SLAV FOLKLORE SLAV 2100
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Armand Feeney IV on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SLAV 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Thomason in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see /class/202186/slav-2100-university-of-georgia in Slavic Languages And Cultures at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
SLAV2100 Study guide for Test 1 1 Make that you understand and are able to explain the following concepts a Fquot 0 3 1 Zadruga Slavic communities were characterized by the presence of zadrugas jointfamilies homes of several brothers and their families The head of the zadruga under whose rule everyone lived was the eldest man father grandfather and the head woman called the house mother typically they grandfather s wife supervised the women s work and was able to mediate issues and approach the house father if necessary However she would never become head of the zadruga All males were ranked above women even the house mother the head would select a male heir This joint family was built around respect for the elderly The oldest son would find a wife from another family and bring her into his zadruga at which point she would be unable to leave even if he were to die Several families would often share the same house or hutthere were no personal belongings as everything was collective All activities were engaged in for the benefit of the zadruga as a whole Life expectancy was very short 33 years for women due mostly to the dangers of childbirth and 40 for men Rodu Rod is the god of kin and kinship the creator of the universe and of all living things He is said to rule over a kingdom of perpetual warmth to which migratory birds ew to spend the winter named Virii His female counterparts are known as Rozhanitsy and they are connected with birth and kinship and are responsible for protecting the family and the home They were also seen as the goddesses of fate Rod and the Rozhanitsy were honored with bloodless sacrifices only because they were purveyors of all good and this belief is seen today in the special care given to bread grain products sheaves of wheat and other grains He was ignored by many leaders Mother Damp Earth Mother Damp Earth or Mokosh is an entity that Slavs constantly pay respect to Bowing kissing the earth throwing handfuls of dirt into coffins and other related rituals are believed to display reverence and ensure prosperity Images of MokoshMother Damp Earth are seen in rushnik a towel usually red healthy color that is used to decorate iconsthe icon comer Vampirism types Slavs acknowledged two types of vampires literary vampires such as Dracula that stem from Western tradition and folkloric vampires which are actual living beings and as much a part of the world as humans and spirits Signs of a vampire included being born with a caul a unibrow a double row of teeth leading an unusually long life and a string of D 9 rapid deathsillnesses in the same family Vampires that were not identi ed before death would rst attack their families as a punishment for not recognizing the signs and taking preventative measures There was a very speci c burial ritual for suspected vampires in order to keep the person from rising they would be buried at a crossroads facedown in a casket full of sand that had to be counted yearly and with a thorn or poppyseed placed in the mouth to prevent them from sucking the air out of people There would be a pebble under the tongue and their head would be cut off and placed in between the legs and thorns stakes made of aspen or hawthorne piercing the body Special care was taken to avoid stepping over the grave or having a bird or something y over it this might cancel out the protective measures and allow the vampire to rise If a dead person was suspected as a vampire they would be exhumed and a wellpreserved body with blood coming out of the mouth were incontrovertible proof Dvoeverie Dvoeverie or dual faith is said to characterize the religious view of Slavic peasants who believe in Christianity and are churchgoers while they simultaneously observe preChristian pagan practices for example avoiding sewing on Friday calling the wind and frost to supper on Christmas Eve etc It is widely used to label the coexistence of organized canonical religion and beliefs of pagan character Ved ma root to know There were two types one whose magic is passed down the female line and another who leam their craft through service to the Devil or inheriting powers from a dying ved ma or through apprenticeship Distinguishing characteristics could include a small furry tail two shadows or eyes that re ected the world upside down Southern ved my were thought to be young and seductive while northern ved my were thought to be old and ugly Ved ma may harm cows by stealing their milk or ruin harvests by stealing grain but only if they were retaliating against some lack of respect by the victim or were asked to do so by someone with malicious intent toward the person Koldun root the knowing one Carried out negative magic in the beliefs of Northern Slavs Some believed to be of supernatural origin consorts with the devil unlucky acquired skill from dying wizard etc Could travel between the worldsconnection with Veles God of wisdom death and the underworld Known to undertake an unholy journey through animals as part of their magic initiation which was connected with the sanctity of animals and again Veles who was also the god of cattle Like ved ma koldun could be both good and or bad They were treated with great awareness of their power Invulnerable to injury Respectable appearances unusual eyes unibrow no eyelashes squinting Often invited to weddings as an honored guest to warn off evil h For cha spoiling harm evil eye a vague but tangible entity that could be swallowed picked up or touched like a contagious disease It could be sent by both ved ma and koldun Known as a possible magical cause for disease porcha could result in temporary or chronic physicalmental illness such as menstrual irregularity to blindness or deafness It could result from angering a local wizard who could be hired to heX enemies Most commonly sent by wind by water by a curse or by contaminating the victim s food or drink b l Pysanka Pysanky are eggs decorated either using the batik technique or by dying the egg and scratching it back to white leaving an intricate design shkriabanka Eggs are dipped in waX and set with beads Drawings symbolized insurance of fecundity of farm animals a good crop yield and human health and prosperity Now they are objects of art and symbolize ethnic identity and serve as tokens of national pride Some ethnic groups give them as wedding or Christmas gifts rather than associate them with Easer such as Ukrainian Canadians who make clocks from plasterfilled pysanky cut in half and each used to mark a different hour of the day j Malanka Malanka is a popular form of Christmas theater that allows merriment and political commentary Costumes allude to prominent contemporary figures mixed with the traditional outfits representing death winter the infant New Year etc 2 Be able to talk about a Various theories about the origin of Slavs and the source for the term Slav Theories about the origin of Slavs are based on evidence of outsiders people who came into contact with people who said they were coming from a certain region Different theories arise from the desire of certain areas to claim they were the origin of Slavs so there really is no single accurate chronicle There are five main theories about their origin 1 Slavs lived between the Dnieper and the Visla from the 5th century 2 Slavs lived between the Dnieper and the OderOdra 3 Slavs lived between the Visla and the Oder and pushed further south and east 4 Slavs lived in the upper region near the Dnieper 5 Slavs lived in the Danube Valley south of the Ca1pathians The are also various theories about the origin of the term slav Some derive the word from slovo or word and believe that the Slavs saw themselves as those who spoke correctly and others as those who do not that they distinguished themselves by perceived intelligibility Other origins include slava meaning Fquot glory or worship suggests that Slavs saw themselves as those who worshipped correctly or slobo meaning freedom The pantheon of gods established by Prince Vladimir and other gods not included into this pantheon names attributes functions Vladimir realized in the 10th century that religion had the power to stabilize and control the social structure and he looked to Christianity forcing people to convert or die He posited a system of 10 higherorder gods Perun Perun is the most important god He was favored by noblemen because they identified with his position of power His symbols include the hammer hill oak tree military equipmentweapons eagle thunderlightning He functions as the master of war Khors Khors is connected with the sun His symbols include the horse who brings the light dogs disc circle with sun rays He functions to ensure to circle of life Dazhbog Dazhbog is connected with sunlight warmth wealth and heat His symbols include gold silver lions christ healing blessing protection of harvest and plenty Stribog Stribog made Slavs uncertain and they did not like to mention him He is the god of winds change and storms Simargl Simargl is possibly the earliest god He has animal features like a dog or griffin or wolf with wings and is found on many city coats of arms and in churches He is the protector of seedsharvest Mokosh Mokosh Mother Damp Earth is the only female god She is connected with fertility health spinning harvest worldbirth productivity and moisture Her symbols include water waves raindrops owers horse She functions as protector of childbirth Respect is shown to her by bowing or kissing the earth etc Her image is seen on rushnik a special usually red towel used to decorate iconsthe icon comer VelesVolos Veles is associated with the underworld His symbols include bears bulls domestic cows He is the god of death wisdom magic poetry There is a legend of a battle between Veles and Perun Rod Rod is the god of kin and kinship the creator of the universe and of all living things He is said to rule over a kingdom of perpetual warmth to which migratory birds ew to spend the winter named Virii His female counterparts are known as Rozhanitsy and they are connected with birth and kinship and are responsible for protecting the family and the home They were also seen as the goddesses of fate Rod and the Rozhanitsy were honored with bloodless sacrifices only because they were purveyors of all good and this belief is seen today in the special care given to bread grain products sheaves of wheat and other grains He was ignored by many leaders 0 3 1 Spirits ofthe Slavic world leshij vodj anoj rusalkavila upyr domovoj bannik kikimora their traits and rituals associated with them Rituals associated with Slavic lowerorder spiritsmythology are betterpreserved because Christian tradition did not attack them as zealously and because most of these rituals were performed at home behind closed doors As far as origins it was believed that gods were there always but spirits originated differently either through the souls of ancestors transitioning into a spirit existence or an inanimate object becoming inhabited by something animate Vodjanoj water spirit Vodjanoj is known to live in riverslakes People would keep him happy by sacri cing the rst sh in their catch or by asking permission of the shing saints to disturb the water Rusallm Vila Rusalki were females who had drowned killed themselves due to unfortunate love stories or children who had died before being baptized They are sometimes depicted as mermaids other times as old women but are always dangerous to men They can leave the water in order to reel in their victim and possibly tickle him to death Leshij Leshij is a spirit of the forest that has animalistic features and serves to protect and defend forest life plants animals etc Those entering the forest must ask his permission or pay their respects by leaving alone the rst tree they nd and cutting down the second and it is considered respectful to avoid unnecessary chatter while in the forest in order to avoid disturbing Leshij DomovoiPechnik Domovoi are believed to be a collective image of ancestors and are often described as just sounds or shades They can live under the oven or under the threshold which is why no dealings should take place over a threshold They are annoyed by whistling and will retaliate by making the money in a house disappear Sleeping on one s side will leave the domovoi space using his favorite colors in decoration and leaving old shoes for his clothing and leaving out breadkasha will keep the domovoi happy and keep the house from burning down KikimoraShisimora Kikimora is a houseforest spirit that mostly just giggles and is very mischievous and playful Bannika Bannika is a spirit of the banya which is dirty and therefore built at a distance from the house He doesn t like people and considers them an invasion of his privacy he does not share Social structure ofSlavs hierarchy positions and duties ofmen and women notion of ownership etc Males always outranked females There was no concept of personal ownership everything was collective The oldest man father or grandfather was in charge of the family and responsible for ensuring that his daughters had done everything necessary to be good wives and marrying them off D Slavic rituals life cycle birth marriage death and calendar Christmas Easter Kupalo all life cycle rituals should be evidenced widelyparticipation of entire settlement Birth Due to high death rates of both mother and child birth was a taboo subject Children were baptized ASAP Godparents are very importantthey must be a married person and if a godparent was not prearranged the first person seen automatically becomes the godparent Midwives were the most experienced usually older women Pregnant women are told to live their life normally and everyone acts like nothing is happening for fear of loss of the childat most she will only tell the father and even he will ignore the birth For the first 23 months after the birth everyone ignores the baby Presents are usually food Only the mother is allowed to make clothes for the child and they are very plain with no decorations aiming to avoid too much symbolism Marriage Matches were arranged by the heads of zadrugas but formal courtship did exist Courtship parties would take place in the evening usually at the rented house of a widow with food However these gatherings had practically no in uence on the actual marriage which was dependent on what was best for the zadruga Representatives from the zadruga would visit the house of the bride for a talk but give no hint of the wedding in order to avoid bad luck They would often use trade language or cloak the discussion of the match in a conversation about the transfer of livestock Next the parents of the potential couple would meet and make the official agreementhere the bride and groom may or may not be present The actual wedding would follow soon after and the bride groom may not even receive much warning The wedding must be evidenced as much as possible Zadruga of the bride would provide foodpresents Only wives could make the clothing for their husbands Weddings would often have an official witnessan unwed close friend responsible for making sure rituals went properly Proof of the consummation of marriage bloody sheets was necessary Weddings would often last for two days Death Preparation for death starts during life Clothing for burial should begin to be prepared after one reaches approx thirty years of age After death the body usually remains in the house for up to 3 days in a coffin on a table under the icon comer The body will be cleanedwashed by postmenopausal women and a representative from the church will read prayers during the 3 day period On the day of the funeral meals are prepared family of the dead is expected to provide food for whoever wishes it and there is a walking funeral procession which aims to make three stops at crossroads in order to confuse the spirit Ifyou re not a part of the procession it s forbidden to view it from a windowespecially children and often the whole village will simply take part in order to avoid errors Handfuls of dirk are thrown into the coffin so that the deceased will have Mokosh s blessing There is a postburial celebration and subsequent celebrations many days afterwardthe next morning the family of the deceased must return to the grave with breakfast and visit again on the 3rd 7th 9th and 40th days after death with food as well Graves were also cared for on holidayswanted to ensure a strong link between generations Christmas Christmas is an example of the duality of faith It is celebrated from December 25 to January 13 in order to accommodate both calendars Trees or branches if you live in the city are very common Pagan beliefs state that during this time spirits have more timefreedom to wander and can communicate with animals and a human who eavesdrops on such a conversation will experience misfortunethe spirt and the animal will purposely discuss the human s death For young people it was not uncommon to dress up as animals especially goats and go caroling or watchparticipate in a puppet show Easter Kupalo During the summer solstice the focus is on ensuring a good harvest The Ivan holiday Kupalo is connected with water and fire and it is thus important to have both represented in celebrations and the image of the birch tree which is considered very spiritual and connected with the good spiritsancestors who live in the tree Young girls will decorate a birch tree bring gifts of food and play games such as braiding the branches and naming a wish that they would like to come true Different regions have different holidays however Eastern Slavs Serbians celebrate Slava which is the day of the family s chosen saint and protector Types and examples of magic acts role ofkoldun and ved ma in the lives of Slavs Slavs believe that natural supernatural beings coexist and are interdependent If something bad happens it s your own fault There is no widespread horror or fear of magic There are two types of sorcerers those whose magic is passed down mostly through the female line those whose power is gained through serving the Devil and those who receive their power from a dying koldunved ma or undertake a lengthy apprenticeship They can be identified by eyes that re ect things upside down having two shadows atail a unibrow andor a long life It is easier to identify the females than the males Koldunved ma can shapeshift often into magpies so magpies make Slavs wary symbolize hidden enemies or one who speaks too much Whistling is considered a language of magic used by sorcerers to communicate with spirits It is seen as an imitation of the odd noises associated with spirits and can result in harm such as spoiled harvests cows who can t give milk etc Magic acts do not have to be performed on contactthey can be done from a distance and the sorcerer may either act of their own accord or on behalf of someone else The hiring out of a sorcerer involved a formal agreementthe SLAV 2100 Test 1 Study Guide Zadruga Slavic joint families eldest man father or grandfather was head of household and would select his always male successor house mother wife of eldest man supervised women s work and served as mediator when necessary males gt females no personal belongingseverything wa collective common effort to benefit zadruga as a whole short life expectancy 30 for men 40 for women Vampirism Two types are Literary vamps from Western tradition Dracula Folkloric vamps actual living beings as real as humans and spirits Signs are caul unibrow double row of teeth are unusually long life are rapid deathsillnesses in same family Vampires not identified before death would first attack their families as punishment for not recognizing the signs Vampirism Burial Rituals Crossroads Facedown Sand filled casket that must be counted yearly Thorn or poppyseed in mouth so they can t suck the air out of people Pebble under tongue Head cut off and placed between legs Thornsstakes make of aspen or hawthorne piercing the body Special care taken to avoid stepping over the grave which could cancel out protections and allow vamp to rise Dead suspect would be exhumed Wellpreserved body or blood coming from lips was good proof Dvoeverie double faith are belief in Christianity coupled with simultaneous observance of pre Christian pagan practices are used to label coexistence of organized canonical religion and beliefs of pagan character Porch a spoiling most often of someone s health harm evil eye used to account forexplain sudden illness headaches pain vague but tangible entity that could be swallowed picked up or touched can be sent by both ved ma and koldun can result in temporary or chronic physical or mental illness like menstrual irregularity blindness or deafness most commonly sent by wind water curse or contaminating the victim s fooddrink must find the person who wanted the porcha sent and present the source to a healer for help and treatment decorated with batik technique or dyeing egg and scratching it back to white in an intricate design shkriabanka eggs are dipped in wax and set with beads drawings symbolized insurance of fecundity of arm animals good crop yield and human health and prosperity objects of art symbols of ethnic identity tokens of national pride Ukrainian Canadians make them into clocks and give them as Christmas or wedding gifts Malanka popular form of Christmas theater allows merriment and political commentary costumes allude to prominent contemporary figures also incorporates traditional outfits representing death winter the infant New Year etc The origin of Slavs are theories based on evidence of outsiders are different areas want to claim they were the origin of slavs gt different theories are Five main origin theoriesSlavs lived between either if I l r quot f key quot1quot 1 Denmark 8 i i a Sweden A i Dnieper and Visla Dnieper and OderOdra i Gym 1 Budnpusi Hungary Visla and Oder Upper Dnieper region Danube valley south of Carpathians Origin of the term Slav slovo or word Slavs saw themselves as those who spoke correctly and others as those who did not are distinguished themselves by perceived intelligibility slava or glory or worship Slavs were those who worshipped correctly slobo or freedom allE alllE Vladimir and the Slavic Gods 10th century Vladimir realized religion had power to stabilize and control social structure Looked to Christianity forcing people to convert or die posited a system of 10 higherorder gods Slavic Gods Perun most important god favored by noblemen who identified with his position of power symbols hammer hill oak tree military equipmentweapons eagle thunderlightning function master of war Slavic Gods Khors all connected with the sun are symbols horse who brings the light dogs disc circle with sun rays are function ensures circle of life Slavic Gods are connected with sunlight warmth wealth and heat are symbols gold silver lions christ healing blessing protection of harvest and plenty Kmmm Hamming B Dazh bog Slavic Gods Stribog axe made Slavs uncertain they did not like to mention him ilk god of winds change and storms Slavic Gods Simargl possibly the earliest god has animal features dog or griffin or wolf with wings is found on many city coats of armschurches function protector of seedsharvest Slavic Gods Mokosh Mother Damp Earth only female god connected with fertility health spinning harvest workbirth productivity moisture symbols water waves raindrops flowers horse function protector of childbirth 43133311 4 a t x A l Id at 2 A 85 can show respect to her by bowingkissing the earth etc ER seen on rushnik a special usually red towel used to decorate the icon corner Slavic Gods Veles an associated with the underworld sis connected with koldun site symbols bears bulls domestic cattle site function god of death wisdom magic poetry cattle Slavic Gods Rod ignored by many leaders said to rule over Virii a kingdom of perpetual warmth to which migratory birds flew for the winter female counterparts rozhanitsy connected with birth and kinship and responsible for protecting the family and the home goddesses of fate honored with only bloodless sacrifices purveyor of all good and this is seen today in the special care given to breadgrain products sheaves of wheat etc function god of kin and kinship creator of universe and all living things Ved ma root to know distinguishing characteristics tail two shadows eyes that reflected upside down two types as magic passed down female line are magic earned through service to the devil from a dying ved ma or through a lengthy apprenticeship could harm cows by stealing grain or harvests by stealing wheat would either retaliate against someone for lack of respect or act on behalf of someone with malicious intent toward another Koldun root the knowing one carried out negative magic in beliefs of Northern Slavs could travel between worldconnected with Veles known to take an unholy journey through the mouth of animals as part of their magic initiation connected with sanctity of animals and Veles also god of cattle could be both good andor bad treated with great awareness of their power invulnerable to injury respectable appearances unusual eyes unibrow no eyelashes squinting often invited to weddings as an honored guest to warn off evil Spirits of the Slavic World as rituals associated with Slavic lowerorder spirits are better preserved are Christian tradition did not attack them as zealously are these rituals were performed at home behind closed doors are spirits were believed to originate from the soul of an ancestor transitioning into a spirit existence or from an inanimate object becoming inhabited by something animate Slavic Spirits Vodjanoj water spirit known to live in riverslakes people would keep him happy by returning the first fish of their catch or asking permission from the fishing saints to disturb the water Slavic Spirits Rslaila Iii391 9 I are females who had drowned killed themselves due to unfortunate love stories or children who died before being baptized are depicted as beautiful mermaids or ugly old women are dangerous to men are leave water to reel in their victim and possibly tickle him to death Slavic Spirits Leshij forest spirit animalistic features serves to protect and defend forest life plants animals etc must ask his permission to enter forest or leave first tree found and cut second considered respectful to avoid unnecessary chatter in forest so leshij will not be disturbed avic Spirits Domovoi believed to be collective image of ancestors often described as just a sound or a shade can live under oven or threshold which is why no dealings should take place over head of domovoi annoyed by whistlingwil make money in the house disappear sleeping on one s side will leave the domovoi space ways to keep him happyprevent house from burning down are use his favorite colors in decoration ails leave out old shoes for his clothing ale leave out breadkasha Slavic Spirits axe houseforest spirit ans mischievous giggling thing Kikimora Life Cycle Rituals Birth taboo subject due to high death rates for motherbaby children baptized ASAP godparents very important usually a married person but if one was not arranged the rst person seen would become the godparent midwives were the most experienced usually older women pregnant women told to live lives normally everyone acts like nothing is happening for fear of the loss of the child at most she will only tell the father and ever he will ignore the birth 39for first 23 months after birth everyone ignores the baby only the mother is allowed to make clothes far the baby very plain no decoration wanting to avoid too much symbolism presents are usually food What is Folklore Friday January 14 2011 1007 PM A Has to define the nationalityidentity a B Slavic a b C d Oral i Easily forgotten 39i Must be passed frequently ii39 Make changes 1 To fix the context time place audience Politics i The political power uses what is in the tales and creates a base for political stance ii Very effective Globalization i Positive unification ii Negative lose traditions and beliefs 1 Can be 5050 or total loss What does Slavic mean i Slovo 39word39 people who speak your language ii Nemets 39not39 39understand39 German iii Slovo 39word39 iv Slobo 39freedom39 1 Ironic because they had no freedom Early 19th century i Grimm39s Brothers 1 Collected all the stories Who are they where are they from i Slavs did not exist until 500 AD ii 2 regions above the Black Sea 1 Southern Belarus 2 Northern Ukraine iii Slavs do not have their own chronicles 1 Earliest chronicle is 1111 AD 2 Evidence of existence a Place names burial types language Who talks about Slavs i Romanians ii Ukrainians iii Germanic Tribes 1 Pushed the Slavs from the west with constant attacking iv Tartars 1 Pushed from the South v Hungarians 1 Pushed from the east C Slav Locations 5 theories a b Rivers i Dnieper ii Vistla iii Oder iv Danube 4 camps Slav origins Slavic Folklore Page 1
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