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by: Conrad Pfeffer


Conrad Pfeffer
GPA 3.58


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This 42 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Trauger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/202206/geog-1101-university-of-georgia in Geography at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
GEOG 1101 Final Exam Nature and Society Views on Nature Science and Technology PreChristian quotorganicquot world provided for humans food shelter but also threatened human life natural disasters famines Christian quotmanquot made in image of God was set apart from nature and was responsible for controlling nature Bacononian 1500s to present Role of science was to help humans understand use and control nature Nature Society Environmental determinism 18 119 h centuries nature shapes society behavior and attitudes 0 Suggested a relationship between climate and work ethic o More likely a justification for empire Environmental possibilism nature shapes people Nature society inter relationship Carson raised the question of human health threats 0 Vulnerable part of natural world 0 Carson died of breast cancer in 1964 0 Silent Spring 1962 o Disruption of reproductive systems of birds due to use of pesticides o Linked human health with environmental health Cannot think of nature as separate from society Questions about and research on nature must have sociological aspects as well IPAT IPAT I Environmental Impact P Population T Technology Cultural Ecology Intersection of culture nature and technology 0 Food production 0 Small groups and their adaptive strategies 0 Environment management is shaped by cultural beliefs Deep Ecology Arne Naess 1973 Intrinsic rights of nature Current policy is too anthropocentric and technocentric Need to be thinking in eco centric ways Social Ecology Murray Bookchin 1980 Recognize interdependencies between humans and nature Segregated societies living in greater harmony with natural world Political Ecology Blaikie and Brookfield 1987 Unequal social relations negatively affect the environment Power and capital affect how the individuals and societies make decisions about resources Human Ecology Study of the spatial and temporal relations of human beings as affected by the selective distributive and accommodative forces of the environment Human communities and human populations as part of the ecosystem of earth Adaptive strategies to meeting human needs availability of resources environmental change Cuyahoga River Fire 1969 Debris collected below the railroad and a spark from a train ignited them Fire spread across keroseneladen oil floating on top of the river Symbol of industrial indifference and a symbol of the weaknesses of public regulation Love Canal 1978 Neighborhoods in Niagara Falls Toxic waste Cancer miscarriages epilepsy Protest by women in community Superfund Act Exxon Valdez 1989 Valdez tanker ship owned by Exxon Ran aground in Prince William Sound 11 million gallons of oil Extensive research of impact policy Earth Summits 1972 Stockholm 0 Brundtland report 0 Sustainable development 1992 Rio de Janeiro 0 Institutions to monitor environment 0 Increasingly global oversight and governance 0 Agenda 21 Johannesburg 2002 0 Climate and biodiversity Environmental Impact Stone Age to present Extinctions permanent removal of species Salinization accumulation of salt in soil Siltation accumulation of soil in water Deforestation permanent removal of vegetation Desertification spread of desert like conditions Pollution contamination of environment Policies NEPA 1969 Clean Air Act 1970 OSHA 1970 Endangered Species Act 1973 Clean Drinking Water Act 1974 Clean Water Act 1977 Superfund 1980 Oil Pollution Act 1990 Tragedy of Commons Multiple individuals acting independently in their own selfinterest can ultimately destroy a shared limited resource Public grazing lands water resources Privatization and regulation ndustrialization fossil fuel usage Majority of fuels come from nonrenewable sources of energy Annual global energy consumption is equal to 13 billion tons of coal 0 Took one million years to produce naturally 0 4x what 1950 population consumed o 20x what 1850 population consumed Global Climate Change Find a balance between economic 39 39 and 39 39 39 39 o Kyoto Protocol I Reduce amount of greenhouse gases I Make sure that the quotburdenquot is shared equitably 0 Core countries reduce emissions by 68 0 Fears that energy companies would lose profits and reduce economic growth 0 India and China not included in numerical limitations of emissions Debate over whether global warming exists Scientists don t debate over whether it exists 0 Uncertainty about outcomes 0 Can t predict how we will be affected Recent news artic warming at twice the global rate lose 5060 of ice by 2100 More than 100 million people worldwide live within three feet of mean sea level Nuclear Energy Thought to be cleaner cheaper and more efficient that fossil fuels Accidents Chernobyl Ukraine Windscale Britain Three Mile Island Pennsylvania Waste Yucca Mountain NIMBY Nuclear Proliferation ran Hydropower Clean energy alternative to coal oil gas I Displaces people I Changes ecology of river I Removes access to prime agricultural land I Only temporary 39239 Dams become unusable after a period of time because of siltation 39239 Yangtze 2 million people moved 39239 Largest dam in world 185 m high 25 billion dollars Renewables Geothermal heat from the ground Wind Power turns turbines Solar Power photovoltaic Biomass ethanol biodiesel Funding for research and development is basically nonexistent Subsidies and tax relief for petroleum industry make oil and gas cheap for consumers 0 Land Use Change 5 categories of land cover 0 Forest 0 Cultivated o Grassland o Wetland 0 Areas of settlement Change conversion change from one category to another or modification alteration of existing cover thinning forest draining wetland o Urbanization 0 Agriculture 0 Deforestation Permanent clearing and destruction of forests o 90 of Africans rely on wood for fuel 0 Rain forest destruction biodiversity and medicine Desertification degradation of land cover and damage to soil and water in grasslands o Cultivated of marginal land 0 Global Environmental Politics Global Change political economic social historical and environmental problems 0 Environmental costs of modernity and globalization 0 Global protest WTO 0 Global organizations Greenpeace 0 Global political parties Greens 0 Global treaties Kyoto Protocol More change within the natural world in the last 500 years than ever before 0 EnvironmentalSustainability Sustainable development meet the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs 0 Power 0 Difficult to measure enforce o Easiest to initiate and maintain at a local grassroots level 0 Human Ecology of the Future Energy 0 Centralized nuclear hydropower wind biofuels o Decentralized solar wind geothermal 0 Conservation through efficiency Land Use 0 Agriculture regional and local food systems 0 Forests farm products replace forest products 0 Rescaling of agricultural production Geographies of Food and Agriculture 0 Food Fights Industrial vs agrarian Conventional vs organic Labor vs capital intensive Fast vs slow GMOs vs hybrids vs open pollinated seeds Local vs global Cultural Economy of Agriculture Post WWII 0 Chemical mechanical intensive vs labor intensive production practices I Surplus nitrogen agricultural chemicals 0 Decrease in number of farms 0 Increase in size of farms 0 Production of commoditiesexport crops I Top 5 commodities cattle diary corn soybeans broilers I Top 5 exports soybeans feed grains live animals and meat wheat Cheap Food Policy Government subsidies and tax money 0 Costs of production down 0 Overproduce for profit 0 Surpluses drive price down Facilities industrialization process Keeps food prices lowwages lowincreases profits in industrial sector Farmers bankrupt CPI consumer price index Eating Oil Mechanization and Globalization 0 Diesel tractors o Irrigation systems 0 Plastic packaging 0 Transportation Food miles 0 Average food bite in the US travels 1500 2400 miles 0 Local food biteslt100 Rationalization efficiency decreasing costs emphasis on economic values Chickens o 8 billion chickens sold in US in 1997 0 Health concerns prices decreasing food processing 0 Poultry science I Decreased growth time I Concentrated numbers in chicken houses I Debeaking to reduce damage 0 Contract farming I Transitional corporations provide chicks and feed farmers provide labor and infrastructure BSE Bovine spongiform encephalitis o Prion malformed protein 0 Human variant creutzfeldt jakob disease I Debilitating degenerative fatal brain disease I Fees source rendered meat infected with TSE Conventional Agriculture Adaptation of natural environment 0 Monocultural production systems 0 Chemical amendment of soil 0 Eradication of pests Manufacture of food products 0 Farmers grow commodities not food Vertical integration of economic systems 0 Dominance of multinational firms 0 Extension of supply chain Outcomes o Inexpensive abundant and diverse foods Strong agricultural economy in global markets Agricultural surpluses enable global food aid foreign policy Polluted and degraded environments Declining rural populations and communities Food scares declining human health and alienation of consumers from food production 0 Organic Production Principles Health Ecology Fairness Care 0 Organic Agriculture Adaptation to natural environment I Polycultural systems I Extensive crop rotation I Biocide free Emphasis on soil quality and ecosystem health Farmers grow fruits vegetables for localregional markets Alternative economic models 0000 0 Local foods The place of productionthe place of consumption Urban Systems 0 Industrialization and urbanization Merchant capitalism Gateway cities served as a link between one country and others because of their physical location Cities synonymous with industrialization I Labor transportation factories warehouses Shock Cities I Embodies surprising and disturbing changes in economic and population growth I Comparative advantage specialization in activities concentrated in the region I Industrial cities 0 Manchester England 0 Chicago 0 World cities Conduct a disproportionate part of world s business I Participate in global economy I Cumulative causation buildup of advantages largely due to specialization and external linkages I Play key roles in organizing space beyond their national boundaries Megacities Both important globally and nationally I Size gt10 million people I Link local and provincial economies to global system I Provide links between informal and formal sectors 0 Informal work takes place off official record not subject to formalized systems of regulation remuneration Central Places Central place theory size and geographic spacing of cities as a function of consumer behavior I People won t travel far for less expensive everyday goods I People will travel for more expensive less frequently purchased items 0 Small towns closer together provide basic services 0 Large cities farther apart provide specialized services Regional Trends in Urban Growth One half of the world s population live in the cities I 30 was urbanized in 1950s North America is the most urbanized continent 77 372 metropolitan areas in the world with a million or more people 45 cities over 5 million people Over urbanization Cities grow more rapidly than the jobs and housing they sustain I Slums I Shanty towns I Squatter settlements Peripheral housing often temporary lack access to drinking water sanitation electricity Polycentric Metropolis Traditional downtown banking finance Newer business centers old residential new corporate HQ Internal edge cities revitalized industrial areas External edge cities freeways airports new development Outermost edge city complexes RampD offices Specialized subcenters education entertainment sport complexes Edge cities Nodal concentrations of shopping and office space situated on the fringes of metropolitan areas typically near highway interchanges I Tyson s center no zip 0 45000 residents 10000 jobs 27 million sqft of office space 9 major department stores 3500 hotel rooms 0 Parking for 90000 cars Unpackaged landscapes O O O O Sprawl explosive spreading growth llsprawl mart Boomburbs rapidly growing suburbs Gated communities Generica homogenous development 0 Smart Growth Growth designed to curb sprawl I Preserving open space I Redeveloping on automobiles o Encouraging innovative design Pedestrian friendly communities mixed land uses commercial centers at transit stops I Creating community 0 Regional interdependence solidarity Cities Spaces and Places 0 Places Structure daily routines Provide opportunities and constraints for well being Provide a context to gather everyday knowledge and information Provide a setting for socialization Provide an arena for contesting social norms Placeshumanshumansplaces 0 Urban Functions Accessibility I Workers markets resources transportation I Jobs amenities friends entertainment Territoriality attachment to place I Claim space 0 Private property 0 Public land 0 CongregationSegregation Congregation territorial or residential clustering of specific groupssubgroups Segregation spatial separation of specific subgroups within a wider population I Enclaves ethnic districts identity I Ghettoes low income discrimination I Colonies conquest immigration 0 Redlining Practice of denying or increasing the cost of services insurance in certain racially determined areas 0 Patterns of Urban Structure Central Business District I Offices hotels transportation Zone in Transition I Mixed industrial stores housing workshops public housing projects Residential zones I Worker homes I Manager homes I Gentrification Native American Cities Fiscal problems I Taxesrevenue can t keep up with expenditures I Low tax base due to inner city poverty Infrastructure problems I Public utilities transportation communications I White flight sprawl PovertyNeighborhood decay I Wagerent disparities I Redlining I Homelessness European Cities Low skylines central business district cbd growth occurred before elevators Lively downtowns cbd remains social center instead of suburbs Neighborhood stability less extended mobility Municipal socialism clinics public transport social housing Islamic Cities Jami principal mosque I Centrally located I Center of worship education welfare functions Suqs street marketplace bazaars I Streets from mosque Ahya residential areas I Around suqs I Privacy Peripheral cities Mega cities in the periphery I Underemployment working less than full time I Informal economy outside regulation cash I Uneven development I Congested transportation systems I Degraded environmental conditions Conclusion Cities places that shape routines and possibilities Cities are shaped by cultural values Cities are shaped by economic realities Future Geographies Speculation about our future Pessimistic view Cassandra I Exhaust resources I Increase conflicts Optimistic view Pollyanna I Increase global interconnections I Technologicaladvancements Reality lies between Three scenarios Conventional world I Things stay pretty much the same I Development is governed by gradual steady industrial growth worldwide 0 Reference scenario primary driver of change is free markets growth in wealth and increased consumption Balanced Growth Scenario primary driver of change is new policy and regulation 0 Barbarism I Things get really really bad I Negative stresses present today intensify and contribute to social breakdown 0 Social breakdown 39239 Civil order breaks down as state weakens 39239 Collapse of globalization o Fortress world 39239 Social breakdown crisis threatens privilege of the core 39239 Access to resources restricted to the wealthy classes protected by military Great Transitions I Things get lots better I Global Governance I Emphasis on global common goods intergovernmental cooperation o Restrict certain activities in order to benefit global population 0 Leadership from TNCs intergovernmental organizations and NGOs Regulate flows of information goods Strengthens international courts I New Sustainability I Increases in technological innovations are concentrated in core regions TNCs o Gap between rich and poor widens Large scale protest against high consumer lifestyles Environmental problems in periphery grow migration to core increases CRISIS Sustainability becomes an economicenvironmental goal Global civil society is forged based on social justice and open decision making consensus seeking OOOOO Key Factors I Population I Income inequality I Resource usetechnological achievement I Social conflict 0 Sustainability Necessary to finding a way forward in the middle of potential crises I Need to find a way to balance needs of this generation with the needs of future generations I Need to find a way to balance the needs of the core with the periphery I Use finite resources more efficiently or find alternatives Urban and Cultural Geography 0 Space and place are intimately connected to development of culture club 0 O O O O 0 Lots of hip hop geographyculture is very related with space and place the street the hood the Hip hop at its best and worst is a contradiction of US ideals like racism misogyny sexism etc Hip hop culture didn t just come out of a vacuum Changes in NYC in 1960 s1980 s related to hip hop Started in the South Bronx in New York a burrow Caught up in master development plan by Robert Moses In the 1920 s Moses is one of key architects for how NYC will developed focus put on Manhattan being made the pride of NYC Robert Moses probably most important people in NYC up til 1960 changed the shorelines and roads in NYC favored highways and stuff over public transportation associated with vision of the urban that is based on the automobile his work is very controversial he preferred accessibility of cars to closenessproximity of people to places associated with decline of public transportation but some people argue that he made NYC infrastructure viable didn t get along with people very well Cross Bronx Expressway point was to connect people in Long Island NJ and Northern NY without people having to get stuck by stoplights purpose to move people in and out of NYC quickly built by Robert Moses led a class of Middle Class people through the Bronx at this time a largely immigrant community of Irish Jewish etc people given money to move somewhere else demographic transition makes Manhattan the center of NY Urban Negro Removal Program poor neighborhoods and businesses taken offrun out and pushed out to new public housing projects in Brooklyn and the Bronx Moses owned the highways and the projects also By end of 70 s Bronx lost over 7000 people Cross Bronx Expressway is one of the greatest engineering feats in history 0 The South Bronx 0 O 0 Really did look like a ghost town By 1970 s the Bronx is burning people decide that it s more profitable to not pay for water and then arson became a daily thing and you can make money off of it Policy of llBenign Neglect idea that part of problem of urban development is that people are too dependent on things like welfare if you withdraw service from community people will just leave so they stopped funding the fire departments 0 Youth gangs in South Bronx 0 O 0 Two options for youth join gang or party and forget about it These gangs were more like turf wars fist fights and stuff Africka Bambaata he took these street gangs and turned them into positive groups to learn about their culture kind of brought an end to gang violence in NY in 70 s and 80 s helped influence music and culture The Urban Renewal Policies spurned the environment for having block parties and stuff 0 Block parties 0 DJ Kool Herc really the first hip hop DJ 1973 he s not playing rap music he s playing funk disco and soul he discovers that the people s favorite thing to dance to is the break of the song he would play two records on the break at different times to extend it9where break dancing comes from I A Jamaican immigrant in Jamaica block parties are a huge thing popular thing a dub record an instrumental reggae record I The toastersquot come from Jamaican sound system cultures giving a toast at an event a precursor to rap 0 URoy Kool Herc is such a cultural influence doesn t even have health insurance The 4 elements of hip hop 0 OOO DJing Rapping or quottoastingquot Breakdancing Graffiti I Graffiti culture you want people to see as much of it as possible I Painting names on trains for all to see I People know who you are Hip hop notion that you have to represent your place well a geographic claim territory and identity identity in hip hop is strongly rooted in places Hip hop originally an east coast thing As hip hop goes to a wider focus Hip hop generation thought of as first postcivil rights generation a new generation a non conformist generation a postmodern identity Fab 5 Freddy important person who got white artist in Manhattan to pay attention to black music Shifting Scales O 0000 O Rakim It ain t were you re from it s where you re atquot NWA said Actually it is where you re fromquot Goes back from being global to being about space again At first rap records everywhere sounded like NY rap records Rap came to gain regionally unique sounds The sounds reflect the geography of the place where the music arises from LA the GFunk Eraquot 0 Why did LA adopt rap music I Relationships with youth and police is different llStraight out of Compton takes back the statement It ain t where you re fromquot 1965 violence radicalized the black population there The Crips and the Bloods more closely related to the drug trade When there is heavy unemployment you see gang membership really take off GEOG RAPHY TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE Lecture 1 Geography Concepts and Tools Geography The study of earth as created by natural forces and modified by human action Human Geography The study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people s relationships with their environments Studying human geography Observation interviews participant observation lab experiments remote sensing O o Visualizationrepresentation maps charts narratives diagrams 0 Data analysis patterns themes comparisons models spatial and regional analysis Spatial Analysis Location latitude and longitude O 0 Distance Nearness principle all activities that are alike are located near each other Maximize overall utility of places at minimum effort Maximize connections between places at a minimum cost Locate closely related activities together as closely as possible Friction of distance distance inhibits human efforts because of cost associated with time and effort Space Dimensions how many people volume when it was build Accessibility two places may be close but you can t get there easily like two far places 0 O easily or two close places harder to get to 0 Interaction 0 Regional Analysis Regionalization two types of regions O I Formal high degree of homogeneity for particular traits or culture language raceethnicity agriculture I Functional Variability in traits but overall coherence to structure political economic social 0 3 two types Vernacular everyday mundane livein landscapes Symbolic representation of values inspiration cultural identity 0 Sense of Place Place a space with meaning shared and unshared Lifeworld taken for granted patterns and contexts for everyday living For example bus eating in dining halls things students do differently than the rest of Athens Culture Identity and Place Wednesday March 21 2012 708 PM Culture shared set of meanings that are lived through our everyday lives Values Beliefs Practices Ideas Relating to Religion Language Family Gender Sexuality Cultural Institutions Economy Politics Religion Family Identity Environments Cultural Differences Race Class Sexuality Religion Ethnicity Culture is alive and changing Some Major Ways of Thinking about Culture 1 Way of life How society gets organized 2 SimilaritiesDifferences Distinguish between people or bring them together 3 Values beliefs world views Religion Politics Identity 4 Representations Of beliefs interests passions Culture way of life patterns and habits that are shaped by institutions politicseconomies Culture is A process and an outcome A thing and an action Always conforming Cultural Geography Culture ongoing process of shared meanings SpacePlace dynamic setting within which groups operate to shape those meanings and practices Identity sense of self especially in relation to others Identities are formed in spaceplace Place Based Identity Identity associated with a particular place relating to the character of place Ex Dog statues and architecture at UGA Culture is not a quotfact to be discoveredquot Culture does not just hold people together it is also what is held together Cultures are also social creatures that can be altered Cultures are strongly associated with specific places Folk Culture Traditional Practices Ex Amish Popular Culture Contemporary commercial practices Ex Hip hop body piercing etc Cultural Complex or System Collection of interacting components that shape a groups collective identity Ex Religion language etc Sex and Gender Sex anatomiocal differences Gender identity associated with a particular sex Masculinity and femininity Gendered Space Normative landscape expected quotappropriatequot behavior of men and women Disciplined socially for transgressing gender norms Sexuality set of practices and identities that a given culture attaches to people and their sexual activity and desires Sexuality and Space ex prostitutes policing surveillance workplace Sexuality and the State Spatial constraints on the expression of sexual identity e gay rights Value and Belief Systems Thursday March 01 2012 1100 AM Objectives Define values belief belief systems Values meaning and knowledge about good and bad truth and falsehood moral way of life What is most important What is worth saving What is a priority What is worth fighting for What gives meaning 1 Form personalmoral identities what39s rightwrong Frame group solidarity affiliation Provide in group consensus what is value or devalued Provide principles for maintaining identity adapt to change without losing core values 5 Help quotmake sensequot of behavior she doesx x because she is y RN 4 Belief systems individual beliefs or values meet institutions like religion in belief systems Order systems organization Order and structure makes beliefs durable across space and time Provide frameworks for moral development Instruction Exploration Religion belief system and a set of practices the recognizes the existence of a higher power than humans Shapes food practice family death ceremonies dress codes coming of age rituals Provides framework for moral development of adherents Binds people together in common identity Pulls people apart through deep ideological divides Hinduism First religion to emerge about 4000 years ago India Buddhism Evolved as reform religion of Hinduism about 500 BC Asia Christianity evolved from Judaism about 2000 years ago in the Middle East worldwide Islam Develop about 1300 years ago worldwide Common Themes Compassion Awe Devotion Obedience Forgiveness Generosity Justics Semiotics The practice of reading signs Signs are anything embedded in spaces places and landscapes nterpreted according to our values ideas beliefs past experiences etc Generates feelings reactions and behavior that are mostly unconscious Especially if we have never been exposed to anything that challenges or contradicts our perceptions and reactions Religious Spaces Sacred Space set apart from the ordinary profane Purpose is to facilitate spiritual engagement Designed and built to make people feel a certain way Given meaning through Beliefs and values Practices CommunityFamily Architecture Eth n icity Tuesday March 06 2012 1105 AM Define ethnicity ethnic groups thnice clenaisng andd ethnic enclaves Review territory and severeignty Ethnicity socially created system of rules about who belongs to a particular group based on perceived commonalities such as shared genetic heritage language or religion Other cultural elementscultural complexes Food Music Shared sense of history Nit belonging to quotanotherquot ethnic group Raceclassification of human beings based on skin color and other physical characteristics No biological or genetic basis for existence of category Amount of melanin in skin which is a cellular adaptation to exposure to sun light OthernessRacism Geographical manifestations Segregation Chettoes Apartheid quotWhite Flightquot Political Residence Ethnic Groups ethnic minorities that coexist with other ethnicities in multinational states Canada Quebecois Soviet Union Russians Ukrainians Belorussians Uzbeks Turkmen Afghanistan Pashtu Tajik Uzbek Hazara Yugoslavia Bosnia Serbs Muslims Ethnic separatism desire for one or more ethnic groups to obtain sovereignty and split the territory claimed by many ethnic groups Claim geographic space for culture Ethnic Cleansing the forced removal of people of one ethnic group Hebrew Conquest of Canaan Forced Migration Exile Forced March of POWs War crimes crimes against humanity human rights violations Systematic removal of real or potential opposition Baghdad Iraq Suspected ethnic cleansing Ethnic Enclaves District surrounded by a country but not ruled by it or not culturally a part of it Usually an ethnic group separated from the 39mother ship39 Yugoslavia map on Exam Geography onugoslavia 6 Republics Serbia Croatia Slovenia Montenegro Macedonia BosniaHerzegovina 2 Autonomous Regions Vojvodina Kosovo Muslim population interspersed Controlled government in Bosnia Most areas are ethnically homogeneous but Bosnia Herzegovina is heterogeneous 1980 Titoe dies Country falls into recession and political disunity Rotating presidents from each of the republics Revival of communist party Corruption on government 989 Fall of Soviet Union 1990 Slovenia and Croatia holds national election and begin seceding Milosevic President of Serbia Military leaders from Serbia Threatens to unify ethnic Serbs if Yugoslavia breaks up 1992 Landslide of independence movements including Bosnia where a minority of serbs voted against it Serbia moves into Bosnia to regain control Refugees Ethnic cleansing gang warfare 1995 War climaxes peace talks begin 250000 killed ofa prewar population of 44 million Continued clashes between groups 2003 Yugoslavia ceases to exist Today Former republics are independent states 2 Republics 2 Georgian Conflict Conclusions Ethnic tension is frequesntly cited as a trigged for civil war within a country Other factors include Solonialismimperialism Struggled for territory and resources Political repression Yugoslavia is an example of a country torn apart by ethnic tenstion but also an example of struggles for sovereignty territory and power by different ethnic groups Ma king Places Tuesday March 015 2012 1151 AM Objectives Define territoritality and topophilia Understand how places are made Understand the cognitive elements of place Construct a cognitive map Locate Sudan British Columbia Place Making Placespace with meaning Socially constructed People draw on images histories and stereotypes to develop distinctive idea of place Can involve the exclusion of others People reinforce sense of place by contrasting themselves with people in places very different from them Topophilia Literally love of place Territoriality Persistent attachment of people to a specific location or territory Claims to space From a towel on a beach to claims to sovereignty by a nation state Social organization requires space under control Elements of Cognitive Images Paths movement transport EdgesBoundaries barriers borders Districts areas with distinctive character Modes strategic points and foci Landmarks physical reference points Include three ofall these elements La n cl sca pe s Tuesday March 20 2012 302 PM Landscape Visible features of an area of land Ordinaryieveryday mundane taken for granted 908994P N Symbolicirepresentative of wealth power etc Landscapes shape and reinforce human activities and attitudes Re ect represent and mirror values Reproduce and communicate meaning Study of landscape Modernity Forward looking philosophy emphasizing science rationality and progress Against traditionalism mysticism fatalism The Enlightenment Urban landscapes built during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries re ect the values of modernity O Symbolic landscapes Symbolic Landscapes Overtly emphasizes values Power and sovereignty Ordinary Landscapes Not symbolic Every day Houses walmart etc New Urbanism Urban design movement to address issues of traf c congestion and sprawl Pedestrian and kid friendly Energy ef cientifocused on mass transit Take a balanced approach to location of j obs and housing Mixeduse and diverse neighborhoods Elements Well de ned center with transit stop Dwellings within 5 minute walk of stop Variety of dwelling types Shops for daily needs at the edge of neighborhood Elementary school within walking distance Streets in a connected network to disperse tra ic Houses close to the street and shaded by trees And so on Post Modernity Live in the moment philosophy that emphasizes individual achievement social inquiry empowerment and expression Consumption and advertising The Dark Side 0 Places become objects of consumption Society of Spectacle iDysnif1cation of Landscape Degenerative Utopias AKA tourist traps Homogeneity of global landscape OOO Geogra phy of Economic Development Tuesday March 20 2012 1102 AIVI Objectives Define economic development HDI GDP GNP and other indicators of development Understand processes of economic development Revisit core and periphery Economic Development The processes of change involving the Nature and compositionof a particular region39s economy Business finance industry Based on productivity incomes purchasing power consumption employment Levels and rates of change in prosperity Geographically uneven Core and periphery GNPI Gross National ProductIncome Volume of Income From Abroad GDP Gross Domestic product Total of all goodsservices produced in one year in one country Per Capita GDP Proportional to population HDI Human development Index Measures quality of life with education income and longevity Purchasing Power Parity Amount of a basket of basic goods which can be bought in a given country with the money it produces in US dollars How much you can buy in other countries compared to what you can buy in the US Big Mac Index Provides a test of the extent to which market excahnge rates result in goods costing the same in different countries Development and Gender Equality Gender equality is a measure of economic development UNDP Gender Empowerment Index ncome Managerial and professional work Percentage of parliamentary seats In no country are women better off than men Top 4 Norway Iceland Sweden and Finland Lowest Egypt Turkey and Bangladesh Resources and Development Economic development depends on availability of natural resources Energy Cultivatable land ndustrial resources Resources are unevenly distributed Combinations of resources just as important as whether they exist at all Japan Few natural resources energy cultivable land or ores Highly skilled labor force Culture values around work Deep water ports Economic ties to US Electronics manufacturing Composition Economic Sectors Primary Agriculture Natural Resource extractions Secondary Industry Manufacturing Tertiary Sale and exchange ofgoods and services Quaternary handlingprocessing of information Changes to Nature and Composition 1 Structure of the economy e agriculture to manufacturing 2 Economic organization e capitalism to socialism 3 Availabilityuse of technology e internet cell phones medicine Paths to Development 1 Self sufficiency domestic economy Characterized by Slow growth What is Geography 7 study of Earth as created by natural forces and modi ed by human action Human Geography 7 The study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people s relationships with their environments Knox and Marston 2010 2 7 Interdependence of places Globalization development transition Studying Human Geography 1 Observation 7 Interviews participant observation laboratory experiments remote sensing 2 Visualizationrepresentation 7 Maps charts narratives diagrams 3 Data analysis 7 Patterns themes comparisons models 7 Spatial anal regional analysis Spatial Analysis 1 Location 7 absolute relative cognitive 2 Distance 7 absolute relative cognitive 3 Space 7 absolute relative cognitive 4 Accessibility 5 Interaction Distance 7 Neamess principle Maximize overall utility of places at minimum effort Maximize connections between places at minimum cost Locate closely related activities as close together as possible 7 Friction of distance Distance inhibits human efforts because of costs associated with time and effort Regional Analysis 1 Regionalization 2 Landscape 3 Sense of Place Regions 1 Formal 7 High degree of homogeneity for particular traits Language raceethnicity geomorphology agriculture 2 Functional 7 Variability in traits but overall coherence to structure Political economic social Landscapes 1 Vernacular 7 Everyday mundane livedin landscapes 2 Symbolic 7 Representation of values inspiration imagined community Sense of Place Place a space with meaning shared and unshared N Conclusions Places Lifeworld Taken for granted patterns and contexts for everyday living Intersubjectivity Process building shared meanings that are derived from life experience in a place Geographers use concepts and tools to analyze the world and our human place in it Spatial and regional analysis Geographers see the world through the lens of space and place Absolute relative cognitive Connection interaction interdependence 1 Structure the daily routines of economic and social life 2 Provide opportunities and constraints for longterm social wellbeing 3 Provide a context for gathering knowledge and information about the world 4 Provide a setting for socialization 5 Provide an arena for protesting social norms Scales Scalepartitioning of space within which certain processes play out 1 N 9 4 Worldclimate change World regionstreaties trade agreements National statesfederal policy economies Human settlementswork play family Communityitowns villages Homefamily base culture Bodyself identity Some Laws of Geography I Everything is related to everything else but near things are more related than distant things I Caveatidistance can be trumped by connectivity I What happens in one place is related to what happens in another place I Places are interdependent Summary Places are socially constructed They shape our lives We shape them Social process often take place on different scales Geographical knowledge is born out ofa need to know where stuffis Geographical knowledge presupposes that Places are related and interdependent Closely connected things are more closely related Epistemology Knowledge the product of what we know to be true and what we believe to be true Geographic Knowledge Hearth Areas 1 Middle East 2 South Asia 3 China 4 Americas Requirements Natural food supplies are plentiful Terrain is diversi ed Soils are rich and easy to till No need for largescale irrigationdrainage Hydraulic societies Cultivated plot Agriculture and Maps Higher population densitiessettlements Social organizationiappropriation of resources Specialization inonagricultural crafts skills Tradebarter between communities sometimes over long distances Urbanization empires colonization Geography earth writing or earth describing PreModem Economies o Minisystems o Reciprocal social economy 0 Worldempires o Redistributive tributary o Worldsystem I Merchant capitalist economy Astrolabe Precursor to compass Adoptedadapted by Europeans in 1650s Islamic Empire 622750 AD Developing the WorldSystem Imperialism extension of power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories Colonialismthe establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination of a state over a separate and alien society The World System Coreiregions that dominate trader control the most advanced technologies and have high levels of productivity within diversi ed economies Peripheryiregions with underdeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity SemiPeripheryiregions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by other regions Immanuel Wallerstein Technology and Hegemony Technological innovations50 year cycles 17901840 water power steam engines 18401890 coal steel railroads 18901950 oil electrical telecommunication 1950 nuclear power aerospace global air Hegemony dominance socially economically and politically in the world system 0 British 18001900 American 1900 Conclusions All geography is historical geography To understand where we are we have to know from where we came and how and why and what happened along the way Growth of minisystems to a European world empire and world system required geographic knowledge much of it borrowed and adapted Capitalist world system is a result of producing using and building on extensive geographic knowledge Globalization Increasing interconnectedness through common processes of economic environmental political and cultural changeprocesses Shared culture economy etc Transsupranational organizations De nitions Transnational corporationia rm with activities that cross nationalstate boundaries A JJ Supranational u 39 states that work collectively toward political and economic objectives diminishes state sovereignty independence Neoliberalism philosophy focused on reducing the role of government in economic activities privatization of formerly publicly owned entities Utilities roads etc Three Views on Globalization Hyperglobalist More people more global connections mean more prosperity Skeptical Globalization is nothing new We have all been here before Transformationalist Globalization is new contradictory and challenging Will create change in unpredictable positive and negative ways Key Issues Environment Pollution ozone depletion global warming Health HIVAIDS SARS antibiotic resistant TB Security Terrorism civil war regional instability Tensions l The more universal material culture becomes the more valuable ethnic and regional identities become 2 The faster we go to cyberspace the more we yeam for spaceplaces we can call our own 3 The more transnational corporations dominate economic and social life the more sensitive people become to local difference Jihad vs McWorld Jihad Tribalism cultural values associated with religious fundamentalism Jquot 39 tribal quot 39 fr quot39 to western materialism McWorld Globalism popculture and shallow materialism of western culture According to Benjamin Barber 1992 Summary Globalization uni es space and place but also minimizes differences and distinctiveness Mechanisms transnational corporations supra national organizations Neoliberal policies Resistance Push back from local culture regional identities traditional affiliations Political Geography Geopolitics power to control space or territory power to shape the foreign policy and international political relations sovereignty States and boundaries Sovereign state Power Peace of Westphalia Recognized by other sovereign states Monopoly on coercive force Ability to have in uence to impose one s will Individuals Collectives states corporations universities etc Coercive force con ict or violence Symbolic legitimate vision of the world Territory area claimed by or dependent on a sovereign power Geographic space of the state or nation Sovereignty supreme power selfgovemance Former colonies are not usually formal culture regions Struggle for sovereignty Ratzel s Model of the State 1 State grows with the growth of population 2 Territorial growth follows other aspects of development 3 A state grows by absorbing smaller units 4 Frontier re ects the strength growth of the state 5 Growth of the state requires absorbing valuable territory 6 State grows from more primitive to more civilized 7 Trend toward growth is contagious Culture region geographical unit based on characteristics and functions of culture Formal area inhabited by people who have one or more cultural traits in common German language Wheat farming Functional area that has been organized to function politically socially or economically City State BoundariesBorders 1 Define limits of territory 2 Important element of placemaking 3 Createreinforce spatial differentiation 4 Constructed to regulate and control people and resources within them 5 Control ow of peopleresources into and out of a territory 6 Define limits of territory Conclusions Power is exercised by individuals and collectives ie genocide coercive power exercised by states States are geopolitical Focused on territory and power Sovereign monopolies on coercive force Boundaries Reinforce the power of the state Change over timeinot static Geopolitics 0 power to control space or territory 0 power to shape the foreign policy and international political relations Boundaries NationState relations 0 Nation people of common heritage memories myths homeland culture language and or religion 2State political unit independent country National state independent country composed or one or more nations of which one is usually dominant Multinational state independent country composed of many nations noneor manyof which is are dominant Nationalism Feeling of belonging to a nation Belief that the nation has a natural right to determine its own affairsnsovereignty Tamil Tigers Two ethnicreligious groups in Sri Lanka Tamil Hindu speak Tamil laborers Sinhalese Buddhist speak Sinhalese rulers British colony tea spice trade English speaking educated Christian elite Independence in 1948 Sinhalese rulers promote Sinhalese interests 1983 first Violent episode ofresistance continues Tamils want to secede from Sri Lankan union LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Decolonization Reacquisition by colonized peoples of control over their own territory The Kashmir Con ict 1947 Independence from Britain Creation of two new nations India and Pakistan Princely states had to decide to join one or the other Muslim Kashmir practiced nondecisionmaking Pakistani tribal forces occupied and force Maharaja King out of power Maharaja sought military aid from India and ceded Kashmir to India in exchange Then lost independence to India as armies invaded 1948First Kashmir War UN Security Council Resolution Left decision to Jammu and Kashmir and ordered Pakistan to withdraw Free and fair plebiscite never happened Separate constitution but territory is claimed by India Cease fire temporary end of separatist activities resulted in Line of Control pseudo border between Pakistan and India l989rise of violent armed insurgency with reprisals from Indian army that continues to this day Human rights abuses Suspected relationships with Pakistani terrorist organizations Both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons Water resources religious differences 2003 rst total cease re observed in 15 years 2005 bombing in Delhi by suspected Kashmiri rebels Ongoing con icts including recent bombing in Mumbai 2008 Heartland Theory Halford Mackinder 186 l 1947 l Eurasiamost likely base to launch a campaign for world domination 2 Heartland is geographical pivot of the world 3 As sea power declines land transportation technologies would increase 4 Empire of the World if a power came to control the whole heartland 5 GermanyRussia or JapanChina alliances 19891991 Dismantling of the Soviet Union Perceived triumph of capitalism over communism US becomes world s only superpower WMD Global culture politics and economics dominated by Western cultural products Threat of violence through overwhelming military power New World Order GHWBush 91190 Eve of deployment of US troops to Kuwait Iraq a new era freer from the threat of terror stronger in the pursuit of justice and more secure in the quest for peace Rule of law supplants the rule of the jungle Vision of America as a world leader Take Home Messages State con icts over territory can destabilize entire world regions Geopolitical theories however outdated still inform foreign policy and popular imaginations about world domination Decolonization does not mean the end of power inequalities for former colonies Con ict ongoing state of hostility between two or more groups of people Mutually inconsistent goals Disagreement about methods of achieving agreed upon goals Nationshared sense of history etc Statepolitical unit legally recognized by international community War as We Knew It Conventional War Usually two or more states involved in con ict over borders state expansion invasion etc Governments with recognized leaders involved with political alliances treaties etc Large armiesmilitaries with hierarchy chain of command International legal framework for dealing with treatment of prisonerssurrender treatment of sick and wounded territorial disputes Geneva Convention 1949 Terrorism Threat or use of force to bring about political change Actions of individuals or groups of individuals against civilian populations to undermine state practices or institutional organizations Characteristics of terrorism no state often have a home base in a failed state that has been hij acked no legally recognized leaders no peace treaties or alliances no means of surrender no borders network of insurgents no organized Visible military response to systematic and structural political economic and cultural problems that are global in scale Wars Map Map of Refugees Jalozai Refugee Camp Northwest Pakistan Nationalism and Religion Nationalism intense feelings of belonging to a nation right to determine it s own affairs autonomy sovreignty Zionism nationalist liberation movement that seeks Jewish homeland in Israel response to antisemitism in Europe Wikipedia 2006 Islamism movement to create political systems and associated social and economic structures based on Islamic Law Wikipedia 2006 Jerusalem holiest city of Judaism holiest city of some sects of Christianity the third holiest city of Islam Mecca and Medina IsraelZionism British Palestine 19171948 Indigenous Arabs Balfour Declaration allowed Jews to settle in Palestine Became homeland for the Jewish people post World War II ArabIsraeli con ict as a result of settlement IsraeliPalestinian Con ict 1948 Britain to withdraw with intentions to turn it over to the UN UN Partition Plan 56 Jewish State 43 Arab state Jerusalem international city shared by both Arabs reject partition plan British withdraw war breaks out Egypt Jordan Lebanon Syria Iraq and Saudi Arabia Prevent expansion of Jewish territory IsraeliPalestinian Con ict 1967 SixDay War Israel claims Sinai Peninsula eventually gives it back Arabs live in refugee camps outside Israel or in the Occupied Territories Gaza Strip West Bank Golan Heights 1980 s Intifada uprising Palestinians with no hope of returning to their homelands rebel with violence PLO Palestinian Liberation Organization Hamas Islamic Resistance Movement Recently elected as majority party Israel States Nations and Con ict Con ict mutually inconsistent goals Israel Removal of Palestinians Hamas Destruction of Israeli state 4262011 G EOGllOl 1 Cities As Places con t a European Cities I D i Low skylines 1 CBD growth occurred before elevators ii Lively downtowns 1 CBD remains social center instead of suburbs iii Neighborhood stability 1 Less extended mobility iv Municipal Socialism 1 Clinics public transit social housing etc Islamic Cities i Jami principle mosque 1 Centrally located 2 Center of worship education welfare functions ii Suqs street marketplace bazaars 1 Streets from mosque iii Ahya residential areas 1 Around suqs 2 Privacy PLACES TO KNOW i Egypt ii Indonesia iii Colombia Peripheral Cities i MegaCities in the periphery 1 Underemployment working less than full time 2 Informal economy outside regulation cash 3 Uneven development a Slums 4 Congested transportation systems 5 Degraded environmental conditions Conclusions i Citiesplaces that shape routines and possibilities 1 Shopping mobility religion interaction work ii Cities are shaped by cultural values 1 Eg primacy of religion privacy iii Cities are shaped by economic realities 1 Eg poverty development markets 2 Future Geographies a Speculation About Our Futures 4262011 I amp 2 3 G EOG1101 i Pessimistic View Cassandra 1 Exhaust resources 2 Increase conflicts ii Optimistic View Pollyanna 1 Increase global interconnections 2 Technological advancements iii Reality lies between Three Scenarios i Conventional Worlds 1 Things stay pretty much the same ii Barbarism 1 Things get really really bad iii Great Transitions 1 Things get lots better Conventional Worlds i Development is governed by gradual steady industrial growth worldwide 1 Reference Scenario a Primary driver of change is free markets growth in wealth and increased consumption 2 Balanced Growth Scenario a Primary driver of change is new policy and regulation Barbarism i Negative stresses present today intensify and contribute to social breakdown 1 Social Breakdown a Civil order breaks down as state weakens b Collapse of globalization 2 Fortress World a Social breakdown crisis threatens privilege of the core b Access to resources clean water food energy restricted to the wealthy classes protected by military Great Transitions 1 Global Governance i Emphasis on global common goods intergovernmental cooperation peace 1 Restrict certain activities ie fossil fuel use in order to benefit global population 2 Leadership from TNCs intergovernmental organizations ie UN and NGOs a Regulate flows of information goods b Strengthen international courts Great Transitions 2 New Sustainability i Increases in technological innovations are concentrated in core regions TNCs 1 Gap between rich and poor widens 2 Large scale protest against high consumer lifestyles 4122011 G EOGllOl 1 Geographies of Food and Agriculture a Rationalization The Industrial Chicken 3 amp 8 billion chickens sold in the US in 1997 1 Health concerns falling prices food processing Poultry Science 1 Decreased growth time gain 1week 2 Concentrated numbers in chicken houses 3 Debeaking to reduce damage from aggression from overcrowding Contract farming 1 Transnational corporations provide chicks and feed farmers provide the labor and infrastructure Rationalization BSE i Bovine spongiform encephalitis BSE 1 Prion malformed protein 2 Human variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease a Debilitating degenerative fatal brain disease b Feed source rendered meat infected with TSE Britain 1987 1 180000 cows 36000 farms to date 143 human cases iii United States 1 US December 2003 2 Curious quothot spots 8 cases of CJD at Cherry Hill Racetrack New Jersey Parma vs Kraft ii i Parma ii Kraft 1 11quoth Century 1 First introduced in 1945 2 Raw and skimmed milk heated in 2 Milk cheese cultures quotenzymesquot salt Aged 6 months special cauldrons Brined for 3 weeks E 4 Aged for 12 months 4 Streamlined production to 5 1996 PDO protected designation produce inexpensive product of origin 5 Employ minimum wage workers in assembly line style factory Conventional Agriculture 21 Preserve tradition local economy i Adaptation of natural environment 1 Monocultural production systems 2 Chemical amendment of soil 3 Eradication of quotpestsquot plantanimalfungal ii Manufacture of food quotproductsquot 1 Farmers grow commodities not food iii Vertical integration of economic systems 1 Dominance of multinational firms 2 Extension of supply chain


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