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by: Conrad Pfeffer


Conrad Pfeffer
GPA 3.58


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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1103 at University of Georgia taught by Barkan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/202200/geog-1103-university-of-georgia in Geography at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Geog 1125 Unit 3 Exam Study Guide Energy Sources I NonrenewableExhaustible o Aresource which exists in a fixed amount in various places in the earth s crust 0 Coal oil natural as o Economically depleted cost of extracting is greater than profit I Depletion time The time it takes to use a fraction usually 80 of the known or estimated supply of a nonrenewable resource 0 Solarwind energy I Perpetual O lnexhaustible on a human time scale I RenewablePotentially Renewable 0 Can be replenished fairly rapidly through natural processes on a human time scale 0 Biomass trees animals I Nonrenewable Sources 0 Coal 3098 carbon by weight Solid amp combustible made with extreme heat and pressure over millions of years Most abundant fuel source 1 quadrillion metric tons US 24 of total supply US China India and Russia have 23 of the supply At current rate supply will last for 225 more years Advantages I Large supply high yield low cost Disadvantages I Land disturbance high air and water pollution high land use severe threat to human health high C02 emissions when burn 0 Crude Oil Used to make heating oil fuel amptar OPEC has 67 of known reserves US has 3 imports 55 it uses 36 in 1975 Total supply 1 trillion barrels Supply will last 53 years at current rate Advantages Large supply low cost easilyefficiently transported low land use Disadvantages I Need substitute within 50 years water amp air pollution when burned COZ artificially low prices discourages alternatives 0 Natural Gas Underground deposits of gas predominantly methane also propane and butane Russia and Kazakhstan have 42 US has 3 140 trillion cubic meters Supply will last 200 years at current rate Advantages Very ample supply high yield low cost least polluting of the FF s low land use Disadvantages COZ difficult to transport gasses can leak methane is a greenhouse gas 0 Nuclear Energy Energy released when atomic nuclei undergo a nuclear reaction such as the spontaneous emission of radioactivity nuclear fission or nuclear fusion 436 reactors make 6 of commercial energy and 16 of electricity Usage expected to decline Advantages I Large supply low environmental impact moderate land usedisruption amp water pollution Disadvantages I High cost low net energy vulnerable to terrorist attacks lack of storage for waste I Renewable Sources 0 So ar I Heating I Advantages 0 Free moderate to high net energy quick installation no COZ emissions low pollution and land use moderate cos s I Disadvantages 0 Need sun 60 of the time need heat storage system unattractive and expensive for active I Solar Electricity I Advantages 0 Moderate to high net energy low environmental impact no COzemissions less reliance on fossil fuels I Disadvantages 0 Need sun very inefficient need storagebackup system high land use and cost DC9AC conversion 0 Hydropower I 20 of world s electricity 10 US 99 Norway I 6 of world s commercial energy 4 of US I Advantages I Moderate to high net energy high efficiency lowcost electricity long life span low COZ emissions provides water for other uses recreation irrigation ood control I Disadvantages 0 High construction costs High environmental impact may increase C02 emissions from decaying biomass in reservoir 0 Wind I Large potential I Advantages I Moderate to high net energy high efficiency moderate capital costs low electricity costs low environmental impact no C02 emissions Disadvantages Steady winds desirable backup systems needed if no wind high land use visual and noise pollution may interfere with ight of migratory birds 0 Geothermal I Heat transferred from underground by either dry steam wet steam or hot water I Advantages 0 Very high efficiency moderate net energy low COZ emission cost land use and disturbance moderate environmental impact I Disadvantages I Scarcity of suitable sites moderate to high local air pollution o Biomass I Primarily trees but corn and other plants can be used I Advantages Renewable ifharvested sustainably large potential supply moderate costs no net C02 emissions if done sustainably I Disadvantages Moderate to high environmental impact nonrenewable if not harvested sustainably soil erosion water pollution amp change ofhabitat dynamics often burned in inef cient and polluting open res amp stoves Agricultural Resources I Soil 0 39 39 39 39 water air and living organisms 0 Main agricultural resource 0 There s enough soil L The arable quot quot 39 i bein In t or degraded I Soil Erosion o The movement of soil componenm by wind and water o en increased by human activities which reduce vegetation cover I Leads to loss of soil fertility I Increased sediment in lakes rivers and other water systems 0 Topsoil is eroding faster than it forms on 38 ofthe world s cropland o In the US US oftopsoil has be lost by erosion I Deserti cation he conversion of marginal lands to desertlike conditions with a drop of 10 or more in productivity Caused by overgrazing soil erosion and lasting droughts I Salinizati 0 When soil absorbs too much salt to be productive I Stunts crop growth lowers crop yields kills plants and makes the soil unusable I Most severe on irrigated lands in drier climates o 21 ofworld39s irri ated r rnnland 39 quot 39 39 with a another L Overwatering or waterlogging soil can also increase salinization I Soil Fertility o use up 39 39 quot and if 39 hv 39 then it must be done another way organic or inorganic fertilizer I Solution to Soil Problems eeping soil covered with vegetation Various methods I Conservation tillage leaving last season s crop residue terracing amp contour farming strip cropping alternate crop rows agroforestry combine trees with crops windbreaks row of trees to block wind reclamation oflost landssoil 0 To reduce desertificatio I on overuse marginal lands on the borderedge ofa desert 0 To reduce salinization Reduce irrigation or use desalinated water Percent of Food supply I Secondary Agricultural Resources The products produced the crops and livestock andor their byproducts Cropland supply 76 of worlds food Rangelands grazing land for livestock supply about 17 ofthe world s food 0 Ocean fisheries supply about 7 of the world39s food 0 ll Croplands o Rangelands Ocean Fisheries 0 Wheat rice amp corn supply over 2 of the calories people consume 23 surviving primarily on these grains Types of Agriculture I Subsistence Agriculture 0 Farming just to provide for yourself and family o3T es Shifting Cultivation Plots of land are cultivated then abandoned Pastoral Nomadism Farming system where livestock is taken to different locations in order to find fresh pastures Intensive Subsistence Aggiculture The primary subsistence pattern of largescale populous societies it results in much more food being produced per acre Asia and Africa I Commercial Agriculture Production of food primarily for sale 0 7 Types lIixed crop amp livestock farming Dairy farming Grain farming Livestock ranching Mediterranean agriculture I Farming is intensive highly specialized and rather varied in the kinds of crop raised Subsistence agriculture occurs side by side with commercial farming I Fruits nuts olives grapes Commercial gardening amp fruit farming Plantation farming I Large farms where crops are grown to sell often in distant markets rather than in local markets I Produce many cash crops in large amounts such as coffee tea and chocolate Green Revolutions 0 Introduction of scientifically bred or selected varieties of grain that with high enough inputs of chemicals and water can greatly increase crop yields up to 5x that of natural yield 0 Results Because in World grain production tripled from 19501990 I However population is increasing at a higher rate than grain production in some places Africa In the US crop yields on average have more than doubled since 1950 With only 03 of the world39s farm labor force the US produces 17 of the world39s grain some areas the growth rate of population is greater than the growth rate of food production Around 800 million people are either I Undernourished not enough food to meet basic energy needs I Malnourished deficiency of proteins and nutrients BUT I out of 7 citizens in developed countries suffer from I Overnutrition a form of malnutrition in which nutrients are oversupplied relative to the amounts required for normal growth development and metabolism By most estimates the world produces enough food to meet basic needs BUT it is not distributed equally Solutions I Increase crop yieldsacre by better strains of plants I Better distribution system smethods The Atmosphere I Atmosphere 0 A mixture of discrete gases with solid amp liquid particles suspended in it I Constant gases found in the same proportions within lower atmosphere I 3 gases make up just under 100 of the atmosphere I Nitrogen 78 I Oxygen 21 I Argon 09 I Variable gases present in different amounts spatially or temporally o The three that in uence weather and life systems I Carbon dioxide I Absorbs radiant energy emitted by earth I Water vapor I Quite variable I Absorbs radiant energy and important energy transfer I 4 by volume in tropics less than 1 in deserts I Ozone I Concentrated in the stratosphere I Absorbs damaging UV radiation I Ozone Hole 0 Caused by increased amounts of CFC s in the stratosphere o Primarily around Antarctic amp Arctic areas 0 Reduced 50 around Antarctic and 1138 around Arctic I Consequences of less ozone 0 Increased UV rays at surface 310 in southern hemisphere I Skin cancer and cataracts dam age to plants and animals I Solutions 0 Stop producing ozone depleting chemicals I Studies show it will take 50100 years for pre1950 ozone I Montreal Protocol of 1987 and banning use of CFC s Structure of the Atmosphere I Air Pressure 0 Force exerted by the weight of a column of air above a given point I At sea level the average pressure is 1013 mb milibars I Inverse relationship between air pressure and height pressure decreases with increasing height I Temperature 0 Measures the degree of hotness or coldness of the average molecular motion of an object I Heat total temperature avera e I T may increase or decrease with increasing altitude Inversion Temp increases with altitude Temperature lapse rate describes the reduction or lapse of air temperature that takes place with increasing altitude OO I Layers O o Exosphere TWo General based on chemical composition Thermosphere I Homosphere 0 Uniform chemical composition WWW 0 Includes the troposphere stratosphere Mesosphere and mesosphere Shatupausa I Heterosphere Stratosphere 0 arying chemical compositions homosphere Tvupupause Troposphere 4 main layers based on tempemture osphere Trop 0 T decreases With altitude km o N Stratosphere T stays constant or rises With altitude ontains ozone layer Very little H20 N50 km Mesosphere T decreases With altitude between 5080 km Thermosphere T increases dramatically With altitude T may reach upwards of900C Area above 80km Climate Change evidence and timing I Variations in climate on many different time scales from decades to millions of years and the possible causes of such variations I Climate system he interaction of the atmosphere lithosphere biosphere and hydrosphere I Change in one causes change in the others I Evidence of Climate Change O 0000 O I Causes or sediments Oxygen isotope analysis Tree rings Palynology study of microscopic objects ie compounds eolo Historical records Nonhuman on Astronomical Theory Eccentricity A in the earth s orbit aron the sun 0 Obliquity Ain the tilt of the earth s axis 0 Th aris is northem pole star Axial Procession Wobbling of the earth on its axis A in ability of oceans to store C02 and heat A in ocean currents sea level photosynthesis stomge ofcarbonin soils and cloud cover 0 Human I Changes in atmospheric CO2 levels I Traps outgoing LW radiation I 25 increase of CO2 levels since 1800 I 05 Celsius increase since 1880 but its not definite its only because of CO2 I Changes in atmospheric levels of other greenhouse gasses I Global Warming 0 The atmosphere is heated by the greenhouse effect I LW radiation is bounced back and forth between the atmosphere esp clouds dust and CO2 and the ground I Keeps earth 35 degrees C warmer I With H20 and CO2 o 5 of6 hottest years in 1980 s and 90 s 2 hottest in 1998 and 2001 0 Some melting of landbased ice caps and floating ice around Greenland and the earth s poles o Shrinking of mountain glacier 0 Causes I Increased surface temperatures I Which lead to melting of ice caps and sea ice I Which in tuIn can lead to increased sea levels I Altered precipitation patterns amp evaporation I Affect availability of water resources I Increase of desertification 0 Less arable land I Alter structure and location of biomes o Uncerta inties positivenegative feedback loo s Increased T 9 ice melting 9 more H2O in atmosphere 9 increased cloud cover9 decreased T 0 Solutions I Improve energy efficiency Use less oil and coal I Cleaner energy sources I Solar wind natural gas I Advantages of above I Boost global economy I Provide jobs I Costs less than trying to deal with effects of current use 0 Options I Do nothing some are skeptical I Do more research before action I Act now to reduce risks because I Precautionary strategy I Beyond point of no return I Or part of a no regrets strategy even if it isn t as bad better safe than sorry Air Pollution I Pollution The introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment to contaminate at a faster rate than the environment can clean up in a timely fashion 0 Air pollution I Airborne particles and gases in concentrations which endanger health of organisms and environment Geog 1125 Test 2 Study Review I Energy The ability or capacity to do work on some form of matter 0 Kinetic I Energy of motion 0 Potential I Energy at rest 0 Heat I The sum total of all molecular motion ofan object nottemperature o Radiant I Emitted by all objects with a temperature over 0 kelvin 273C Laws of Thermodynamics 0 First Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can change forms 0 Second When energy changes forms some of it turns into more dispersed and less useful energy Over 99 of Earth39s energy comes from the sun 0 It varies spatially temporally and based on daylength o This variation causes ocean currents wind transporting the energy across the globe Earths orbit is elliptical o 39 elion point closes to sun Jan 4 o Aphelion furthest from sun u14 Earth has 235 degree tth 4 seasonal days of note I March Equinox Start ofspring in NH March 2122 I June Solstice Start ofsummer in NH June 2122 I September Equinox Start offall in NH September 2223 I December Solstice Start ofwinter in NH December 2122 Higher T shorter wavelength 0 Shorter wavelength more energypacked in length of string 0 Suns energy 05 micrometers I T0 6000 K short wave radiation 0 Earths energy 10 micrometers I 300 K long wave radiation Solar Radiation is o Scattered o Re ected Angle of incidence angle of re ection 39 30 of incoming SW radiation is re ected back to space 0 Important Albedos of re ectivity 4 Thick clouds 7080 0 Thin clouds 3050 24 39 New snow 8085 0 Old snow 5060 31 39 Forest 510 0 0 Grass 2025 45 A 39 Earth 1525 39 Water 0 High sun 35 0 Low sun 5080 0 Absorption 39 Oz03and HzO are good absorbers ofSW radiation 39 Overall though atmosphere isn39t a good absorber 39 Diagram to right 9 o 31 re ected 24 abs by atmosphere 45 by earth I Terrestrial Radiation LVV 10 micrometers o a 39s emissions typically in infrared 0 H20 vapor 5X any other gas C02 and CH4 good absorbers of LW radiation 0 Greenhouse effect makes earth about 35 C warmer I Photosynthesis Plant 9 Chloroplasts 9 Chlorophyll o 6 C02 6 H20 energy gt C5H1205 6 H20 6 02 0 Results I Biomass I Phyto and Zoomass I Most created in warm wet areas I Least in cold dry areas I Food ChainWeb o Processes through which energy travel starting with plants photosynthesis o Trophic Levels steps in food chain 0 Types oforganisms I Autotrophs I Heterotrophs get energy from other organisms Her ivores I Carnivores I 0mnivores I Decomposers I Ecological Ef ciency how well energy is passed through the trophic levels 0 Efficiency decreases with every step 0 Shown using food pyramid I Biochemical Cycles Hydrologic Cycle 39 Evapotranspiration condensation precipitation runoff 39 Causes erosion transports nutrients purifies Water 0 Carbon Cycle 39 Mainly CO 2 Controls earth39s surface temperature because it39s a greenhouse gas Plants take it in animals breathe it out Stored as energy as fossil fuels Much like oxygen and hydrogen cycles 0 Nitrogen Cycle 39 Fixation bacteria take N2 and turn it into NH ammonia for plants Nitri cation NH in soil converted into nitrite and nitrate ions Ammoni cation converts nitrogenrich compounds into NH and NHAt Denitrification conversion of NH and N Hf back to ions then back to N z c 0 Putting NO into air causes acid rain 0 Putting NzO adds to ozone depletion and global warming 0 Phosphorus Cycle 39 Normally found as phosphate salts 39 Passed through by water lithosphere and organisms 39 Human effects Must be mined Put into water which increases plant growth which leads to oxygen depletion o Sulfur Cycle 39 Circulated in various compounds 0 Hydrogen sulfide by volcanoes and organic decay sulfur dioxide by volcanoes and sulfate salts from sea spray 39 Humans account for 33 of all sulfur compounds and 99 of 02 reaching atmosphere I Evolution 0 Macroevolution longterm o Microevolution shortterm o Mutations are random unpredictable and rare I Number of known animals 175 million I Adaptations Structural color mimicry o Physiologicalhibernation o Behavioral migration I Ecological Niche 0 Total way oflife or role ofa species I Types ofspecies Generalists species with a broad niche can live in many different habitats o Specialists narrow niche specific habita s 0 Native 0 Nonnative introduced alien o Indicator serve as a early warning to ecosystem degradation 0 Keystone play roles that affect many other species in the ecosystem I Speciation 0 Formation of 2 species from 1 divergent o Caused by 39 Geographic isolation 39 Reproductive isolation longterm geographic isolation of members of a certain sexually reproducing species I Extinction Types 0 Background extinction I xtinction of a few species because ofchanges in local environment 0 Mass extinction I Catastrophic events 0 Mass depletion I Widespread often global period of common extinction but not oftensever enough to be considered mass extinction I Species Interactions o Interspecific competition members of 2 or more species trying to use the same resources 0 Predation 0 Pa rasitism parasite benefits but host is harmed o Mutualism both parties benefit 0 Commensalism O ne benefits but other is neutral 0 Ame nsalism the inhibition of one species by another through chemical means I Biodiversity 0 Variety of species the roles they play and their genetic composition 0 Types ofdiversi 39 Genetic Diversity genetic variation between and Within species 39 Species Diversity the number ofspecies represented in a collection of individuals 39 Ecological Diversity variety of ecos stems in a given area 39 Functional Diversity the biological complexity of an ecosystem I Physical Factors In uencing Biodiversity and Biomes Temperature 39 Megatherm plants adapted to high T Microtherm plants adapted to low T Xerophyte plants adapted to very little Water llygrophyte plants aquatic plant Deciduous vs Ever reen o Deciduous drop leaves 0 Evergreen keep leaves 0 Light availability 0 Soi 5 0 La ndfo rms 39 Elevation changes temp and moisture 39 Slope steepness affects Water ow 39 Slope aspect direction ofslope changes sun availability I Biomes 0 Basic categories forest desert grassland 0 Tropical Rainfo rest 39 Tall densely populated broad leaf evergreens I Most rainfall gt80inyr ighest biodiversity 0 Tropical Deciduous Forest quotTropical Scrubquot 39 Less dense than Tropical Rainforest 39 Has a dry season so trees lose their leaves deciduous 0 Tropical Savannah 39 Grassland transition zone between the TR TD and desert biomes 39 Tall grassland with Widely spaced trees 39 Eg African grasslands 0 Desert 39 Sparse to no vegetation due to low precipitation and high evaporation Xero hytic or succulent vegetation o Temperate or MidLatitude Grassland 39 Prairies o Longgrass prairie Shortgrass prairie 39 Great Plains Pampas Russian Steppe o Temperate or MidLatitude Deciduous amp Mixed Forest 39 o dleafdeciduous trees or mixed deciduous and needleleaf evergreen trees 39 Oak maple ine 39 Eastern US Europe and Eastern Asia 0 Temperate Rainforest 39 Needleleaftrees of NW US 39 quotTemperate Evergreen Forestquot 39 oods 0 Mediterranean Scrub or Shrubland 39 39 ly spaced evergreen amp deciduous trees 39 Chaparral of coastal California 39 Fires 0 Northern Coniferous Forests Coniferous conebearing trees I l39Borealquot or Taiga o Tundra I Mosses and lichens I Controlled by permafrost I Aquatic Biomes o SaltwaterMarine o Freshwater o Layers I Surface I Middle I Bottom I Marine Systems 0 Coastal Zone I 3 ecosystems o Estuaries I reas where freshwater and saltwater meet 0 Coastal wetlands I d areas covered part or all of the year I Salt marshes or Mangrove swamps o Coral reefs I Found in shallowtropical waters I Open Sea 0 Low net primary productivity 0 3 vertical zones I Euphotic high sunlight I Bathyal medium sunlight I Abyssal very low sunlight I Freshwater Systems a SS I Oligotrophic Newly formed and nutrient poor Mesotrophic In between the two most common I Eutrophic Nutrient rich and shallow brownish color 0 Rive rsStrea ms Source zone mountain streams at high elevation I Transition zone wider lower elevation streams I Flood Plain zone where the river empty into the ocean o Inland wetlands I Marshes grasses I Prairie Potholes depressions carved by glaciers I Swamps trees and shru s I Floodplains receive excess water during rains and oods I Ecological Succession 0 Linear Autogenic ne way succession where no steps are repeated 0 Cyclic Autogenic I Stages are repeated or skipped o Allogenic I Change in species composition brought by outside forces or disturbance 0 Primary I Never been occupied or recently denuded of an existing community and soil 0 Secondary I Ve etation removed but soil remains o Climax community I Final stage ecosystem in balance I Zoographic Realms Neoarctic I North America Greenland Central Highlands I Low diversit I Bald eagle bison antelope O O O O O O O O Paleoarctic 39 Europe northern Africa and northern Asia 39 Low diversity 39 Neoarctic Paleoarctic lIolarctic 39 Siberian tiger great pan a Neotropical 39 Coastal Mexico Central and South America 39 One ofthe richest and most diverse faunal regions 39 I guar llamamany marsupials Paleotropical Ethiopian SubSaharan Africa 39 Also one of the most rich and diverse faunal regions 39 Zebra giraffe hyena ostrich Madagascan 39 Quite different from Africa 39 Lemurs IndoMalayan O riental 39 Southcentral and southeast Asia 39 Fairly diverse 39 Orangutan Bengal tiger Australian 39 Highest diversity ofmarsupials 39 Only place with monotreme mammals ley eggs platypus New Zealand 39 Very unique fauna 39 No endemic or native mammals 39 Kiwi Pacific Galapagos finches I SLOSS Debate 0 Should there be created protected areas that are a Single Large or Several Small reserves parks etc I Population Geogra h 0 Th 0 O p y e spatial aspects of demogra hy 39 Demography study of population change Population de nsit 39 Total population total land area Physiologic density 39 More reliable 39 Total population unit of arable land I Global Population Concentrations O O O O O O 0 East and Southeast Asia 39 30 of World population Mostly rural South Asia India Pakistan Bangladesh 39 15 billion 39 Mostly in coastal areas and along rivers Eu rope 39 700 million I These three in Eurasia quotquotquot account for 4 billion of 69 North America 39 6070 urban South Ame ri a 39 C ustered around cities in coastal areas Africa 39 In northern Africa clustered around Nile and Mediterranean SubSaharanmostly in West Africa along coast and east coast from Ethiopia to South Africa Australia 39 Primarily on east coast I Population Increases Before 8000 BC 39 Little growth 500000 Worldwide 8000 BC to 1750 AD 0 39 Explosive growth to 800 million 39 1st Agricultural Revolution 0 1 7501950 From 800 million to 25 billion 39 Hit1 billion around 1820 39 Industrial Revolution 2ndAgricultural Revolution better health standards 0 1950Present 39 From 25 billion to 69 39 Medical Revolution and quotGreen Revolutionquot aka 3ml Agricultural Revolution Types of Growth 0 Linear o Exponential I Doubling times I US 06 125 years China 1 Important Populations 0 World 7billion 0 US 312 million 0 GA 10 million Demographic Cycles 0 Natural Increase births 7 deaths 1000 o CBR Number ofbirthsyear 1000 US 1 2 o TFR Births per female US 2 o MortalityCDR Number of deathsyear 1000 US 9 o IMR Number of infant lt1 deathsyear 1000 births 0 Life Expectancy US 78 Demographic Transitions O O POPB DI E 4 stages High Stationary High CBRamp CDR Low rate of growth Early Expanding High CBR and rate of growth Declining CDR Late Expanding Declining CBR amp CDR still a modest growth Low Stationary Low CBR and CDR Zero Population Growth TFRlt21 US not quite there because ofimmigration Population Pyramid O O Depends primarily on CB R Tells whetherpopulation is growing or shrinking Wide base growin Narrow base stabilit Industrialized and advanced nations typicallyhave a narrowerbase and more even distribution between age groups To inc reasedec rease population 358 Increase the CBR TFR and immigration Decrease CDR IMR and emigration


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