central Plains I Pawnee Nebraska I Kiowa Apache and Comanche Texas and New Mexico 0 1700s horses impacted Plains Indiansbrought from the Spanish in 1500s 0 Tribes gave up farming for hunting buffalo 0 Halcyon daysafter the men hunted and killed the buffalo the women would 0 Skin the hide and cut up the meat 0 Plains Indianslived in small bands 300500 0 Buffalo served as food clothing and shelter 0 Used every part of the buffalo unlike whites I Meat used for jerky I Skins tepees blankets and clothing I Bonesfor knives I Tendons for bowstrings I Horn and hoovesuse for glue I Dried manurefuel o Tasks were divided by gender I Menhunting and leader positions I Womenchildcare and creative artistic skills camp work 0 Political economic and religious activities I Navajo 0 Women in charge of property I Sioux 0 Women in charge of artistic ability 0 Before the civil war land west was one big reservation for the Indians 0 Indian Country 0 1834white people could not enter without a license 0 185 1 0 Federal government disregarded one big reservation creating boundaries 0 1850s Kayla Schmidt 0 Indians pushed out of Kansas and Nebraska 0 Whites used government system against the Indians 0 1859 0 Gold miners moved in Pikes Peak starting war with Cheyenne and Arapaho o 1864 o Cheyenne and Arapaho wanted peace moved to Sand Creek Colorado 700 people 0 November 291864 I Colorado military advanced 0 Colonel John M Chivington advanced command to attack them while they were sleeping 0 Chief Black Kettle tried to make peace by raising an American and white ag but that couldn t stop the white army I Angry protests soon followed 0 A treaty was placed for peace but they had to surrender their land 0 Great Sioux War 18651867 0 Chief Red Cloud ambushed an army in the woods and killed 82 soldiers lead by Captain William J Fetterman 0 The resolution of this war was a peace commission diverging Native American to distant lands to learn farming o Kiowa Comanche Cheyenne and Arapaho agreed in 1867 o Sioux agreed in 1868 o Ute Shoshone Bannock Navajo and Apache soon agreed 0 Black Hills Gold Rush 1875 o Sioux army consisted of 2500 warriors I Largest Indian army 0 Custer and his white army defeated but created dispute in news 0 Sioux surrendering in October 1876 Definitions 0 Ghost Dances o A religious movement that arose in the late nineteenth century under the prophet Wovoka a Paiute Indian Its followers believed that dances and rites would cause white men to disappear and restore lands to Native Americans The US government outlawed the Ghost dance and army intervention to stop them led to the Wounded Knee Massacre I Consequence the return of buffalo in great heards 0 Wounded Knee Massacre o In December 1890 troopers of the Seventh Cavalry under orders to stop the Ghost Dance religion among the Sioux took Chief Big Foot and his followers to a camp on Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota It is uncertain who fired the first shot but 200 Native Americans were killed 0 Dawes Severalty Act 0 Legislation passed by Congress in 1887 that aimed to break up traditional Indian life by promoting individual land ownership It divided tribal lands into small plots that were distributed among members of each tribe Provisions were made for education and Kayla Schmidt eventual citizenship The law led to corruption and exploitation and weakened tribal culture I 47 million acres given to Native Americans but they couldn t farm 173 Settlement of the West 0 18701900 0 Whites Africans Hispanics and Asians settled on 430milliom acres west of the Mississippi 0 Reasons to move west I Adventure I Healthreligious reasons I Mining I Farming Definitions 0 Gold Rush of 1849 o Prospectors made the rst gold strikes along the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California in 1849 touching off a mining boom that set the pattern for subsequent strikes in other regions 0 Overland Trail 0 The route from the Mississippi Valley to the Paci c coast in the last half of the nineteenth century 0 Leading west500000 people 0 2000 miles 0 Different tasks depending on gender on the trail 0 Menhunting guard duty and transportation 0 Children fueled fires and got water 0 Womenprepared food 0 First trail of journey was fairly easy 0 In Fort Kearney by May 0 Second portion hard due to harsh heat300 miles from Platte River to Fort Laramie 0 South pass I Mormon settlements 0 340 miles north to Fort Hall Idaho 0 3 months to cover the remaining 800 miles of the trail 0 California travelers went along the Humboldt River 0 55 mile desert o 70 miles slopes of Sierra Nevada 0 100 miles down California s Central Valley slopes 0 1860s Uncle Sam owned 1 billion acres of land 1900 land laws took half of it o 1862 and 1890 government gave away 48 million acres to farmers I 100 acres million to corporations I 128 million acres to railroad companies 0 Homestead Act of 1862 O Kayla Schmidt I Legislation granting 160 acres to anyone who paid a 10 fee and pledged to live on and cultivate the land for five years Between 1862 and 1900 nearly 600000 families claimed homesteads under its provisions I Water became a primary issue 0 Receiving only 20 inches of rainfall annually 0 National Reclamation Act Newlands Act I Passed in 1902 this legislation set aside most of the proceeds from the sale of public land in 16 western states to fund irrigation projects I hydraulic society 0 1890 23s of the homestead providers failed to farm their land 0 California I 1900 8086 Mexicans I 188014 Spanish speaking residents Los Angeles 174 The Bonanza West 0 Instant cities 0 In search for gold 0 Growing population in the West State 1860 1890 Montana NA 142924 Idaho NA 88548 Wyoming NA 62555 Colorado 34277 413249 New Mexico 93516 160282 Arizona NA 88243 Utah 40273 210779 Nevada 6857 47355 Washington 11594 357232 Oregon 52465 317704 California 379994 1213398 0 California Gold Rush of 1849 o Placer Mining I Mining that included using a shovel and washing pan to separate gold from the ore in streams and riverbeds Placer miners worked as individuals or in small groups 0 1859 Pikes Peak in Colorado and in the Carson River Valley Nevada spiked migrations I By June100000 miners o Comstock Lode I Discovered in 1859 near Virginia City Nevada this ore deposit was the richest discovery in the history of mining Named after TP Comstock the deposit produced silver and gold worth more than 306 million 0 1873 I John W Mackay and 3 helpers formed a company Kayla Schmidt 0 To dig 1167ft 0 They struck gold and silver more than 54 feet wide 0 Richest discovery 0 18591879 I Comstock Lode contributed 306 million dollars worth of gold and silver I Mainly went to financiers o 1860s1870s I Strikes were made in 0 Washington 0 Idaho 0 Nevada 0 Colorado 0 Montana 0 Arizona 0 Dakota 0 Black Hills Rush of 18741876 I Army tried to stop the invasion of miners I Colonel George Armstrong Custer found gold all over the hills 0 Democracy governed mining support groups I Petty crimes banishment I Serious crimeshung o Camps were mostly male I 1870men contributed more than women 21 ratio I Few children I Prostitutes followed camps I Between 14 and 12 of the population were foreigners 0 Chinese 0 Chileans o Peruvians o Mexicans 0 French 0 Germans 0 English I Most experiencedLatin Americans 0 1849 6000 Mexicans were in the California Rush 0 1852 25000 Chinese in California 0 1860s 13 of the miners were Chinese 0 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 0 Legislation passed in 1882 that excluded Chinese immigrants for ten years and denied US citizenship to Chinese nationals It was the first US exclusionary law aimed at a speci c racial group 0 For 10 years 0 1885cattle became open rangeTexas Panhandle and Canada 0 Issue transporting beef eastward 0 Joseph G McCoy I Livestock shipper Kayla Schmidt I 1867 he signed a contract with the Hannibal and St Joseph Railroad I September 1867 McCoy transported 20 cars of longhorn cattle to Chicago 0 December l867l000 carloads 0 l870300000 carloads o 1871700000 I Popular trailChisholm Texas to Kansas 1880 6 million cattle were taken up North 18 861887harsh winters 0 10000 of cattle died 0 Led to fenced farms 1900 38 million sheep west of the Missouri River Exodusters o A group of about 6000 African Americans who left Louisiana Mississippi and Texas in 1879 for freer lives as farmers or laborers in Kansas Well drillers charged 2 a foot Farmers couldn t afford wood so built sod houses 278 Summer110 degrees 1874Joseph F Glidden a Illinois Farmer invented barbed wire 1883 producing 600 miles of barbed wire a day National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry o Founded by Oliver H Kelly in 167 the Grange sought to relieve the drabness of farm life by providing a social educational and cultural outlet for its members It also set up grain elevators cooperative stores warehouses insurance companies and farm machinery factories 0 800000 members Turner s Thesis 0 Put forth by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 this thesis asserted that the existence of a frontier and its settlement had shaped American character given rise to individualism independence and selfconfidence and fostered the American spirit of invention and adaptation Later historians modified the thesis by pointing out the environmental and other consequences of frontier settlement the federal government s role in peopling the West and the clash of races and cultures that took place on the frontier