INTRO PHYS GEOG
INTRO PHYS GEOG GEOG 1111
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1111 at University of Georgia taught by Parker K in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/202205/geog-1111-university-of-georgia in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Geography Test 4 Study Guide Test Friday 422 Disclaimer This is probably not all of the information Add whatever you see missing please Landforms Surface configuration ofthe land Topography Balance between 0 Internal forces that push the crust upward o Denudation processes that weather and erode mineral matter Mountain building usually involves o Volcanism o Tectonic activity Volcanism formation of new igneous rock at the surface extrusive igneous rock becomes a landform immediately outside the volcano intrusive igneous rock solidifies inside the volcano but isn39t technically a landform until it gets to the surface Eruptions involve lava gas 002 h20 pyroclastics ash cinders Volcanic Areas plate boundaries hot spots like hawaiian islands Types of Magma o o basaltic o andesitic granitic magma magma o silica content 0 low 0 high 0 o viscosity 0 low 0 high 0 forms lava 0 yes 0 no 0 forms 0 no 0 yes pyroclastics o melting 0 high 0 low temperature 0 type of o nonviolent o explosive eruption Volcanic Landforms Shield volcanoes and ood basalts 0 OOO basaltic magma magma gt comes to surface through vents flows long distance largest volcanic landform built up over thousands to millions of years occur at spreading centers like midatlantic ridge island arcs two island plates converging and hot spots cinder cones 00000 O basaltic or andesitic magma magma gt comes to surface under great pressure pyroclastics lava ejected into air solidify fast as ash and cinders falls back around vent to build cone smallest volcanoes take least time to form composite volcanoes 0000 more andesitic magma than shield volcanoes or flood basalts form a series of eruptions involving different types of magma classic volcano shape take thousands to millions of years to form subduction zones and spreading cneters involving continental and oceanic crust intrusive plutons and volcanic necks o Pluton magma in volcanic chamber melts overlying rock incorporated into the magma gradually solidifies IOnly becomes a landform when it reaches the surface 0 Neck magma in dormant volcanic chamber solidi es o Eventually overlying rock eroded away exposes igneous pluton lShiprock out west Tectonic Processes Mountain Building 7 Tectonic Processes o Deformation of rigid rock lFig1215 Alps 0 Folding faulting fracture with differential movement Earthquake Occurrence Slippage along fault a rapid release of energy a sudden vibration of the earth Earthquake Occurrence 0 Ring of fire Around plate boundaries Historical Earthquakes 7 US 0 California 0 Yellowstone Tsunami Occurrence 0 Regional upliftsubsidence of ocean floor 0 Underwater landslide rarely abovewater slide Tectonic Processes o Tensional forms Inormal fault where plates fit together like Ireverse fault opposite way utension gt normal fault lhorst upfaulted block remains high relative to other blocks lgraben downfaulted block Compression crustal shortening 0 causes reverse faults 0 causes folding lsynclines 0 when the fold is downward lanticline 0 when the fold is upward shear stress gt strike slip faults 0 stress is lateral between two plates 0 horizontal offsetting broad nondeforming uplift o broad area of the plate is lifted up without a lot of bending or folding 0 going to happen away from a plate boundary Weathering physical o mechanical breaking apart of rock chemical o breakdon through alteration of chemical composition of rock 0 sinkholes Erosional Processes streams wave action glaciation wind slope processes gravity Differential Erosion and Rock Resistence jointing pattern fractures in rock 0 joint is a fracture in rock without differential movement at the break 0 fault joint where one side moves up or down 0 rocks with higher density ofjoints are more easily weathered inherent rock strength 0 if its strong it will remain in the landscape 0 if its weak it will erode 0 can have anticlinal valleys and synclinal ridges Slope Processes Mass Wasting movement of sediment downslope under the force of gravity angle of repose maximum stable slope angle maintained by loose sediment 33370 soil creep 0 transport of material downslope particle by particle solifluction 0 slow ow of material above a permafrost layer downslope landslide o sudden failure of a slope along a planar surface movement downslope Hydrology degradational action of water on the earths surface 0 water in streams o waters running over land unconfined to streams erosion o slope processes deliver sediment to stream channel 0 channeized ow in stream eventually gt ocean Concth of Base Level level to which streams downcut drainage basin terrain that contributes water carried by a stream drainage divide divides one basin from another What happens to precipitation evaporation from land and water infiltration percolation moves to the soil overland flow or runoff basically water flowing downhill or something 0 fast mechanism through flow infiltration 0 slow mechanism Factors affecting in ltration substrate 0 texture o depth of permeable substrate lsand allows infiltration fast coarse texture amount of vegetation cover 0 plant cover gt less in ltration lplants intercept infiltration antecedent precipitation precipitation intensity 0 high intensity gt low infiltrationgt more runoff land use 0 compaction clearing of vegetation gt more runoff 0 urban development gt more runoff Channel cross section area area bounded by the streambed channel banks and water level discharge 0 volume of water passing a point in a streamtime o dischargeQ velocity of water area Shortterm Hydrographs and Drainage Basins graph that shows discharge q vs time base ow amount ofwater always in a stream Highly permeable rain making it through baseline sand 0 High base flow high through ow 0 Low overland flow low runoff 0 Low flood peaks 0 More consistent Q Not very permeable like concrete path 0 high runoff 0 low through ow 0 high flood peaks 0 highly variable Q Sediment Load and Stream Capacity 0 Source of sediment surrounding hillsides lSlope processes a deliver sediment to stream Overland flow quot Types of stream load 0 Dissolved load 0 Suspended load 0 Bedload big rocks that are too heavy to be suspended in water and sits there and doesn t move Sediment Load and Stream capacity 0 Steam capacity a total amount of sediment a stream can carry In uenced by 0 Gradient elevation change with horizontal distance steep 0 Velocity gtvelocity a gtcapacity all else being equal After rainfall velocity increases 0 Channel shape amp size Sediment Load and Stream Capacity 0 Stream in equilibrium sediment load capacity lCapacity lt load a stream cannot carry its load a deposition aggradation Capacity gt load a stream has excess energy a erosion degradation Streams and Fluvial Landforms Longitudinal Profile 0 Headwaters ISteeper gradient lBedload ISmall channel IValley deepening o Mouth lFlatter gradient ISuspended load lLarge channel IValley widening Streams as Agents of Work work done by water itself sediment mechanically abrading channel headwaters erosion and downcutting o streams seem to meander around their mouth flat just wandering around mouth 0 creation of cut banks and point bars ICUt banks happen because velocities are fastest on outside of bends lcreates a bank at the point ofa sharp turn lpoint bars occur at the same point but on the inside side of the turn 0 overbank flooding gt deposition on the oodplain floodplains usually flat made by stream moving back and forth over ood plain o flooding depositing sediment on the ground Changes in Drainage Basins over Time irregularities in longitudinal profile are worn down lakes fill in valleys become deeper and wider hillsides become atter and smoother Aggradational and Degradational Landforms stream in equilibrium sediment load capacity capacity lt load gt stream cant carry its load 0 deposition aggradation o infilling of channel bed at head of lake 0 formation ofa delta capacity gt load gt stream has excess energy 0 erosion degradation 0 can be caused by lclimate change gt rainfall gt higher discharge Q Idamming a stream below dam luplift of land gt gt gradient 0 results in lstream cuts down in its valley incises Iterrace formation on streams with floodplains Coastal Landforms Near Shore Topography continental shelf 0 submerged shallow surface that slopes from the coastline to the deep ocean basin coral reefs o combination ofreef building algae and coral an animal built up on pieces of broken reef Energy Inputs Along Coasts tides 0 daily uctuation in water level differential gravitational pull of sun and moon on solid earth vs oceans 0 spring tides Imaximum tidal variation lwhen earth moon and sun are all in line gravity pulls harder full moons and new moons Inothing to do with season of spring 0 neap tides Iminimal tidal variation lwhen moon earth and sun make a right triangle 0 shape of coastline alters how much tidal variation there is waves 0 undulations in the ocean surface caused by winds longshore currents drift 0 lateral current occuring when waves strike the beach at an angle Erosional vs Iquot la Coastlines Erosional 0 narrow continental shelf 0 high energy waves 0 bedrock coastlines o erosion dominates 0 along california all west coast depositional 0 wide continental shelf lower energy waves coastlines of sediment deposition dominates east coasst of US usually find barrier islands OOOOO Requirements for Glaciation glacier 0 mass of ice that persists all year and moves out of a zone of accumulation under the force of gravity requirements 0 snowfall gt snowmelt o compaction lfresh snow 90 air lglacial ice 15 air 0 total thickness of I60 200 feet for mountain glaciers l1 2 miles for continental glaciers movement ofglacial ice 0 internal ow of ice crystals 0 slippage of ice along the ground surface effects of ice action 0 erosion loccurs by 0 abrasion o debris carried at base of ice acts like sandpaper gouges land it moves over 0 plucking 0 ice at base thaws then refreezes around rocks pulling them up into ice mass 0 transport 0 deposition lwhen ice mentsl sediment it carried is deposited o till 0 dropped in place all particles size quotunsortedquot ldropped whereverthe ice melts lall sizes of debris o outwash 0 carried by glacial meltwater quotsortedquot by particle size Types of Glaciation continental 0 ice overrides all terrain features obliterates preglacial relief topography valley or mountain 0 ice restricted to preglacial stream valleys leaves drainage divides above the ice History of Glaciation today 10 ofland covered pleistocene glaciation 30 of land covered Pleistocene Glaciation 20 millino years ago 10000 years ago temperatures uctuated 35 degrees celcius from glacials to interglacials many advances and meltbacks quotretreatsquot ofthe ice best understood last 1520000 years accompanied by many environmental changes away from the ice Landforms Continental Glaciation zone of ice accumulation canadian shield gt erosion o abraided rock thin veneer of weathered rock debris over exposed bedrock infertile soil irregular depressions lakes not much deposition ice retreated quickly over this area 000 Geog 1111 4192011 14100 AM Volcanism and Volcanic landforms Landform surface configuration ofthe land Balance between Internal forces that push the crust upward Denudation processes that weather and erode mineral matter Volcanism Formation of new igneous rock at the earth s surface Magma surface and cools forms rock Creates landform immediately Eruptions involve Lava Gas C02 H20 Sites of current volcanoes Plate boundaries Plate tectonics Types of magma Basaltic magma silica contentlow viscosity contentlow forms lavayes forms pyroclasticsno melting I e high type er pquot violent Andesiticgranitic magma silica contenthigh viscosity content high forms lavano forms pyroclasticsyes melting I e luw type CI pquot p39 Shield volcanoes and flood basalts do involve basaltic magma magma surface through vents flows long distance largest volcanic landform built up over thousands to millions of years occur at spreading centers island arcs and hot spots Cinder cones basaltic or andesitic magma surface under great pressure pyroclasticslava ejected into air solidify fast as ash and cinders falls back around vent to build cone smallest of volcanoes takes least time to form composite volcanoes more andesitic magma than shield volcanoes or flood basalt form from series of eruptions involving different types of magma Geog 1111 4192011 14100 AM Tectonic Elates Tension normal fault Horst upfaulted block Graben downfaulted block Compression crustal shortening 9 1 reverse faults 2 folding synclines anticlines compression folding syncline is downward anticline is upward Geog 1111 4192011 14100 AM denudation both weathering and erosion together Weathering disintegration Physical mechanical breaking apart of rock Water helps weathering spreads out Ice and tree roots wedge rock parts apart Chemical breakdown through alteration of chemical composition of rock H20 C02 carbonic acid h20 C03 creates sinkholes Erosion removal Streams Wave action Glaciation Transport Deposition Differential erosion and rock resistance Jointing pattern fractures in rock Fractures in rocksfractures in crust Break in the rock and rock moves one direction and rock on other side moves other direction Joint fracture in rock no differential movement on side of breakjoint Caused by tree roots Rocks with higher density ofjoints are going to be more easily weathered than rocks that don t Inherent rock strength Slope processes mass wasting Movement of sediment downslope under the force of gravity Wearing awaywasting away of mountainsslopes Soil creep Transport of material downslope particle by particle Slow mass wasting compared to andsides fast mass wasting Geog 1111 4192011 14100 AM short term hydrographs and drainage basins high base flow high through flow low overland flow low runoff low flood peaks more consistent Q sediment load and stream capacity source of sediment surrounding hillsides types of stream loss 1 dissolved load lots of chemicals carried 2 suspended load sediment particles settle slowly enough to be carried into flowing water wo touching the bed 3 bedload big rocks way to heavy to be suspended up usually floods pick up boulders and move them stream capacity total amount of sediment a stream can carry influenced by gradient elevation change with horizontal distance stream in equilibrium sediment loadcapacity capacityltload9 stream cant carry its load gt deposition aggradations deposition sediment will settle out streams and fluvial landforms 1 longitudinal profiles headwaters steeper gradient bedload small channel valley deepening mouth flatter gradient suspended load large channel valley widening 2 streams as agents of work headwaters mouth 3 changes in drainage basins over time 4 aggradational and degradational landforms Geog 1111 4192011 14100 AM Streams and Fluvial Landforms Streams as agents of work Work done by 1 Water itself 2 Sediment mechanically abrading channel work done by streams Headwaters erosion and down cutting Valley deepening Wearing down waterfalls Cutting into the head of the drainage basin Mouth lateral shifting of streams across floodplain Gradients are a lot gentler Not a straight channel slithers back and forth meandering 1 Creation of cut banks and point bars maximum velocity is in the middle of the channel or where the water is deepest will send you down river fastest where velocity is fastest is where capacity to carry sediment is greatest 2 Overbank flooding deposition on the floodplain normal Q confined to channel changes in drainage basins over time irregularities in longitudinal profile are worn down lakes fill in valleys become deeper and wider hillsides become flatter and smoother aggradational landforms capacitylt load stream cant carry its load deposition aggradation infilling of channel bed at head of lake degradational landforms capacitygt load stream has excess energy erosion degradation climate change gt rainfall gt Q damming a stream below dam uplift of land gt gradient Geog 1111 4192011 14100 AM Coastal Landforms Near shore topography Continental shelf submerged shallow surface that sloepes from the coastline to the deep ocean basin Coral reefs combination of reef building algea and coral animal built up on pieces of broken reef warm water shallower areas active at night Energy inputs along coasts Tides daily fluctuation in water level lt differential gravitiional pul of sun and moon on solid earth vs oceans Spring tides maximum tidal variation fig 16 7 during new moon and full moons bc earth and moon in line between sun and moon Lateralness of moon and sun Neap tides first quarter third quarter right angles minimal tidal variation Perpendicular ness of moon and sun HAVE TUTOR EXPLAIN Tides on topographic influence we are in Georgia bite great tidal variation because its concave slight tidal variation around Massachusetts Waves undulations in the ocean surface caused by winds Longshore currents drifts lateral current occurring when waves strike the beach at an angle Basically sideways tides reason why u drift down the beach Makes headline Erosional vs depositional coastlines Narrow continental shelf High energy waves Bedrock coastlines Erosion dominates Depositional coastlines Wide continental shelf Lower energy waves Coastlines of sediment Deposition dominates Geog 1111 4192011 14100 AM Glacial processes and Landforms Reguirements for glaciation Glacier mass of ice that persists all year and moves out of a zone of accumulation under the force of gravity Glaciation process of erosion or aggradation on landforms from a big hunk of ice glacier Constantly adding more to one end Really slow water it is a solid but can still move Zone of ablation ocean Zone of accumulation where snow is accumulates on mountain f accumulation is greater than ablation glacier is growing f ablation is greater than accumulation glacier is shrinking melting Need snowfall exceeds snowmelt all year Compaction must compact from loss of airspace below total thickness has to be 60 200 feet for mountain glaciers 1 2 miles for continental glaciers Movement of glacial ice internal flow of ice crystals slippage of ice along the ground surface Moves downslope Effects of Ice Action Erosion occurs by Abrasion debris carried at base of ice acts like sandpaper gouges land it moves over happens on the slope of the ice flow Plucking ice at base thaws then refreezes around rocks pulling them up into ice mass Happens on the backside of the ice flow Transport Ice is like a big conveyor belt moving all the stuff down the hill Deposition When ice melts sediment it carried is deposited Till material that s carried by the ice dropped in place when it melts all particles sizes and they are unsorted Cluster dumping Erratics rocks drop out of ice big rocks9 type of till Wash carried by glacial meltwater quotSortedquot by particle sizes water sorts it bigger particles fall out first smaller get carried longer Types of glaciation Continental ice overrides all terrain features kills all preglacial relief topography is wiped out Valley or mountain ice restricted to preglacial stream valleys leaves drainage divides above the ice A lot smaller than continental glaciers History of Glaciation Today 10 of land area of the earth ice covered Pleistocene ice age 30 of land area ice covered 2 mil years ago to 10 thousand years ago Temperatures fluctuated 3 5 degrees from glacials to interglacials Many advances and meltbacks retreats ofthe ice Best understood last 15 20k years accompanied by many environmental changes away from the ice Landforms Continental Glaciation Zone of ice accumulation Canadian shield results in erosion abraided rock thin veneer light layer of soil of weathered rock debris over exposed bedrock infertile soil irregular depressions and lakes mainly Canada think about it Not much deposition ice retreaded quickly over the region Zone of ice ablation American Midwest prairie provinces deposition thick deposits of glacial till and backwash bulldozing of preglacials landscape Kettle lake when a chunk of glacier breaks off and forms a kettle like hole Moraines linear landscape Geog 1111 4192011 14100 AM Landforms continental glaciation Zone of ice ablalation Midwest and prairies deposition Thick deposits of glacial till and outwash Moraines linear hills of glacial till Bulldozing of preglacial landscape Kettle lakes lakes formed by melting ice blocks Types of glaciation Continental Ice overrides all terrain features obliterates preglacial relief topography Valley or mountain Ice restricted to preglacial stream valleys leaves drainage divides above the ice Landforms mountain glaciation Ice only modifies pre glacial landscape doesn t completely override it doesn t create hills or valleys Ice has tendency to oversteepen slopes and broadens valleys out so that they are much much wider than before V shaped valley if glacier moves down it it turns into a u shaped valley Moraines are deposited damming lakes Occur in mountain glaciers as well Often times dam up rivers and you get lakes forming that are made from moraine dams Longitudinal profiles of streams more irregular After time as ice melts back it will become smoother Actively glaciers Alaska Because of the precipitation in Alaska As long as rate of snowfall exceeds rate of melting there will be glaciers Ablating glaciers Colorado 30 40 yrs ago glacier is melting Glacial recession Most ofthe glaciers in Alaska Indirect effects of the ice 1 Sea level changes takes all water from oceancontinental glaciers to drop sea level sea level changes to ice then decreases 2 Deserts wetter pluvial lakes lakes that exist in areas that are too dry today Nevada Utah 3 vegetation change worldwide areas of mountains would have vegetation and places where glaciers were there was no vegetation 4 stream adjustment to glacial meltwater as glaciers are melting there is more sediment sediment load is spread out across the Midwestern united states Geog 1111 4192011 14100 AM Review day concepts Synclines and anticlines compression features folding happens syncline is a down warp anticline is an upward refers to rock structure not topography shape of earth s surface or landform there is a difference how are rocks layered difference in erosional patterns rock layers are eroded away slower Difference between normal fault scarf Normal fault scarf due to tension pulling apart of 2 sides of a fault in normal fault piece of rock drops down sliding down false scarf is vertical cliff linear cliff when 1 cliff drops down Horsts and grobbens is stretching from crust but a series of them series of fault scarfs below fault scarf is grobbens is valley Pluton and neck inside a volcanic area magma Pluton happens in kind of the same way but not magma chamber we see as landform but it does melt the rock so its not solid Intrusive igneous rock becomes a landform once rock is eroded away How do glaciers move They are caused to move by gravity pulling them down slow happens only at certain accumulation of ice and snow Ice begins to flow downhill of the landscape When glacier advances the rate of accumulation exceeds rate of melting Anything carried in the ice is also brought forward Ice is moved forward internally Tectonic activity folding and faulting triggered by interaction of plate boundaries Horizontal layers of rock forces cause them to uplift gradually over time Grand canyon horizontal layers of rock exposed Broad happens over large area Hydrographs A graph that shows discharge Q volume of water and time is shown on horizontal axis shown in response to an input of water rainfall causes discharge to rise and fall streams typically have consistent levels of discharge usually after rainfall you can see 2 parts of hydrographs so you can see consistent level in stream which is called base low Above average flow is called overland flow Base flow is delivered via through flow c When streams carry glacial water and sediment with increased water increase stream capacity to carry sediment but also carrying more sediment Increase capacity of stream relative to sediment load you get erosion If sediment is greater than capacity aggradation Plate boundaries that don t coincide with continental continental landmasses and ocean o 1 San Andr a s fault system no big plate boundary transform boundary where plates are moving laterally o 2 Himalayas India crashing into the Eurasian plate and continental continental material coming together there o 3 East African plate chemical weatheringchemical reaction including break down of a rock most important in tropicse high temperatures and humidity Cold and relatively dry environmentse mechanical weathering frost heathing frost wedging ice seeps into cracks and freezes then ice wedges apart Physical weathering mechanical breaking apart of the rock Same as mechanical weathering Permafrost and solidpermafrost happens in tundra cold never thaws called permafrost constantly solid even in summertime as surface later does warm up but under layer doesn t defrost So no water sinks in so top soil flows down slowly soupier than soil creep Soil creep is constant freezing and thawing Longshort currents occur because wind almost invariably comes into the coastline not perpendicular to the coast If wind is coming in at angle to the coast along the beach when the wave crashes its gunna break in line with direction of wind and waves but when waterfalls back into the ocean it goes back down the beach Sand gets transported down the beach longshort drift
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