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by: Conrad Pfeffer


Conrad Pfeffer
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Bolton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/202204/geog-1101-university-of-georgia in Geography at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Keywords chapter 1 Accessibility the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location in relation to other locations Capitalism aform of ec0nomic and social organization characterized by the pro t motive and the control of the menus of production distribution and the exchange of goods by private ownership Friction of distance deterrent or inhibiting effect of distance on human activity Geographical imag nation capacity to understand changing patterns changing processes and changing relationships among people places and regions Globalization increasing interconnectedness of diiTerent parts of the world through common processes of economic environmental political and cultural change Human geography study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people s relationships with their environments Identity sense that people make of themselves through their subjective feelings based on their everyday experiences and wider social relations Intersubjectivitv shared meanings among people derived from their lived experience of everyday practice Neoliberal policies economic policies that are predicated on a minimalist role for the state assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization but also for political social life Place speci c geographic setting with distinctive physical social and cultural attributes Sectionalism extreme devotion to local interests and customs Sense of place feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and the symbolism that they attach to it Spatial interaction movement and ows involving human activity Smbolic landscapes representations of particular values or aspirations that the builders and nanciers of those landscapes Want to impart to a larger public Time space convergence rate at which places move closer together in travel or communication time or costs Chapter 2 key words Cartography the body of practical and theoretical knowledge about making distinctive visual representations ofEarth s surface in the form ofmaps Colonialism the establishment and maintenanCe of political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society Colonization the physical settlement in a new territory of people from a colonizing state was in part an indirect conSequence of the operation of the law of diminishing returns Commodity chain network of labor and production processes beginning with the extraction or production of raw materials and ending with the delivery of a nished commodity Core regions regions that dominate trade control the most advanced technologies and have high levels of productivity within diversi ed economies Division of labor the specialization of different people regions or countries in particular kinds of economic activities Environmental determination doctrine holding true that human activities are controlled by the environment Etlmocentrisnl attitude that one s own race tand culture are superior to others Hegemony domination over the world economy exercised by one national state in a particular historical epoch through a combination of economic military nancial and cultural means Inlperialism extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories Leadership cycles periods of international power established by individual states through economic political and military competition Neocolonialism economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their in uence over other areas or people Peripheral regions regions with undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity Plantation large landholding that usually specializes in the production of one particular crop for market Semiperipheral reg39ons regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by core regions Spatial justice fairness of the distribution of society s burdens and bene ts taking account spatial variations in people s needs and in their contribution to the production of wealth and social wellbeing T quot wt quot 39 with 39 and activities that span international r boundaries and With subsidiary companies factories o ices or facilities in several countries World system interdependent system of countries linked by economic and political competition Chapter 3 keywords Demography the study of the characteristics of human populations Emigration move from a particular location Forced migration movement of an individual against his or her will Guest workers individuals who migrate temporarily to take up jobs in other countries Immigration move to another location Internally displaced persons ngPs individuals who are uprooted within the boundaries of their own country because of con ict or human rights abuse Internal migration move within a particular country or region Migration move beyond the same political jurisdiction involving a change of residence either as emigration or immigration Mobility ability to move either permanently or temporarily Pull factors forces of attraction that influence migrants to move to a particular location Push factors events and conditions that impel an individual to move from a location Refugees individual who crosses national boundaries to seek safety and asylum Transnational migrant migrants who set up homes and or work in more than one nationstate Chapter 5 keywords Cultural geography how space place and landscape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes space place and landscape Cultural nationalism an e brt to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization especially from the penetrating in uence of US culture Diaspora spatial dispersion of a previously homogenous group Ethnicity socially created system of rules about who belongs and who dose not belong to a particular group based upon social or perceived commonality Historical geography geography of the past Popular culture practices and meaning systems produced by large groups of people whose norms and tastes are often heterogeneous and change frequently often in response to commercial products Race problematic classi cation of human beings based on skin color and other physical characterisitics Racialization practice of categorizing people according to race or of imposing a racial character or context Sexuality set of practices and identities that a given culture considers related to each other and to those things it considers sexual acts and desires Intersectionality Idea that people are in positions of relative privilege or oppression in social matrix one s position impacts one s life experiences and chances The Anti Homosexualitv Bill Bill in Ugandan parliament that has proposed the death penalty or life imprisonment for samesex acts David Kato Openly gay activist from Uganda who was murdered in 2011 Chapter 4 keywords Acid rain the wet deposition of acids upon Earth created by the natural cleansing properties of the atmosphere Climate change any signi cant change in measures of climate such as temperature precipitation or wind lasting for an extended period decades or longer Columbian Exchange interaction between the Old World originating with the voyages of Columbusiand the New World Conservation the view that natural resources should be used wisely and that society s effects on the natural world should represent stewardship and not exploitation Cultural ecology study of the relationship between a cultural group and its natural environment Deep ecolog approach to nature revolving around two key components selfrealization and biospherical egalitarianism Deforestation the removal of trees from a forested area without adequate replanting Desertification the degradation of land cover and damage to the soil and water in grasslands and arid and semiarid lands Ecofeminism view that patriarchal ideology is at the center of our present environmental malaise Ecological imperialism introduction of exotic plants and animals into new ecosystems Ecosystem community of diiTerent species interacting with each other and with the larger physical environment that surrounds it Environmental ethics philosophical perspective on nature that prescribes moral principles as guidance for our treatment of it Environmental justice movement re ecting a growing political consciousness largely among the world s poor that their immediate environs are far more toxic than those in wealthier neighborhoods Greenhouse gases QGHG any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere including but not limited to water vapor carbon dioxide methane and nitrous oxide Nature social creation as well as the physical universe that includes human beings Political ecology approach to cultural geography that studies humans in their environment through the relationships of patterns of resource use to political and economic forces Preservation approach to nature advocating that certain habitats species and resources should remain offlimits to human use regardless of whether the use maintains or depletes the resource in question Romanticism philosophy that emphasizes interdependence and relatedness between humans and nature Transcendentalism philosophy in which a person attempts to rise above nature and the limitations of the body to the point where the spirit dominates the esh Chapter 7 Creative destruction the withdrawal of investments from activities and regions that yield low rates of pro t in order to reinvest in new activities and new places Deindustrialization a relative decline in industrial employment in core regions Ecological footprint measure of the human pressures on the natural environment from the consumption of renewable resources and the production of pollution indicating how much space a population needs compared to what is available EX 01t rocessin zones EPZs small areas within which especially favorable investment and trading conditions are created by governments in order to attract exportoriented industries Fordism principles for mass production based on assemblyline techniques scientific management mass consumption based on higher wages and sophisticated advertising techniques Foreign direct investment total of overseas business investments made by private companies Gross domestic product 1GDP estimate of the total value of all materials foodstuiTs goods and services produced by a country in a particular year Import substitution process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that formerly GEOG1101 Midterm Study Guide 22213 The test will consist of multiple choice matching and map identi cation There will be no writing or sh01t answer sections on the exam While studying however it might be helpful to see if you can write a one or twosentence answer to each question listed below All of the questions below have been discussed in lecture It should be helpful to look at PowerPoint presentations posted on eLC Each day s slide presentation has 2025 short slides of text excluding photos that should help you to answer these questions 50 questions 10 matching 30 multiple choice 10 map 39 J quot to 39 C 39 39 quot amp capitalism weeks 1 amp2 r 0 Be able to identify the concepts of scale globalization and sense of place Global Continental 0 Regional ex State resource decisions Farm Level cszamily decisions on farm enterprises l Field Level ex Individual field decisions by farmer M 0 Landscape Commuity ex Comm decisions on farm enterprises iil whim u n Review what we have learned about the European conquest of the Americas the Atlantic slave trade the Industrial Revolution and the Scramble forAfrica Be able to identify why these were important to forming the coreperipherysemi periphery of today Four per 20t h centurv legacies that shape the world svstem European conquest of the Americas 0 o o 0 People had traded before but European conquest and quest for the New World began Europeans got a jump stalt into industrialization Encompassed more of the world than before with proved them as a powerful player in the world European expansion set up a core periphery system Wealth in European core fueled more with innovation and expansion The peripheral regions discovered by Europeans did not fare as well Atlantic slave trade Took place from 16Lh to 193911 centuries Portugese British French and Dutch were main participants By 1700 Britain was the main player 12 million people were removed from Africa as part of the Triangular Trade Europe to Africa to Americas Essential for Europeans to amass wealth that would secure their positions as world s core region Industrial Revolution In earlier years wealth of European conquerors traders went towards luxury living for kings and queens Portions of wealth also went into savings and investment From 1790 1850 marked the rst wave of industrialization Between 1850 1870 industrialization spread to northern France Belgium and Germany 0 New technologies of steel machine tools railroads and steamships Economic core was capitalism 0 System that reorganized class system 0 Aim was to maximize pro t 0 Based on wage labor capitalist can only profit by taking wealth produced by laborer o Prone to waves of crisis Period of incredible dynamism apetite and innovation Created new social division between the capitalist class and wage laborers Triggered successive phases of geographical expansion 0 Imperialism indirect form of rule 0 Colonialism Late l9m centu Scramble for Africa Making of First and Third Worlds week 3 What was the Second World Why was it seen as a threat to the First World Similarly what did core countries fear would happen when countries of the periphery decolonized in the mid 20th century What was the Second World 39nH39rquot o What is the difference between world system theory and the idea of a First Second and Third World o o 0 Three worlds model emphasizes development third world must develop to catch up39 whereas the world systems shows that core regions abundance often depends on scarcity of periphery Worldsystem theory questions simple linear logic of development and more clearly shows the interdependence of core periphery and semiperiphery Three worlds model comes out of specific historical context of Cold War while worldsystem theory is more contemporary CORE Dominate trade best technology Ex US Japan Canada 0 Tend to exploit other parts of the world through military power colonialism PERIPHERY Dependent on core regions Ex Africa South Asia South America SEMI PERIPHERY Exploit periphery in between core periphery Ex Australia New Zealand China Be able to name 4 effects of Third World development projects 0 o o 0 Many of the issues development projects have sought to fix remain persistent or have become worse Created large debts for many peripheral countries Has largely helped to reinforce coreperiphery divisions for many countries rather than leading to success and prosperity Drastically altered the character and scope of relations between rich and poor countries and the perception of what governments and societies should do or be Borders amp migration week 4 Why might we think of the USMeXico border as socially constructed o 1848 Large part of Mexico was ceded from US 19205 Wave of migration 19305 Half a million Mexican migrants deported 19421964 Bracero Accord 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act turning point Security 1994 NAl I39A 2005 Net miration down to 0 o o o o o l ill Be able to name three circumstances in which an undocumented immigrant could get documented status in the United States Be able to identlfy the 2 kinds 0 generally able to access Why did the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act mark a turning point in US immigration policy 0 m D ms 0 D H O Q entify the paradox between US economic policies such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and immigration policies such as the Immigration Reform and Control Act Cultural geography 7 introduction week 5 o What are the 2 ways that William Sewell Jr wants us to understand culture How are these complementary or dialectical i W Limquot As et of practices Engaging in cultural practice means using symbols Cultural symbols mean nothing without practice EX sorority letters mean nothing without the practices and rituals of each individual group Be able to name at least 5 aspects of identity that in uence how people experience life differently race class o 0 Co Cultural geo gr Gender Race Class Ability Religion Ethnicity Age Be familiar with the concept of intersectionality ncept of intersectionality Identities intersect to place people in positions of relative privilege or oppression in social matrix Position impacts one s life experiences and chances Like a rubix cube some points higher or lower than others some side by side some in front or behind People who are white male upper class Christian heterosexual are higher up or in front More privileged positions Women people of color the working class nonChristians non straight people lower down or behind Positions that experience oppression A person can experience both privilege and oppression Ex White woman has white privilege does not have the male privilege Many people have some kind of intersectional identity White wealthy straight man might be a trauma survivor But some intersections White men represent 776 of Fortune 500 directors While people of color make up about 30 of US population they account for 60 of those imprisoned Many are also lowincome Consequences for relative power privilege and wealth in society aphy the Uganda AntiHomosexuality Bill week 6 0 Be able to identify these three people Yoweri Museveni Scott Lively David Bahati What is each person s general position on the AntiHomosexuality Bill 0 Be able to identify the Rev Dr Kapya Kaoma his position on LGBT rights and what he has said about US evangelicals coming to Uganda 0 According to the bill what would be the consequences of a aggravated homosexuality b offense of homosexuality What was newdifferent about the View of sexuality taken by British co were in uenced by Victorian cultural norms in the 19 h century lonizers who 0 British colonizers strengthened ethnic divides Did not create identities but strenghthenedsortedconcentrated differences Ethnic identity important to who shared British prosperity British colonizers said Southern groups more advanced singled out to become more prosperous Northern groups more martial should be in colonial police and armed forces Colonizers also brought idea that homosexuality was wrong Supported by Christian missionaries Victorian cultural conservatism At the time an unquestioned part of core countries cultural values Since Ugandan independence British and Ugandan view have greatly diverged In Britain samesex relationships now widely accepted In Uganda now threat of death penalty Colonial legacy is clear British colonizers were not just against homosexuality they actually came up with the very category of the homosexual The idea that people can be bracketed into sexual types was born in the Victorian era Exported to the Empire Still proliferates in both British and Ugandan societies today In many precolonial African societies homohetero distinction did not exist Variety of sexual activities were engaged in Viewed more as recreational pursuits not homo vs hetero Victorian British both 1 Created category of homosexual 2 Made it something considered wrong on cultural and religious ground 0 Be able to identify 3 human rights issues that the bill brings up 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 Issue of breaking trust between families and communities undermine efforts to fight HIV AIDS Sanctioning increased violence against gays Interpreting place 7 Palestine and Israel week 7 Be able to identify all chapter 6 keywords which will be posted on eLC Also go over keywords from chapters 1 2 3 and 5 but 6 will be the focus m u u x 39 Be able to identify the following places on a map Uganda Kenya Tanzania Burundi Rwanda Be able to identify the following places on a map Israel West Bank Gaza Strip Jordan Egypt A emswom myquot Jnnas Educmm 13mmquot


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