INTRO PHYS GEOG
INTRO PHYS GEOG GEOG 1111
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1111 at University of Georgia taught by Porinchu in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/202199/geog-1111-university-of-georgia in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Geog1111 May 14 2013 Intro and Chapter 1 Warm ocean current along the east coast is the Gulf Stream 0 The Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift is why London never receives snow Storms come offpacific and move across the continent o Carried by mid latitude westerly winds Winds always ow from west to east Midlatitude Westerly Winds cross over the north Atlantic 0 Water of N Atlantic is 40 degrees Fahrenheit 0 The wind picks up the warm air from water and carries it to London 0 The is called North Atlantic Drift 1300 years ago the North Atlantic Drift stopped which caused the Ice Age Colorado wildfires 2 01 2 0 Serve drought caused the fast spread of the wildfires The topography winds the sun etc increased the fires Air rises up the mountain valley which brings the fire oxygen Also the clear cutting for timber and fire suppression undergrowth and pine bark beetles it kills pines which increases the amount of dead trees which is kindling Low snow pack means that the following summer will be drier and hotter Geographers are interested in understanding processes and patterns that happen on the surface of the earth Geographers use spatial analysis everything is connected to the things around it 0 Use an Earth systems science approach 0 Study how all the variables connect over space Geographic Continuum 0 Left side is Physical and LifeRight side is Human and Life Physical Geography is the spatial analysis of all the physical elements and processes that make up the environment Four major spheres Hydrosphere Atmosphere Biosphere and Lithosphere Thunder Heads lead to summer storms Conditions in the tropical pacific is the largest predictor of Southern conditions Ice has a really high albedo which has to do with heat absorption From the Gulf of California to North of San Fran is on a different plate that Georgia Sea ice and its importance in the Artic Basin Anasazi 0 Ancient pueblo people that disappeared o The area was a lot drier so climate change might have lead to their movement Rupert is the Cat Will he tested on him Also likes the Toronto Maple Leaves 41 lead with 8 minutes to go Would have played Ottawa Chapter 1 is about Earth Systems Open Systems 0 Open to input and open to output 0 A car is an open system Input fuels outputs heat waste etc 000 O The car holds the energy and material conversions The earth is an open system 9999 of energy on Earth is based on energy from the sun input The output is the energy from earth that goes back to space If there were more energy leaving the earth that is coming the earth would get colder Opposite for the other direction Open in terms of energy not for matter closed for matter Photosynthesis and Respiration are open systems I Input for photosynthesis sunlight carbon dioxide water I Output 02 and CHzO and H20 System Feedbacks o Albedo is the portion ofvisible light that is visible on the surface of the earth 0 Sea ice snow amp glaciers have high albedo 0 System feedback describes what happens as you reduce ice I The area exposed has lower albedo so it absorbs more solar radiation it gets warmers reduces ice I Reducing sea ice leads to elevated temperatures System Equilibrium o Describes uctuations around a steady state mean 0 Dynamic equilibrium is when the system uctuates around a stable average but there is a trend like increasing system operations A near instantaneous shift where the system gets recentered is what they are afraid of I These are thresholds aka tipping point or nonlinear response also think of the canoe parallel Sea ice contracts in summer expands in winter time The four spheres are all interconnected The Earth is known as an oblate ellipsoid which means it is slightly attened at poles and slight bulge at the equator Latitude is 00 to 900 top at poles 0 Also known as parallels Angle oflatitude is 490 0 Border between US and Canada is the 49th parallel o 6650 is the artic circle either N or S 0 North from equator is the tropics cancer 2350 N Longitude 0 Known as meridians The position of the Prime Meridian is arbitrary not the equator 600 is the angle oflongitude 1800 away from Prime Meridian takes you to the international date line angular direction E or W of the Prime Meridian 0 measured in degrees minutes seconds Distance between lines oflatitude never change however lines oflongitude change We have time based upon Standard Time Zones 0 Rotation of earth is east to west 15 degrees each hour 0 Prime Meridian is 0 East coast is 5 relative to Greenwich 00000 00 O O O O O O Maps a generalized view from above a model Scale is the way you scale a map up to represent the world Projection the mathematical process where you take a 3D object and atten it Maps 0 00000 00 0 00000 Cartographers make maps Thinking of the purpose what information does it try to convey All maps are distortions of reality No maps are good at both area and projection Two best scales are representative fractions no units and the graphical scale advantage rescale the map scale still applies Large vs Small scale map refers to the representative fraction I Larger the fraction larger scale I 124 is bigger than 1250 I small scale is better for detail I 124000Athens I 1250000 Georgia Globes are the best way to depict the earth s surface 5 parameters direction distance area shape proximity no projection cannot depict each of those parameters accurately Mercator Projection stretches out higher latitudes Greenland looks as large as Africa I Good at providing direction I Does a horrible job with area The attened globe is good with area but not direction Equal area maps are good at representing area but distort shape Look at other section of equal area slide Cylindrical projection is the Mercator Planar projection is when the at surface is put on a plane I Map to use when looking at high latitudes Remote Sensing O O O Sensing a feature or surface without physical contact At some distance from the object but is able to perceiveanalyze the object Active vs passive sensing I Active is the feedback from satellites sends out a signal and receives something in return I Passive is with our eyes also with colors Geographic Information Systems GIS O O Combines spatial and attribute data to create maps Can use GIS and remote sensing together I Input data into GIS to create environmental shelter May 15 2013 Chapters 2 and 3 Albedo is the light re ection the portion of physical light that is re ected back Iob of the Gulf Stream is to dissipate energy from the tropics to the high latitudes 0 Excess energy and moving it N and S 0 One of the mechanisms to take the energy Energy is also redistributed 0 Hurricanes Know the movie the Day After Tomorrow 0 It was about 13000 years ago 0 The Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift stopped owing The earth is tilted on an aXis of 2350 0 Notice the tropics are at 2350 also 0 If the earth was tilted at 330 the tropics world be at 330 also The energy coming from the sun covers all the electromagnetic spectrum Solar system and sun formed 46 billion years ago Don t worry about planetism alhyp Speed of light equals 300000 kmps kilometers per second or 186000 mps miles per second 0 Our solar system is 11 hours in diameter 0 The moon is only 128 seconds away Perihelion when the earth is closest to the sun Jan 3rd 147 million km Aphelion farthest away July 4th 152 million km 0 What this means is that the distance from the sun does not control seasonstemperatures o The timing of parahellion and aphelion changes Plane of the Elliptic the plane along which the Earth travels during its orbit Once againthe Earth s aXis is tilted 235O relative to the plane of the elliptic Look up eccentricity Sun produces energy by nuclear fusion 0 Hydrogen atoms are forced together look up Sun spots are relatively cool areas of the sun caused by magnetic storms o 11 year sunspot cycle 2007 last min 2013 neXt max 0 Up to 10X the size of earth 0 Affects solar wind Solar wind is clouds of electrically charged particles that move through space 0 It interacts with Earth s magnetic fieldsmagnetosphere o Travels slower than light 0 Takes 3 days to reach Earth Magnetosphere is the magnetic field surrounding the Earth resulting from internal processes within the Earth s core Auroras are most often and clear in higher latitudes because when the solar wind hits the earth it gets shunted towards the poles due to de ection of solar wind pole ward The sun emits Electromagnetic Radiation EM 0 Ioulestandard unit of energy 0 Wattrate of energy ow W 1s Remember Kinetic and Potential energy Methods of energy transfer 0 Conduction molecule to molecule transfer I Heat ow warm to cold I The molecules begin to vibrate in the skillet because they are heated I The energy geos all the way up the handle 0 Convection transferred by vertical movement I eg boiling water I Keep in mind that the atmosphere is a uid so the behavior is modeled like a uid you heat the atmosphere and it moves in vertical movement 0 Radiation is propagated without a medium I All mater emits radiation waves I Well all mater that is above absolute zero but there is nothing in the natural world that will reach that not even produced in lab I Absolute zero in Celsius is 2730 we have yet to reached it I Radiation travels at the speed of light Radiation continued 0 Quantity Amplitude 0 Quality wavelengths o The shorter the wavelengths the more intense the energy eg XRays 0 Slightly longer than red is infrared Electromagnetic Spectrum all radiation fits on it o Radiant energy emitted by Sun I 7 gamma XRay UV high energy I 47 visible I 46 infrared 0 Radio to Gamma longest to shortest wavelengths o XRays tell us bone density it moves through the body and gets bounced back to the sensor It doesn t show soft tissue because it isn t dense enough Predator The Movie 0 Arnold Schwarzenegger leads a team in the jungle to find an alien 0 About drugs and leftist guerrillas in South America 0 The alien predator does not use the visible portion to see the world it uses thermal infrared the energy being emitted in slightly longer wavelengths 0 Arnold covered himself in mud because it would drop the body s temperature the infrared being exposed so the predator could not see him 0 Iessie Ventura and Apollo Creed are also in the movies I This is important because like the wolves in Day After Tomorrow because they are governors of states now Iessie Minnesota SARS is a respiratory disease that killed people 0 People would move through thermal imaging t see if they had high body temperatures to check to see if they carried SARS Energy Emission Related to Temperature 0 Total energy any object emits is a fX of temperature 0 We all emit roughly the same amount of energy 0 Peak wavelength of earth is 10 microns 0 Look at the rest ofthat slide Insolation Incoming solar radiation 0 Input solar radiation to Earth concentrated in shorted wavelengths ultraviolet visible and shortwave infrared 0 Output earth s infrared emission to space longer wavelengths thermal infrared Kelvin is the scale used to report temperature that has no negative values 0 Absolute 0 273 degrees Celsius and 0 kelvin o Earth s average is 15 degrees Celsius and 288 K or 300 K 0 Sun is equal to 6000 K Curvature of the Earth 0 Sphericity reason for unequal receipt of insolation from equator to poles 0 Where the sun hits a 900 angle the more energy that is absorbed o The suns rays hit the equator more directly yearround o The point at the surface where it hits 900 called the subsolar point The annual amount of insolation decreases poleward from Equator o The subsolar point moves northward in June 0 In June and July the N Pole receives more energy than we do 0 The energy incident does not change at the equator year round Global Net Radiation is the difference between incoming radiation insolation and outgoing long wave radiation 0 Highest surplus over the equatorial and tropical regions I It redistributes the energy north and sourh The reasons for seasons is the tilt of the axis Winter and summer solstice and the fall and spring equinox Winter is when the N Hemisphere is pointing away the sun Summer the N Pole is pointing towards the sun Tropic of Capricorn 5 is when it hits at 900 in the winter Tropic of Cancer is the subsolar pointin the summer 0 Sun s rays position of subsolar points moves up and down between Cancer and Capricorn Without tilts no seasonal changes would happen 24 hours of daylight happens in the Artic Circle on June 21st 0 Antarctica is dark 0 Opposite on December 21st Start ofChapter 3 after this The atmosphere acts as a membrane protects organic life from harmful UV radiation Exosphere extends to 32000 km from the top of the atmosphere Three criteria to examine 0 Composition 0 Temperature 0 Function Earth exerts a gravitational pull on the atmosphere 0 The density of the atmosphere decreases higher up molecules are further apart Troposphere is the lowest part of the atmosphere TSMT Average sea level pressure is the pressure the atmosphere exerts ofa square meter 1kgm2 10132 mb 10132 kPa OOOOO 0 Clear skies are during high pressure 0 This is because the atmosphere is sinking rising aircools o Sinking air is clear because it is sinking towards earth s surface and condensation doesn t form 0 There are 4 layers of the atmosphere when broken down by temperature 0 Troposphere where weather is 0 As you move away from earth temperatures decrease while moving through the troposphere o In stratosphere temperatures increase 0 Know composition of Atmosphere 0 78 nitrogen o 21 oxygen 0 these to make up 99 0 other important argon I Also important are green house gasses 0 Water vapor 0 C02 0 methane o For first time in 2 million years C02 concentration are above 400 parts per million 0 Temperature in Atmosphere 0 Slight gradient as to where the troposphere ends depending on where you are 0 Tropopause is where you y between troposphere and stratosphere I Stratosphere is more stable I Tropopause is 57 C Normal lapse rate is 64 C1000m Stratosphere is next layer up I Temp increases because the ozone layer absorbs heat from the sun ultraviolet which leaves visible light and longer wavelengths o Mesosphere continues to get colder 90 C called the mesopause Thermosphere is when the temperature increases again around 300 F I Freezes up there because of the decrease in density I Temperature measures the vibration kinetic movement of molecules I Temperature is very different than heat I Energy is transferred by molecule to molecule contact I The low pressure cause the molecules to be far apart I Pressure high molecules close together 0 Troposphere 0 Temperature decreases because it is getting away from the Earth s surface 0 90 mass of atmosphere 0 The rate at which temp decreases is known as lapse rate 0 CFC s break down ozone 03 which leaves one Oxygen 02 and a lone oxygen molecule 0 Oxygen molecules do not block UV rays I The two holes are around the poles Solar storms have the ability to wipe out electrical power 0 There are sources ofNatural Variable Gases OO O 0 Look at the Chartfor examples 0 Natural Factors that affect air pollution 0 Wind can wither concentrate pollution is distribute it o Topography mountains concentrate or prevent movement 0 Atmospheric conditions according to temperature 0 Temperature Inversion 0 Temperature decreases as you move up but then starts to increase 0 Normal Condition I Air cools as it rises warm less dense air rises 0 Look up inverse I Temperature increases as you move up in elevation It forms a lid over a basin 0 Anthropogenic source ofpollution human sources 0 More than 50 of the human population is in Urban settings 0 Pollutants I Carbon monoxide I Photochemical smog burning of gasoline I Industrial smog I Particulate matter aerosols or really fine particles 0 Carbon monoxide has a greater affinity for oxygen than hemoglobin When you smoke Carmon monoxide is absorbed in your blood It binds oxygen and peels oxygen from hemoglobin which means oxygen is no longer transferred to your heart through blood 0 Ozone is pollution on Earth s surface 0 In the 1970 s Nixon signed Clean Air and Water act 0 Most energy came from coal plants 0 The smoke stacks expelled exhaust into atmosphere and the wind dispersed it 0 Burning coal creates sulfur oxide 0 The pH lower acidic higher basic of the snow in NY mountains in the 1980 s was measured as low as 2 pH oflemon juice is 4 so the water was highly acidic It entered streams and killed fish 0 Urban heat island affect o The built environment changes the climate 0 Urbanized regions have higher surface temperatures than surrounding areas 0 Less trees less absorption of C02 and less shade May 16 2013 Chapters 4 and 5 o Classifications of the atmosphere 0 Temperature 0 Composition 0 Function Remember colder warmer colder warmer Standard lapse rate is 64 degrees Celsius per 1000m1km Radiation from the Earth s surface heats the atmosphere Stratosphere is cooler warmer because of the radiation from the ozone layer it absorbs the radiation from UV rays 0 Chapter 4 is about energy balance in the Troposphere top of the atmosphere and the Earth s surface 0 Land oceans clouds atmospheric gases and dust serve to intercept incoming solar radiation insolation or shortwave energy 0 Shortwave energy is from the sun 0 Long wave energy is from the Earth s surface 0 The wavelengths the visible spectrums is bounded by is 4 microns violet to 7 microns red 0 The peak wave length of the sun is somewhere within the visible spectrum it is about 5 microns o The peak wavelength from the earth falls in the infrared it is about 10 microns Uneven distribution of solar energy There are four pathways of energy 0 Transmission nothing happens to it straight to earths surface 0 Scattering objects in the atmosphere change the direction of the radiation 0 Refraction Transmission 0 Shortwave or longwave radiation through atmosphere and water Scattering 0 When the direction of energy is changed 0 The wavelength is not changed 0 Rayleigh scattering Lord Rayleigh I Responsible for the sky being blue Gases in the atmosphere are affective at scattering blue light scatter it down towards us When there are pollutants in the atmosphere the sky is more orange The larger particles scatter longer wavelengths more affectively o Insolation Input 0 High latitudes have low amounts 0 The equator does not have the highest amount the tropics do I The reason for this is cloud cover I Equatorial region is covered by ocean I The direct heating of the earth makes water evaporate the clods develop which means precipitation happens Also clouds absorb energy 0 The tropics have a lot of desert I Such high insolation because there is no cloud coverprecipitation o Albedo and re ection o Albedo is the re ective quality of a surface I The higher the albedo the higher the re ectivity I The lower the albedo the higher the absorbency 0 Fresh snow 95 o Pavement 510 0 Water bodies 1060 I Oblique angle will absorb I Direct angle will re ect look this up o Earths average albedo is 31 this mean 31 is re ected back into space I Clouds 21 I Ground 3 I Atmospheric gases and dust 7 Clouds and Albedo 0 Cloud albedo forcing re ectinsolation increase albedo it cools the surface re ects shortwave energy back to space 0 Cloud greenhouse forcing trap longwave heat surface Absorption 69 ofinsolation is absorbed o Converted into infrared radiation or chemical energy 0 Emit longwave radiation Input of energy must match the output of the energy remember it is an open system 0 If the input is larger than outputs the earth will get warmer A greenhouse works by trapping heat so it gets warmer o The light gets trapped because energy gets into the room molecules vibrate and cannot escape o It enters as shortwave radiation from the sun it moves through the window hits whatever is in the space the objects absorb the energy the objects emit longwave radiation 0 Longwave radiation cannot pass through windows so the heat stays in the room Stratus clouds are low lying clouds 0 Thick low lying clouds are affective at scattering shortwave radiation bounced back into space 0 Net albedo forcing Cirrus clouds are high wispy clods o Trap long wave radiation that emanate from Earth s surface 0 Poor at intercepting shortwave radiation I Net greenhouse forcing Looking at the the figure that has a lot of stuff EarthAtmosphere Radiation Balance fig 413 o Leftshortwave Rightlongwave Ozone absorbs 3 units100 energy Energy from the sun interacts with clouds 3 units Atmospheric Gases and dust is very affective 18 units I 183 21 atmospheric heat input that is now longwave o 25 units is direct absorption of the ground I end up with 45 units of shortwave unit is now longwave 0000 o 452166 units that have to be converted back 0 Latent heat transfer evaporation ofwater turned into gas or vapor in the atmosphere 0 Green house makes 110 units leave the earth I Energy gets reemission o 66 units of energy that are emitted back into space longwave o Nevergol39ng to ask units but will ask what the 3 units that make up Earth 5 albedo Incoming energy gain exceeds outgoing energy loss 0 Between the tropics there is an energy surplus o 360 NS is where the deficit starts o The job of atmosphere and oceans is to take excess energy from the equator and take it to the higher latitudes 0 Energy balance at Earth s surface 0 Hottest time of the day is 24pm o Coolest time of the day is right after the sun peaks above the horizon o 6 am is coder than 2 am because there is no insolation energy is only leaving I Longwave radiation is leaving I No input only output 0 The moment the sun cracks the horizon the input begins again 0 The earth continues to absorb a lot of energy until 2pm the rays begin to go oblique o This same phenomenon explains the seasonal lag in heat summer solstice is June 2155 but hottest part is August 0 Simplified surface energy balance 0 SW insolation shortwave coming 0 SW re ection shortwave leaving 0 LW infrared o LW infrared 0 IN the tropics there are lower amounts of Net Radiation because lots of energy comes in but a lot of energy also goes out due to lack of clouds o The lack of clouds means that there is nothing to trap the emitting longwave radiation 0 Latent heat is evaporation energy leaving earths surface in association to the evaporation of water 0 This is so important because energy is moved away from Earth s surface 0 Greatest amount of latent heat is around the Gulf Stream and around Japan Japan current identical to the gulf stream I Both on East coast ofa continent I West coast of N America there is a cold water current along with W coast of Africa 0 Also high in the tropics and equatorial regions I These areas have in common very warm water I Easier to evaporate warm water rather than cold water 0 Very little latent heat transfer over land due to lack of water 0 Sensible heat is the heat you can sense the heat you feel while walking on the beach 0 Centered on the tropics o The Urban Environment Factors Material Geometric shape Human activity Impermeable surface Pollution There is essentially a dome if dust o The wind gets tunneled because ofquoturban canyons39 Start ofChapter 5 0 Temperature is the measure of average kinetic energy 0 Heat is a form of energy that ows along a gradient 0 Room temperature is about 210 Celsius o Won t ask to convert Owes sz Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius Latitude affects insolation 0 Temperature does not vary is Bahia Salvador Brazil 13 degrees S latitude 9m elevation I Close to the equator has more sunlight no variability in the sunlight o In New Orleans it is warmest in the Summer because the subsolar point is at the tropic of cancer 235 degrees 0 Scotland does not vary much because it is close to the Gulf Stream Altitude will affect temperature too 0 Denver will always be colder than a city that is in the foothills Amount of water present is big on temperature too 0 When energy hits terrestrial surface and there is no moisture available it goes to heating the surface it is opaque 0 Water takes a lot of energy to heat up 0 If landlocked and far from water there will be much more eXtreme temperatures Earth s temperature patterns 0 Thermal equator the warmest part on the surface of the earth January 0 Isotherms are the temperature lines on the map 0 Thermal equator is closer to the tropic of Capricorn in January 0 Thermal equator moves northward towards Tropic of Cancer in July 0 Obviously the hemispheres ip between July and January Wind chill correlates cold and wind speed Heat index correlates heat and humidity
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