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by: Conrad Pfeffer


Conrad Pfeffer
GPA 3.58


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Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1111 at University of Georgia taught by Grundstein in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see /class/202196/geog-1111-university-of-georgia in Geography at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Geography 1111 Lab Extra Credit Exam Questions Who Any student that wishes to try toeam upto 5 additional percentage points on the nal exam That is half of a letter grade When Deadline is November 16111 at 2pm WhereEmail word doc to Richard ravercoeugaedu What Write upto 5 exam questions that are of an appropriate level of quality and dif culty for potential use as practice questions or in the nal exam The format and style must follow that used on the midterm exam see example questions included below Each question must be based on material from a different labthat we did during the second half ofthe semester lab exercises 56 8 10 12 13 amp 20In other words you cannot use the same lab for more than one question Credit will only be given if the question is considered as having both exam worthy quality and content by the lab instructor This means that you will need to spend some time and thought crafting high quality material You are encouraged to include charts tables illustrations and images when appropriate to best re ect exercises and information practiced in lab Most images can be easily found on the intemet give credit and include references site addresses etc Highlight the r Why This assignment is intended to aid you in studying and learning the material in preparation for the nal exam and for your personal knowledge later in life Examples 1 Aindicates how many units on the earth s surface is equal to one unit on a map SJ b Written scale c Graphic Scale d Verbal Scale e B and D UGA 11 1 File Title Read 123 and 4054 Introduction 1 Earth Systems Concepts a Systems theory Open Systems Closed systems System feedback System equilibrium We hear it a lot 1 Weather systems 1 Hurricanes 2 Midlatitude cyclones ii AC iii Plumbing iv River Wop057 H Systems a Set of interrelated components that exchange things 1 Physical systems exchange energy and matter b Energy the ability to accomplish work c Matter stuff substances made up of molecules and atoms HI Open system a Most natural systems not self contained b Inputs of energy and matter ow into and out of the system c Earth is an open system in terms of energy 1 Solar energy enters and heat energy leaves d Things came come in and go out the other side IV Closed system a Shut off from surroundings b Earth is a closed system for physical matter c Everything is self contained V Equilibrium inputs outputs a Not in eq climate change 7 more energy going into the system than coming out 7 no longer in eq 7 temps change over time b Natural systems try to maintain it VI Feedback outcome of an event acts to in uence the system the output feeds back as an inpu a Positive feedback outcome reinforces the process spirals it up promotes change DESTABILIZING 1 Water is good at absorbing energy heat trapping gas 7 water vapor means more energy is trapped in like a blanket 7that means its warmer 7 that makes it walmer b Negative feedback outcome cancels out the process resists change STABILIZING 1 Water vapor feedback 7 walmer holds more water vapor 7 means more clouds and that leads to increased albedo because of re ection 7 if it UGA 11 File Title re ects more sunlight it doesn t get to the surface 7 less energy to the sun leads to cooling VII Four spheres to model the earth system a Atmosphere b Hydrosphere c Lithosphere d Biosphere VIH Location and time on earth a Latitude 7 horizontal i Slightly fatter going horizontally than vertically 7 bulges at the equator 7 26 miles wider at the equator Position north or south of equator 39 Ranges 0 degrees at the equator to 90 degress north or S at the North or E E South Pole iv Other important latitudes 1 Equator at 0 2 Tropic of Cancer 23 12 degrees N 3 Arctic Circle 66 12 degrees N 4 Tropic of Capricorn 23 12 S 5 Antarctic Circle 66 12 degrees S b Longitude 7 vertical i Position east or west of Prime Meridian ii Ranges 0 to 180 degrees east or west i Prime Meridian is an arbitrary reference point 0 degrees longitude 7 Greenwich England International Date Line is 180 degrees 0 Prime Meridian and standard time IX GPS systems a Identify your latitude longitude and elevation i i lt EarthSun 39 quot 39 39 I Milky Way Galaxy H Sun a Major sources of earth s energy b Fusion of hydrogen atoms in the core c Earthsun relationships affect amount of energy received d Consider the temperature range in Athens i 80 in July and 40 in January 7 the difference would be smaller closer to the equator HI Earth Sun relationships 21 What does the earth do i Rotates on its axis 1 Causes daily diurnal rhythms 2 Affects winds and ocean currents a Coriolis force 3 Affects tides of large water bodies UGA 11 3 File Title ii Revolution about the Sun 1 Movement of earth around sun 2 Elliptical orbit 7 not perfectly circular quot Closer to the sun 7 Perihelion 7jan 3rd b Farther from the sun 7 Aphelion 7 July 3rd 3 365 1A days to orbit 21 Tropical Year 4 How would being farther from the sun result in it being hotter a Distance from the sun isn t the dominant factor in temperature changes b Summer vs winter i Location of the sun 7 how direct the suns rays are iii Axial Tilt 1 Explains the key differences between summer and winter 2 Earth is tilter at 23 12 degrees from the vertical 3 Through the year it affects a Angle sunlight strikes the earth b Amount of atmosphere the sunlight passes through 0 Amount of daylight hours 4 Solar angle 7 90 degrres vertical is when it is most intense 7 low solar angle is at 0 and least intense 21 Beam spreading explains this 7 in the summer the suns rays are more direct and intense and inthe winter they are distributed over a larger area b Beam depletion 7the atmosphere can absorb and re ect sun light c The more atmosphere the more absorption and re ection gt weaker sunlight iv Period of daylight 1 The amount of daylight hours changes a Longer days in the summer b Shorter in the winter 2 More daylight hours gt more energy a Longer days gt hot summers 3 Why do the daylight hours change a It has to do with the circle of illumination i Dividing line between night and day on the earth b It bisects the earth unequally v Seasons 1 Start of different seasons are the location of the earth that receive direct overhead rays 7 at equator is the start of our fall or spring 2 Summer 7 northern hempsphere tilted towards the sun 21 Equinox 7 equal day and night 7 not tilted towards or away from the sun 7 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night Winter 7 northern hemisphere tilted away from the sun Summer Solstice 7 June 2122 7 incoming solar energy greatest in Northern hemisphere 5 Autumnal Equinox 7 Sept 2223 7 incoming solar enrgy equal in PE UGA 11 4 File Title both hemispheres 7 temps hotter in Sept because there is a seasonal lag 7 it takes more time for the earth to cool down from summer to fall 6 Winter Solstice 7 Dec 2122 7 incoming solar energy greatest in southern hemimpshere 7 Vernal Equinox 7 Mar 2122 7 incoming solar energy equal in both hemispheres Pgs 6078 1 Our Present Atmosphere a Permanent Gases 7 same concentration of gases around the earth 7 don t vary over space and time i Nitrogen 7 78 ii Oxygen 7 21 b Variable Gases 7 important in terms of weather and climate 7 change over time and change over place to place 7 make up less than 1 of the atmosphere but play the dominant role in our weather and climate 1 Water vapor 1 Most abundant variable gas a 04 by volume 2 Hydrologic cycle a Clouds precipitation rain and snow 7 cycling of water 3 Energy balance a It s a greenhouse gas 7 in uences the exchange of energy between the earth and atmosphere ii Carbon dioxide 1 Small part of the atmosphere a 039 in 2011 b Parts Per Million ppm or 391 ppm 2 Supplied by a Plant and animal respiration b Decay of organic material c Volcanic eruptions d Burning of fossil fuels 3 Greenhouse gas and its increasing 4 Seasonal cycle 7 more plants leads to change in C02 5 Take measurements in Mauna Loa Hawaii 7 get them from ice cores iii Methane 1 Small proportion of the atmosphere 01 ppm or 17 ppb 2 Emitted a Domesticated cattle b As a byproduct of rice cultivation 0 Gas pipelines 3 More ef cient at trapping energy heat 7 greenhouse gas iv Ozone UGA 11 File Title C 1 In upper atmosphere stratosphere 7 O3 2 Absorbs lethal UV radiation from the sun 3 Ozone hole 4 Pollutant at the surface 5 CFCs break up ozone gt hole 6 Depletion consequences 21 Increased skin cancer b Increased cataracts 0 Increased immune system problems d Crop reduction effects on biosphere 7 Hole Remedies a Montreal Protocol 1987 7 international agreement to slowstop release of CFCs b CFC production has virtually ceased sinces early 1990s 0 But it will take 50100 years to reverse ozone depletion because chlorine molecules are very stable 8 Aerosols a Small solid particles and liquid droplets b From human and natural processes 0 Reduces visibility d Helps in cloud formation 7 surface for water to latch onto 7 pm causes health problems 7 fed government establishing thresholds v Particles vi CFCs Anthropogenic Pollution 1 Human caused air pollution ii Mainly from combustion of fossil fuels 1 Carbon monoxide 2 Nitrogen oxides 3 VOCs 7volatile organic compounds iii Photochemical smog 1 Pollutant gases nitrogen oxide and VOCs sunlight a Ozone 7 human health danger b PAN 7 bad for plants 11 Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere a b 0 P F Defme these levels based on changes in temperatures Lapse rate 7 change in temperature with height 7 when it increases termperature with height its an inversion In between each layer we have transition zones 7 tropopause stratopause mesopause Troposphere 1 Most of life on the planet exists and our weather takes place ii Temperatures decrease with height Stratosphere i Temps increase with height 7 inversion ii Concentration of ozone 7 ozone layer 7 forms here because there is aperfect balance between solar energy and air that provides the source UGA 11 File Title f Mesosphere i Temps decrease with height g Thermosphere i Temps increase with height h Temperature inversion 7 inversion under the surface leads to concentration 111 Atmospheric Pressure a Pressure force exterted by the atmosphere on a certain area b At sea level approx 15 lbsin 0 Density and atmospheric pressure 7 density massvolume Energy in the Earth e System 1 Energy a Energy is the ability to do work on some type of matter b Work is done on matter when it is pushed pulled or lifted 11 Energy Transfer Mechanisms a Conduction i Molecule to molecule transfers of energy 1 Most important near the surface ground b Convection i Convection rising and sinking air ie vertical motions ii Advection horizontally moving air wind iii Can transfer two types of energy 1 Sensible heat 7 heat that you can feel 2 Latent heat 7 hidden iv Transfers by mass movement of some uid v Important with uids 0 Radiation i Everything emits radiation ii Doesn t need some medium to move 1 Can travel through space 39 Consists of electromagnetic waves Different because it doesn t need something to ow through Describe radiation by wavelength 7 distance between two peaks 7 de nes the type of radiation it is 1 Long waves or short wavelengths with short distances 39 Wavelengths are small 1 Length described using micro meter a One millionth of a meter 2 Visible light 5 mm 3 Letter in textbook 2000 mm vii The amount and peak intensity may differ 111 The Electromagnetic Spectrum a Gamma Rays shorter b X Rays 0 Ultra Violet d e lt 2E S Visible Infrared UGA 11 7 File Title f Thermal Infrared g Microwave h Radio longer 1V We re focusing on a Ultraviolet b Visible 0 Near Infrared d Thermal Infrared V Radiation Laws 21 StefanBoltzmann law 7 the hotter an object the more radiation it emits b Wein s Law 7the hotter an object the shorter the wavelength of maximum intensity V1 Intensity and Wavelength Emitted 7 Earth and Sun a Solar shortwave radiation 1 Incoming solar radiation or insolation ji There are minor variations in solar output iii Sunspots 1 Greater number of sunspots brighter sun 2 Solar variation 71 3 Cycle 11 years iv Solar constant 1 The average amount of insolation at the top of the atmosphere at the mean EarthSun distance 2 Its about 1372 W m squared b Atmospheric In uences on insolation i As solar radiation passes through the atmosphere things happen to it ART 1 Absorbed 2 Re ected or Scattered 3 Transmitted ii These affect radiation received at the surface 0 Absorption i The assimilation of radiation by molecules of matter and its conversion from one form of energy to another ii The temperature of the absorbing surface increases d Scattering i The process where small particles de ect radiation into different directions ii Gives us blue skies 1 Scattering by air molecules Rayleigh iii Scattering by dust and haze Mie e Re ection and Albedo 1 Turns it back the way it was coming from 7 higher albedo means a more re ective surface ji Earth s average albedo is 31 31 of the energy coming from the sun gets re ected away and can t do any work f Clouds and Forcing i Re ect incoming shortwave radiation 7 cooling effect UGA 11 8 File Title ii Warming effect 7trap in longwave radiation g Fate of solar radiation 39 Clouds re ect 19 25 absorbed by atmosphere 39 6 scattered away 5 re ected by ground Earth albedo is around 30 39 Atmosphere absorbs 25 Surface absorbs 45 V11 Longwave radiation 7 given off by the earth atmosphere system 21 Radiation spectrum emitted by the EarthAtmosphere system b Atmospheric gases are selective absorbers i Important effect on the energy balance 0 Selective Absorbers i Visible light can go through the atmosphere without being effected much ji Traps in longwave radiation 7 water vapor methane carbon dioxide 7 more of the earth s energy is getting trapped d Greenhouse Warming 1 Traps in sunlight longwave radiation ii Car example 7 wavelengths can t travel through the windows e Greenhouse Effect 1 Greenhouse gases 7 water vapor carbon dioxide methane 7 natural phenomenon ii The earth absorbs shortwave radiation and reemits some back to the surface as longwave 7 it prevents some of the energy from escaping back to space and keeps the earth warmer than it would be iii No greenhouse 18 degrees C 1 Greenhouse 15 degrees C f Venus amp runaway greenhouse effect 1 Surface temperature 480 C or 900 F ii Why so hot 1 97 of atmosphere is C02 2 Compared to 038 on earth V111 Energy Transpfer between the surface and atmosphere a The atmosphere and surface continually exchange energy 1 Much is by absorption and emission of radiation ii Convection can also be important b Global Energy Balance 39 Globally over the course of a year there is an energy balance incoming outgoing What could happen if this were not the case 39 Earth gets 45 units enrg on balance 7 gets rid of that through longwave radiation and convection 7 over a long time we have stable temperatures Imbalances 1 Over a day or season a Daily more sunlight coming in and the earth is giving off radiation b Outgoing earth energy and incoming solar energy 7 energy sslt2E E E 2 UGA 11 9 File Title surplus of incoming solar energy means a temperature increase 0 The ocean and atmosphere help redistribute energy through convection 7 ocean currents are warm and some are cold 7 equalizes the imbalances 2 From place to place Essential Global Temperatures 1 Temperature a Measure of the average speed of atoms and molecules b Higher temperature gt faster average speeds 11 Temperature Scales a Fahrenheit b Celsius 1 Used in other countries 7 goes to 0 to 100 at the boiling point 7relative 0 point 0 Kelvin 1 Used by scientists because it has an absolute bottom value 7 0 kelvin means that molecules have stopped d Conversions i F 18C 32 ii C F32 18 iii K C 273 111 Thermometer Basics 21 Liquidinglass 7 mercury or alcohol 1 As temp goes up the material will expand indicating the higher temperature 7 cold conditions will ll it with alcohol b ElectricalElectronic i Sends current through and resistance changes it ii Resistance varies with the temperature c MinMax Thermometers 1 Special thermometers that measure the daily temperature ji Stored in an instrument shelter 7 shades them from direct sunlight 1 5 feet above ground 2 Over a natural surface grass 3 Well ventilated 4 Shaded d Automated Surface Observing Station ASOS 1V Air Temperature and the Human Body 21 We use derived variables for assessing human comfort 1 Wind chill 1 Temperature and wind speed ii Heat index 1 Temperature and relative humidity UGA 11 File Title V Annual Temperature Cycle V1 Principal Temperature Controls 21 Latitude 39 Lower latitude small range of temperatures with higher temps Higher lat larger range of temperatures with colder temperatures Averaged over the course of the year 7 the avg temp near the equator is higher because there is more energy available i Decreases as you move toward the poles b Altitude Higher altitude lower temperatures ji More vegetation in the lower altitude areas iii Lapse rate 7 change in temperature with height Cloud Cover Largescale circulation patterns can in uence cloud cover and thus temperature 1 Eg the Asian Monsoon Clouds and Radiation 1 They re ect away sunlight 7 reduces the maX temp because it prevents sunlight from reaching the surface 1 i39 i lt i c i ii 2 They also are selective absorbers and absorb longwave radiation 7 at night cloudly conditions make it warmer 7 reemits it to the surface 3 Daily Temp Range 7 clear vs cloudy d Land and Water 1 Land tends to heat up and cool down more quickly than water 1 Less evaporation 7 lower latent heat 7 less water 7 energy goes into making it hot instead of evaporating water 2 Surface is opaque 7 energy gets absorbed by the ground and concentrated heat 3 Land has a lower speci c heat 7 how much energy it takes to raise the temp of an object 4 Land has no mixing between layers Water conditions are more moderate 7 water warms and cools slowly 1 Greater evaporation 7 higher latent heat ii 2 Surface is transparent 3 Higher speci c heat 7takes more energy to raise its temperature 7 gets distributed over a larger area 4 Water has mobility and mixes in vast ocean currents 7 distributes the warmer water with the cooler water iii San Francisco vs Wichita 1 a Water and in Humidity Ocean and Freshwater Distribution All water 7 9722 in the oceans 7 salt water i Fresh 278 most is locked in ice sheets and glaciers climate change we re worried about them melting that feeds into sea level rise ii Atmosphere is important for weather and climate 03 UGA 11 File Title 2 Hydrologic Cycle L V Lquot V O V l V V 21 Movement of water winting and between earth and the atmosphere b We ll focus on the vapor state Atmospheric Humdity a Humdiity 7 a generic term for the amount of water vapor water in a gas phase present in the air b Humidity Measures i Absolute Humidity 1 Mass of water vapor in air g volume of air m3 2 Vapor density 3 Meterologics don t like to use this 7 humidity value can change 7 works for scientists near the ground ii Speci c Humidity 1 Mass of water vapor in air g total mass of air kg iii Mixing Ratio 1 Mass of water vapor in air g mass of dry air kg Dew Point Temperature 21 Dew point temperature 7 the temperature to which the air must be cooled with no change in pressure or moisture content for saturation of the air to occur b Works like termpature 7 if its high there is a lot of moisture in the air 7 over 65 F is humid and uncomfortable Vapor Pressure 21 The amount of atmospheric pressure exerted by water vapor molecules Saturation a The maximum amount of water that can exist in the atmosphere as a vapor at a given temperature i Occurs when evaporation condensation b We can look at saturation values for each of the measures of atmospheric humidity i Saturation Vapor Pressure 1 The higher the temperature the higher the saturation value 2 Its not linear 7 bigger changes at higher temperatures 7 as it gets hotter the capacity for moisture increases a Hotter the air the more capacity it has for water vapor 3 If air has a lot of energy it has a lot of energy to keep water in the gas state ii Saturation Speci c Humidity iii Saturation Mixing Ratio c To get clouds or fog or dew the air needs to be brought to saturation 7 this can be done b y i Adding moisture ii Mixing cold air with warm air 1 See your breath on a cold day iii Lowering the temperature 1 Most important for cloud formation Relative Humidity 21 RH actual amount capacity i Find capacity using a graph b RH SHSSH 100 spec humidity saturation spec humidity OR vapor pressure saturation vapor pressure UGA11 12 File Title Ratio of how much actual moisture there is to how much there is at a maximum It DOES NOT uniquely determine the amount of water vapor i Analogy 7 fuel gauge in a car 7 tells you how close you are to being full at the saturation point Can be useful for showing how close to saturation f Thisnumber can change if i You add moisture to the air 7 increases the number ii Increases if the air temperature changes goes down Humidity Instruments Hair Hygrometer i Bundled strands of human hair are held tightly between two brackets 7 mechanism to sense tension form hair strands ii Rotating drum and graph paper on which relative humidity readings are traced Sling Psychrometer i Two thermometers 7 wick on the end dipped in water ii When swung water evaporates from the wick cooling the wetbulb thermometer 7 dryer air results in lower temperature Stability and Lifting Mechanisms 1 Atmospheric Processes 21 Processes like fog clouds and precripitation involve getting the air to saturation b This can be done by adding moisture or by cooling the air to lower the capacity i Diabatic 1 Energy is added or removed from a system 2 Examples a Boiling water b Air that passes over a warm cold surface gains loses energy 3 Important for fog but not clouds 4 Any situation where temperature would change without the addition or subtraction of energy 7 has to do with pressure 7 tire compression example Adiabatic 1 Processes in which temperature changes but no heat is added or removed from the substance 7 doesn t take away energy 2 Most important process for cloud formation 3 First Law of Thermodynamics a Heating work done change in internal energy i When you add energy to something you heat it could go into work or changing temperature ii Work done expansion or contraction iii Change in internal energy temperature change b In Adiabatic heating 0 because there is no heat added or removed i 0 work done change in internal energy ii 7work done change in internal energy iii If you do work if something expands that leads to a decrease in temperature 7 contraction leads to an increase in internal energy 8 12 V so V m 7 V H 2 Lapse Rates 21 Change in temperature change in height UGA11 13 File Title L V 4 V b Two different lapse rates i Air parcel 1 Dry adiabatic lapse rate DAR a Unsaturated parcel may still contain moisture b Constant value 10 deg C km 391 7 every time it goes up a km it goes down 10 degrees 2 Most adiabatic lapse rate MAR a Varies with temperature and moisture content 0 3 9 deg 0 km391 b Always cools more slowly that DAR 3 Environmental Lapse Rate ELR a Lapse rate of surrounding air b Observed temperature distribution 0 It varies both over time and space 4 Parcel cooler than surrounding air sinks back to the surface 0 Importance 7 how the balloon to air changes to surrounding atmosphere 7 lapse rate helps you calc the temp of the surrounding atmosphere i Surrounding atmosphere Lifting Mechanisms a Air can be forced up and cooled adiabatically to saturation b Convergent lifting i EX 7 winds move from high to low pressure areas 7they come together and they get forced upwards 7 causes a cloud ii Cross owing winds 7 FL peninsula 7 Atlantic and Gulf 7 come together and force uplift c Convectional lifting i Air becomes less dense when it heats and it rises d Orographic lifting i Related to mountains 7 when air comes in contact with mtns it can t go through it and goes upwards 7cools down and may reach a saturation point to form a cloud ii Windward and leeward sides of mtns 7 winward side is clouds and precip 7 leeward side air gets forced down and warms up and evaporates the water and is no longer a cloud 7 tends to be dry e Frontal lifting i Air masses 7two types of air come together 7 warmer air gets displaced upwards and oats on top of the colder air 7 cold front example ii Two different types of air Atmospheric Stability a n V The air s susceptibility to uplift is called static stability i Sometimes its easily displaced unstable ii Other times it resists lifting stable We can access stability by comparing the parcel and surrounding air temperatures i Something that s hotter has a lower density and will rise ii Higher density will be stable because it wants to go to its original spot Conditionally unstable i Depends on whether the parcel is saturated or not 1 Ifthe ELR is in between the DAR and MAR 5 Stability can change


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