INTRO WEATH & CLIM
INTRO WEATH & CLIM GEOG 1112
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1112 at University of Georgia taught by Grundstein in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/202197/geog-1112-university-of-georgia in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Introduction What is the difference between weather and climate Weather is day to day whereas climate is long term conditions and patterns How does it affect our lives Through traveling safety water supply food and health moods SAD mood disorder affected by weather conditions and economy buying behaviors Definitions Weather The condition of the atmosphere at any given place and time Climate A description of the average weather conditions Often defined by statistical weather info Average temp and total precipitation Concepts Latitude and Longitude Provides coordinate system Latitude the position north or south of the equator Longitude the position east or west of the Prime Meridian Latitude Ranges 0 at equator to 90 N or S at North or South Pole Other important latitudes Arctic Circle 665 N Tropic of Cancer 235 N Tropic of Capricorn 235 8 Antarctic Circle 665 8 Longitude Ranges from 0 to 180 E or W Prime Meridian is an arbitrary reference 0 Long Greenwich England lnternational Dateline is located at 180 Weather Maps Key weather map features Fronts High and Low pressure centers Station Model Fronts Associated with clouds and precipitation Changes in temperatures 7 1 Cold Front 2 Warm Front 3Stationary 4 Occluded DRAWIMAGES Tlligh and Low Pressure Centers High Pressure Centers H Clear Conditions Clockwise Winds Low Pressure Centers L Cloudy Conditions Precipitation Counter clockwise winds J Station Model EarthSun Relationships Earth s distance from the sun is important Sun Major source of Earth s Energy Fusion of hydrogen atoms in the core EarthSun relationships affect amount of energy that is received Temperature Range in Athens 80 in July 40 in January Nearer to the equator smaller range Higher Longitude larger range What does the Earth do 1 Rotates on Axis 2 Revolves around sun 3 Tilted on Axis i Earth s Rotation Causes daily diurnal rhythms Affects winds and ocean currents Coriolis Force Alters path of windsocean currents Affects tides of large water bodies ii Revolution Movement of Earth around Sun Eiptica orbit 365 14 days to orbit Tropical Year Summer v Winter Days are longer in summer more intense UV rays iii Axial Tilt 235 tilt always points towards the north star Throughout the year it affects a angle sunlight strikes earth b amount of atmosphere the sunlight passes through c amount of daylight hours III a Why do they always tell you skin burns worse in the middle of the day As sun gets higher around noon it is most intense It has to do with Beam Spreading If sun is directly overhead more intense angled less intense iii b BEAM DEPLETION The atmosphere can absorb and reflect sun light More Atmosphere more absorption and reflection weaker sunlight iii c PERIOD OF DAYLIGHT Amount of daylight hours change Longer days in the summer Shorter days in the winter More daylight hours Why do daylight hours change It has to do with the circle of illumination The dividing line between night and day It bisects the earth unequally S e a s o n s Solar Declination Latitude that receives direct overhead radiation from the sun Sep 21 a Fall Equinox Dec 21 Winter Solstice March 21 Spring Equinox June 21 Summer Solstice Summer Solstice Highertemperatures more direct rays 24 hours of daylight in the North Pole Snow and ice reflect sunlight Winter Solstice Equinoxes equal night exact periods of equal daytime and nighttime for every location on Earth Spring and Fall Spring and Fall equally warm It s colder in March We just came out of the Winter Solstice so the Earth is colder Lag Effect Takes some time for the Earth to warm up after winter and to cool down after summer Atmosphenc Compos1t1on How high is the sky We ll assume 100km 60ml ASL 99999997 of atmosphere below it Early Atmosphere Very Different Mostly hydrogen and helium Light gases Escaped to space or been lost as the earth Formation of Current Atmosphere TA Secondary Atmosphere As the earth cooled water vapor condensed into the oceans Raindrops helped remove Carbon Dioxide from the atmosphere Plants removed Carbon Dioxide and replaced it with oxygen As Carbon Dioxide and water vapor were removed it became enriched in Nitrogen Permanent Gases Consistent Constant Concentration Anywhere on earth is the same Composed of NITROGEN 78 and OXYGEN 21 Variable GasesaLess than 1 of atmosphere REALLY important distribution varies over time and space 1 Water Vapor Most abundant variable gas 04 by volume Hydrolic Cycle Clouds Precipitation rain and snow Energy Balance lt s a greenhouse gas Carbon Dioxide Small part of atmosphere 0038 Parts per million ppm 380ppm Supplied by Plant and animal respiration Decay of Organic Materials Volcanic eruptions Burning of fossil fuels Greenhouse gas and increasing Changing Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Measures through ice core It is accelerating in 20th Cent 3 Methane CH4 Small proportion of atmosphere 001 ppm or 17ppb Emitted domestic cattle as a byproduct of rice cultivation gas pipelines Has increased over years 4 Ozones 03 o In upper atmosphere stratosphere Absorbs lethal UV radiation from the sun I Ozone wall Pollutant at the surface Aerosols Small solid particles and liquid droplets From human and natural processes Reduces visibility Helps in cloud formation Vertical Structure lst Layer Troposphere extends 6 mi All weather occurs there Lapse rate change in temperature as you move up Tropopause Pause in temperature change lnversion Temperatures increase with height 2nd Layer Stratosphere 3rd Layer Mesosphere 4th Layer Thermosphere Atmospheric Pres sure Pressure force exerted by the Atmosphere on a certain are at sea level 15lbin Pressure decreases with height Density and Atmospheric pressure Density massvolume Measuring Pressure Barometer T Two major types Mercury Sealed Tube Anaroid Units of Measurements Inches of Mercury Common on home barometers Average 30in at sea level Millibar More commonly used in Meteorology Average 1013 mb at sea level Ranges 9601050mb What are the practical effects of vertical changes in pressure How baseballs travel Explains why your ears pop when flying Hard to breathe at high altitudes Boiling point of water changes Horizontal changes in air pressure drive winds Batters love Coors Field The ball travels further and more home runs occur Ideal Gas Law Check tire pressure before you drive gt Pressure goes up as temperature goes UP Flat spots in tires occur when the weather gets cold Changes in Temperature affect pressure density EQUATION OF STATE OR IDEAL GAS LAW Pressure Density Constant Temperature P7 pRT Energy in the Earth Atmosphere System Energy Ability to do work on matter Work is done on matter when it is pushed pulled or lifted Kinds of Energy Kinetic gt energy in use or in motion heatelectricity Potential gt energy that hasn t been used yet Another form of potential energy results from object s position Gasoline firewood battery Trans fer Mechanis rns Conduction gt Molecule to molecule transfer Most important near the surface Convection gt Transfer by movement of some fluid Important with fluids air is a fluid Rising and sinking of air vertical motions Advection horizontally moving air wind Can transfer 2 types of Energy 1 Sensible Heat 2 Latent Heat Sensible Heat Added Energy gt Increase Temperature We can t physically sense it Temperature increase depends on Heat capacity or specific heat Mass of a substance Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Heat Capacity gt energy absorbed temperature change Units joules kelvin Specific Heat gt Heat capacity of a certain mass of a substance Unit joules kg Kelvin Ex water has a high specific heat Sandy soil has a low specific heat High specific heat means it takes more energy to raise the temperature Latent Heat Energy changes phase not temperature Phase changes Evaporation Melting Sublimation Sweating cools us down Radiation gt Everything emits radiation Doesn t need some medium to move Can travel through space Consists of electromagnetic waves we describe radiation by wavelength length form peak to peak Wavelengths are small Length described using micrometer pm 1 millionth of a meter Visibe light 5 pm Letter in text book 2000 pm Ultravioet 001 04 Visibe 04 07 Near Infrared 07 40 Thermal Infrared 40 100 o All objects radiate energy over a wide range of wavelengths The amount and peak intensity may differ There are 2 important radiation laws StefanBotzmann Law Wein s Law Infrared WHITE most infrared energy emission BLUE least Stefan Boltzmann E oTquot4 E is in W mquot2 o is constant 567 10quot8 W mquot2 Kquot4 T is Kelvin Wein s Law Amax 2900T max is in micrometers pm T is Kelvin
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