RESOURCES & ENVIRON
RESOURCES & ENVIRON GEOG 1125
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1125 at University of Georgia taught by Chapura in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/202198/geog-1125-university-of-georgia in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Midterm Study Guide GEOG1125 9292011 35900 PM Scale o The resolution at which we observe reality o Example Globally Nationally Regionally or Locally o Strength increases as scale decreases Marx Utilizes theory of Marxism to examine spatial relations of human geography 0 Through geographical analysis of social problems alleviate poverty and exploitation in capitalist societies 0 There wasn t enough equal distribution not overpopulation Oppressor v worker Farming decreased so farmers moved to the city thus overpopulating city o Considered Malthus a shameless sycophant of the ruling class Malthus o Most popular demographists o Social Darwinism bad to help poor people because they will have more poor people 0 An Essay of the Principle of Population o argued that population increased exponentially while resources grew arithmetically 0 Population grows faster than food supply o Critic of welfare Boserup o More focused on technology than Marx s class difference c As population increases competition would increase which leads to innovation and higher productivity in use of land and labor OpenAccess or sinks o A good or service over which no property rights are recognized o Ex air water Carrying Capacity o The supportable population given the food habitat water and other necessities available in the Earth Ecological Footprint regenerate dne resdurees an mdwwdua ednsumes and absnrb A SD a medndd tn measure ndwm render harm essthe edrrespdndmd waste a Efurestatmn can be dne nedatwe examme Anthrnnngenie Attrth caused dr Drnduced bv numans a x Av PDHutmn GDPGrn55 Dnmestie Prnduct market va ue er 5 na dddds and serwces Druduced m a edunm m a dwen pendd dnsrdered an mdmatnr Bf a edurtrv39s standard Bf MWHQ es ndt mdude externahtres Demnuranhie Transilinn Mndel c ass dE anN drdwtn dr ack mere er er brrtn rates and sdmetrmes deatn rates dvertrme a Desc uuve ndt Dredmtwe ddesn39t sav wnv lEmh pate Emhs Deaths per mm nme Green Revnlminn Mddern Adrreutura REVDMUDH Tne devem ment er mddern aurww tura ardundtne wand hke dne US tn devemumu edunmes Involves 39 inn chemical farming and global food manufacturing Malthusian Idea Benefits Greater control and predictability was V 533quot a Increased yields per unit of human labor or land Reduced labor Costs 0 O 0 soil erosion 0 remain swam desertification fertilizer and pesticide pollution unemployment concentration of wealth Prisoner s Dilemma 0 An aspect of game theory that shows why 2 people might not agree even if it appears to do so 0 Everyone pursuing their own interests will force the group to suboptimal outcome Ecosystem o Selfregulating association of living plants and animals and their nonliving physical environment Fair Trade 0 A trading partnership based on dialogue transparency and respect that seeks greater equity in international trade 0 It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to and securing the rights of marginalized producers O O lAILl ll I 39 in o zuus magma O O and workers Organic 0 Material that is carbonbased has to have different practices than industrialized agriculture 0 Organic Standards 0 Prohibition of synthetic chemicals irradiation sewage sludge or genetically modified organisms Habitat o A geographic area in which each organism is biologically suited to live Niche o The basic operational function each organism performs in its ecosystem Nitrogen Cycle 0 The process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms minim larm alds Copyright ZlJOlG Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Commodity Fetishism o disconnected from the social economic ecological political relationships with a common commodity Ex Toaster strudel Monoculture the cultivation of a single crop in a given area 0 related to Green Revolution Genetically Modified Organisms GMO 0 An organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic enigineering techniques 0 Ex golden rice 0 A key issue in biotechnology Cohort o A group of individuals having a statistical factor such as age or class membership in common in a demographic study The Three Sistersquot 0 the three main agricultural crops of various Native American groups 0 squash maize and beans 0 associated with companion planting where the three are planted close together and they benefit from each other 0 maize provides structure for the beans beans provide nitrogen to the soil and squash blocks the sunlight Tragedy of the Commonsquot 0 a dilemma arising from the situation in which multiple individuals acting on own selfinterest will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource 0 first described in an influential article by Garret Hardin in 1968 0 related to Game Theory oikos 0 an international scientificjournal published monthly by the Nordic Society Oikos in the field of ecology Environmental Kuznet s Curve The en ronmental Kuznets curve 0 Descriptive not prescrIptIve Measures enVironmental Environmental Degradation degradation with pollution 0 not true for carbon dioxidegreen house gases 0 to minimize environmental degradation increase money per capitaGDPquot o counterintuitive to raise money lower regulations which in tu rn hurt the Environment Environment worsens improves envnronment mmi Point r79 Per Capila Income 0 Genuine Progress Indicator o morequantitive than GNH o incorporates servicesstaying at home to take care of old folks etc o subtracts things that aren t really for the wellbeing alarm systems costs of prisons etc o excludes handguns Succession o a gradual process incurred by the change in the number of individuals of each species of a community and by establishment of new species populations that may gradually replace the oringinal inhabitants Maquiladora o concept often referred to as an operation that involves manufacturing in a country that is not the client s and as such has an interesting duty or tariff o Usually imports tarifffree for manufacturing then reexports the assembled product back to the original country Swidden o Slash and burn agriculture 0 Burning of forests and woodlands for fields while using little technology 0 Used for subsistence farming Eutrophication c When too many nutrients are given to soil usually nitrogen 0 runs off into water thus algae grows and oxygen is sucked out causing animals to die 0 Dead Zones Genetic Diversity c To the total makeup of a number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species o Opposite of genetic variability which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary Carbon Cycle o the exchange of carbon between living organisms and the nonliving environment Vertical Integration 0 Describes how a company controls all steps of production 390 Supply chain 0 Ex con agra Horizontal Integration 0 a strategy used by a company to sell a type of product in several markets monopoly 0 occurs more than vertical AgeSex Pyramid Population Pyramid quot n a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a human population 0 Shows a pyramid if healthy equality Q 9 O Externality An impact on any party not directly involved in an economic transaction 0 Occurs when an economic activity causes external costs or external benefits to third party 0 Positivepollination o Negativepollution Gross National Happiness GNI o An attempt to define an indicator that measures quality of life or social progress in more rounded and psychological terms than GDP 0 Incorporates spiritual fulfillment GINI Index o Standard economic measure of income inequality based on Lorenz Curve 0perfect equality and 1super inequality UN Gender Empowerment Index o Shows equality of 0 Women s income vs men s 0 Participation in labor force 0 of parliamentary seats held by women o perfect equality1 UN Human Development Index o used to rank countries by level of human development c Measures 0 life expectancy at birth 0 adult literacy rate enrollment in schools 0 GDP per capita NAFTA o North American Free Trade Agreement 0 Allows US Canada and Mexico to trade without fees Economic Value o the amount of money goods or services that is considered to be a fair equivalent for something else 0 Determined by the market WTO o World Trade Organization o Supervises and liberalizes international trade 0 Forms trade agreements and regulations between countries o Replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GA39I39I39 Polyculture o Agriculture using multiple corps in the same space diversity o Old way of farming Race to the Bottomquot o a socioeconomic concept that is argued to be a result of regulatory competition progressive taxation policies and social welfare spending 0 when competition is high over an area of tradeproduction countries are given incentive to dismantle exsisting regulatory standards Purchasing Power Parity PPP o a condition between countries where an amount of money has the same purchasing power in different countries 0 the price of goods between countries reflect the exchange rate Zapatista o A group of protestors in Mexico that are against NAFFA because it makes growing corn more expensive than importing it eliminating farmers 0 Mexican gov t not concerned with poor farmers o Zapatista Coffee Contract Farming o Agriculture production carried out according to an agreement by farmer and buyer Farmer agrees to produce crops according to standards and quantities set by buyer Buyer agrees to buy the produce at a predetermined price Domestication o The process of a population of animals or plants becomes accustomed to human provision and control through selection 0 ex houseplants Intensive Subsistence Agriculture o In densely populated regions like India or China farmers use their small land to produce enough for their own consumption while the rest is used for exchange 0 Intensify cultivation techniques including Using manure Artificial irrigation Animal waste as fertilizer 9292011 35900 PM
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