INTRO PHYS GEOG
INTRO PHYS GEOG GEOG 1111
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Date Created: 09/12/15
EXAM 1 Study Guide 5 Fundamental themes of geography 1 Location 2 Place 3 Movement 4 Regions 5 HumanEarth relationships Important geographers Eratosthenes AI39istotle Ptolemy Alexander von Humboldt Earth s spheres 1 Atmosphere a Thin gaseous veil surrounding the Earth b Where weather occurs c Sea level to 37000 miles d Decreasing density with increasing altitude 2 Hydrosphere a All water above on and in the Earth b Solid liquid gas fresh water and salt water c 71 of Earth s surface 3 Lithosphere a Earth s crust and portion of upper mantle b Rocky outer shell of planet land and sea bottom 4 Biosphere a Interconnection between living organisms and environment Open system boundaries that freely permit transfer of energy and matter across them a weather system a river system Closed system selfcontained system exhibiting no exchange of energy or matter across boundaries Equilibrium Steady state in balance over time neither growing nor contracting Dynamic uctuates around an average value a trend over time Positive feedback vs Negative feedback Latitude parallel lines that run EastWest and are measured NorthSouth Equator 0 Tropic of Cancer 2350 N Tropic of Capricorn 2350 S Arctic Circle 6650 N Antarctic Circle 6650 S North Pole 90quot N South Pole 90quot S Longitude nonparallel lines that run NorthSouth and are measured East West 0 Prime Meridian 0 0 International Date Line 180 LARGE scale mapsmall area of Earth s surface SJVIALL scale maplarge area of Earth s surface Rotation spinning of the Earth about its axis 1 rotation 24 hours Vs Revolution movement of the Earth in an orbit around sun 1 revolution365 days Perihelion closest to the sun on January 4th Aphelion farthest from the sun on July 4th Seasons 4 Summer longer days higher solar altitude intense sunlight Winter opposite of summer Solar altitude angle of the sun above the horizon 2 solstices and 2 equinoxes March equinox March 21 June solstice June 21 September equinox September 22 December solstice December 21 Northern hemisphere winter southern hemisphere summer Composition of Atmosphere Mix of discrete gases C0nstant gases Nitr0gen 78 Oxygen 21 Arg0n 9 Variable gases Carbon dioxide Water vapor Oz0ne Ozone C0ncentrated in the stratosphere Abs0rbs UV radiation Ozone Hole Increased amounts of CFC s in the stratosphere Oz0ne layer thinning primarily in Arctic amp Antarctic areas Vertical structure of the atmosphere Air pressure Temperature 4 Layers of atmosphere 1 Troposphere a To decreases with increasing altitude b Where almost all weather takes place c 075 miles 2 Stratosphere a To stays constant or increases with altitude b Contains the ozone layer 3 Mesosphere a To decreases with increasing altitude 4 Thermosphere a To increases dramatically with altitude Energy the ability to do work on some form of matter 1 Potential energy potential to do work energy at rest 2 Kinetic energy the energy of motion 3 Heat energy the sum total of all molecular motion of an object 4 Radiant energy emitted by all objects with a temp gt 0quot K Shortwave radiation SW 5mm o Sun s max energy T 10300 F Visible light is from violet to red Travels in straight lines Can be scattered re ected absorbed or direct Scattering particles in the atmosphere redirect the incoming solar radiation from its original path it illuminates shadows and other dark areas may be more scattered at sunset or sunrise because it has more distance to go Re ection process where by a surface turns back a portion of the radiation that strikes it about 31 of incoming SW is re ected back to space Law of Re ection the angle of incidence is the angle of re ection Absorption process whereby energy of the incoming SW radiation is transferred into internal molecular motion of the object struck what isn t re ected is absorbed usually results in raising the temperature 100 of incoming radiation 45 reaches the surface 24 is absorbed 31 is lost to space by re ection amp scattering Albedo the of radiation re ected off a surface compared to the incident radiation striking it The average planetary albedo is 31 EX thick clouds 7080 thin clouds 3050 fresh snow 8085 old snow 5060 forest 510 grass 2025 dry earth 1525 Plants want a lower albedo so they can absorb more sun for photosynthesis Longwave radiation LW 10mm 0 Aka terrestrial radiation 0 Emitted by Earth and objects on the Earth 0 Carbon dioxide and water are good absorbers of these wavelengths T 59 F Greenhouse effect causes atmosphere to be heated from the ground up Global warming is greenhouse effect enhanced Heat the total kinetic energy of all the atoms and molecules of an object or substance Heat transfer 1 2 3 Conduction a The transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity b Heat ows from high T to low T c Metal and the ground are good conductors of heat Convection a Transfer of heat by mass movement within a substance b Sensible heat ux dry component of air being heated c Latent heat ux wet component evaporation condensation Radiation a Wavelike transfer of energy Latent heat heat energy added to a substance wo changing the T but changing the state solid liquid gas of the substance Heat budget Budget of incoming SW and outgoing LW No balance Earth would be too hot too cold Q Qg Qh Qle Varies temporally and spatially Energy is redistributed by winds and currents Temperature T0 measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms and molecules of an object or a substance T is NOT heat T controls H k to 4 U Receipt of solar radiation a Determined by latitudinal position is the primary control of temp Di erential heating a Water is more transparent while land is more opaque b Specific heat of water is 3x greater than land Geographic setting and position a Proximity to water i Water has a moderating effect on T b Relationship to wind pattern Ocean currents a Warm currents help keep the T higher without the current b Cold currents help keep the T lower Elevation a Higher the elevation altitude T decreases 6 Cloud cover and albedo a Cloudy day is cooler than clear day b Cloudy night is warmer than clear night Temperature Conversions Co F 32 X 59 F C X 59 32 T patterns Southern hemisphere 81 water amp 19 land T variations are smaller Northern hemisphere61 water amp 39 land T variations are greater Air Pressure 0 Can vary both spatially and temporally 0 Shown on a map as lines of equal pressure or isobars Pressure Gradient Force PGF Difference in air pressure between two places Initiates horizontal air ow or advection WIND Steep gradient strong PGF fast winds Gentle gradient weak PGF slow winds Winds ow from high pressure areas to low pressure areas Coriolis Force Apparent de ection in path of an object due to the Earth s rotation Strongest at the poles zero at the equator Alters direction but not speed De ection with your back to the wind 1 To the right of the original path in NH 2 To the left of the original path in SH Geostrophic winds 0 Upper level winds 0 gt 12 kilometers above surface 0 Affected by PGF and Coriolis force 0 Main patterns I Zonal ow attened ow with an eastwest orientation I Meridional ow more curyes ow with distinct ridges valleys Surface winds 0 Winds below 1000 meters 0 In uenced by PGF CF and friction 0 Effects low high pressure cells both surface and geostrophic winds ow parallel to isobars Low pressure cells cyclonic counterclockwise ow in NH clockwise in SH High pressure cellsanticyclonic clockwise ow in NH counterclockwise in SH Winds are always named for the direction they are coming from and are dictated by PGF CF and friction Pressure Changes temporally and spatially Altered from the idealized pattern by land masses seasonality amp differential heating of land and water Low Belts areas of uplift with convergence at the surface usually unstable High Belts areas of subsidence and divergence at the surface usually stable States of water solid liquid gas Partial pressure vs Water vapor pressure Humidity water vapor content of the air Measured in 3 ways Specific humidity Absolute humidity Relative humidity contentcapacity x 100 RH The most common way for the RH of the air to be changed is by changing the air To 3135 Saturation when the air is holding all the water vapor it can Warmer air can hold more water vapor than colder air The amount of water vapor the air can hold is a function of To Dew point the T0 at which a given mass of air becomes saturated holding all the water vapor it can hold As air rises it expands and coolsAs air sinks it compresses and warms Dry Adiabatic Rate DALR When the air is unsaturated air To gt dew point T RHlt 100 The DALR is a constant rate of1 degree C100m or 10 degree C1000m Saturated Adiabatic Rate SALR When the air is saturated air To dew point T0 or RH 100 The SALR is not a constant rate but a variable rate 5 C 9 C1oo m or 5 C 9 C1ooo m Condensation level height at which condensation occurs where cloud formation begins usually seen at the bottom of a cloud mass RH100 air T dew point To Adiabatic T0 Change Expanding air temp decrease Compressing air temp increase But the To changes WITHOUT heat being added or subtracted EXAM 2 Study Guide Clouds fog and dew have 2 common properties 1 they must form from saturated or nearly saturated air 2 they must have a surface upon which the water vapor can condense Cloud condensation nuclei microscopic particles necessary as matter on which water vapor condenses to form moisture droplets CLOUD a form of condensation best described as a dense visible aggregation of minute moisture droplets and or tiny crystals ofice classified by altitude and shape cooling the air T is the most common forming method Altitude 1 low surface to 6500 feet primarily consists of liquid water a stratus stratocumulus nimbostratus middle alto between 6500 and 20000 feet consists ofliquid water and ice a altostratusaltocumulus N 3 hi h between 20000 and 43000 feet consists ofprimarily ice crystals a cirrus cirrostratus cirrocumulus 4 vertically developed through the troposphere consists ofwater at lower levels and ice crystals at higher levels a cumulus cumulonimbus Shape 1 at horizontally developed and layered or stratiform clouds 2 111173 vertically developed or cumuliform clouds 3 wispy high altitude and made of ice crystals or cirroform Common cloud names include Stratus layered horizontally developed and usually low altitude Cumulus bright and puffy like cotton balls vertically developed Cirrus curl of hair the clouds found the highest up in the atmosphere and composed of ice crystals Nimbus means quotstormy or rainy Cumulonimbus also known as thunderstorms Nimbostratus stratus clouds which are producing rainsnow FOG condensation can occur in some instances where the RH is as low as 80 as the water droplets get bigger they become visible thus decreases visibility if visibility is reduced to 1 km then the haze or cloud is categorized as fog Catagories of fog 1 Radiation fog produced over land when radiational cooling decreases air T to the dew point T also called ground fog or valley fog forms from the ground upward and is usually deepest around sunrise 2 Advection fog occurs when warm moist air moves over a colder surface and the air cools to its dew point temp EX west coast ofUS Midwest US some desert areas Atacama in SA 3 Upslope fogwhen the air reaches saturation primarily by adding water vapor and not lowering the air temp EX western Great Plains of the US amp eastern side of the Rockies 4 Evaporation fog when the air reaches saturation primarily by adding water vapor and not lowering the air temp water evaporates into the parcel of air 5 Steam fogforms when cold air moves over warm water the warmer water evaporates into the unsaturated cold air causing saturation condensation and fog formation EX over a heated pool in fall or winter over hot springs and thermal pools 6 Frontal fogforms as warm raindrops evaporate in a cool air mass as they fall this type of fog is often associated with frontal systems DEW water that has condensed onto objects near the ground when the temps have fallen to the dew point temp of the surface air Frozen dew dew which has formed and then frozen not the same as frost condensation occurs the temperature continues to drop and then the dew freezes Frosthoarfrost covering ofice produced by deposition when the dew point T is below freezing water vapor converts directly to the solid state RAIN water vapor condenses into liquid water droplets forming clouds these droplets coalesce join together and become heavy enough to be pulled down by gravity as precipitation and do not evaporate before they hit the ground as a raindrop SNOW water vapor condenses into liquid water droplets forming clouds but also within the clouds water vapor changes to ice crystals by deposition these ice crystals coalesce join together and become heavy enough to be pulled down by gravity as precipitation and do not melt before they hit the ground as a snow ake Precipitation formation 1 Bergeron process Ice Crystal Process a Primary process for forming rain in the middle and high latitudes and only process to form snow b Need freezing nuclei to initiate freezing ofwater vapor deposition c Need T s below 10 C where both liquid water drops and ice crystals can eXist d Supersaturated conditions RH gt 100 so ice crystals can collect more water vapor than they lose and thus grow e As they grow may join other ice crystals to make snow crystals and then snow akes if they melt while falling become rain 2 Collisioncoalescence process a Primary process in tropics for raindrop formation and in mid latitudes during the summer b Need large cloud droplets from 39large condensation nuclei or hygroscopic nuclei c Small droplets don t collide and coalesce by themselves very well d Max size of raindrop 5mm any bigger and it gets pulled apart e A combination ofBergeron and collision coalescence often seen in thunderstorms to form precipitation Precipitation types Rainat least 5mm to 5mm in size from nimbostratus and cumulonimbus clouds following the Bergeron process Frozencloud meltsliquid Before it hits the ground following the collision coalescence process Liquid cloud liquid as it hits the ground Snow12mm in size water vapor deposited as ice crystals that stay frozen Bergeron process only Frozen cloud frozen as it hits the ground Sleet55mm in size freezes as it falls and is a frozen raindrop Frozen cloud meltsliquid in atmospherefrozen refreezes before it hits the ground OR Liquid cloudfreezesin atmofrozen before it hits the ground Freezing rain55mm in size supercooled raindrops which freezes on contact with solid objectssurfaces ice storms Frozen cloud liquid melts in atmo as fallsliquidfrozen liquid as it hits ground THEN refreezes OR Liquid cloud liquidfrozen liquid as it hits the ground THEN refreezes Hail5mm10cm hard rounded pellets or lumps ofI c only produced in large cumulonimbus clouds thunderstorms Have a seriesnetwork of updrafts and downdrafts within the tstorm which move the hail stone up and down within the clouds causing it to grow East side of STH subsidence temperature inversion and upwelling of cold ocean current leads to stable dry conditions EX Sahara ofnorthwest Africa deserts of Baja California and Mexico Vs West side of STH little subsidence more uplifting convergence amp warm ocean current leads to greater instability and wet conditions EX Southeastern US esp Florida Rain shadow deserts due to mountain barriers and orographic effects leeward side often much drier than windward side EX Nevada deserts Patagonia in Southern Argentina Monsoon an annual cycle of dryness and wetness with seasonally shifting winds produced by changing atmospheric pressure systems EX Southern Asia India Air mass an immense body of air some 1600 km across and 13 km thick with relatively homogeneous physical properties density T amp moisture at a given altitude Classification scheme First letter C continental forms over a landmass low water vapor content DRY m maritime forms over an ocean high water vapor content HUMID Second letter reference to latitude or source region and T Aarctic bitterly cold Ttropical warm Ppolar very cold Eequatorial very warm Types of air masses cA continental arctic bitterly cold and dry stable Arctic basin amp Greenland cP continental polar cold and dry stable Interior Canada amp Alaska cT continental tropical hot and dry usually unstable Northern Mexico amp 5W U5 mP maritime polar cool and humid usually unstable in winter and stable in summer north Pacific and northern Atlantic mT maritime tropical warm and humid unstable in east and stable in west Gulf of Mexico Carrihean Sea westcen tral Atlan ticamp eastern Pacific Types of fron ts Cold front boundary at the forward edge of an advancing cols air mass that is displacing warm air cumulus and cumulonimbus are associated with cold fronts more violent weather move faster than warm fronts triangles point in the direction the air is going Warm frontboundary at the forward edge of an advancing warm air mass that is displacing cool air usually stratus clouds associated with warm fronts Stationary frontwhen air movement is almost parallel to the boundary and the surface position of the front doesn t move Occluded fronta front formed when a cold front catches and over takes a warm front MidLatitude Wave Cyclone a low pressure cell that forms amp moves along a front counter clockwise circulation NH around the cyclone tends to produce the wavelike deformation of the front Stages take about 57 days Stage 1 Air masses a cold amp a warm are set up along a front amp move parallel to it Stage 2 A wave forms amp warm air starts to move poleward while cold air moves equatorward Stage 3 Cyclonic counterclockwise circulation develops with general convergence at the surface and uplifting warm air overrides the cold air frontal wedging cold and warm front established Stage 4 Cold front moving faster than the warm front and begins to overtake it occlusion begins forming an occluded front Stage 5 Full development of an occluded front amp maximum intensity of the wave cyclone steep pressure gradient and strong winds Stage 6 Pressure gradient weakens energy exhausted amp system dissipates Cyclogenesis stage 1 amp 2 Open stage stage 3 and first half of stage 4 0ccluded stage second half of 4 and stage 5 Dissolving stage stage 6 Winds of a wave cyclone Warm sector primarily southwesterly to southernly Cool sector southeasterly to easterly and then northeasterly Cold sector northerly to northwesterly to westerly Warm sector humid to very humid clear skies to scattered cumulus clouds warm temps CooI sector humid large area of stratus clouds with to moderate precipitation ahead of the warm front clouds thinner further from the front cirrus type clouds cool temps Cold sector dry clear air back from the cold front intense precipitation T storms along the cold front cold temps THUNDERSTORMS a storm characterized by cumulonimbus cloud amp accompanied by thunder amp lightning relatively short duration severe thunderstorms are accompanied by strong winds heavy rain and sometimes hail amp tornadoes good indication of great instability in the atmosphere and show a great deal of vertical development Requirements warm moist air high surface temperature Stages of formation 1 Cumulus stage updrafts 2 Mature stage downdrafts entrainment 3 Dissipating stage downdrafts Locations tropical areas along the ITCZ primarily east of the Rockies in the US great plains LIGHTNING ashes oflight generated by the ow of tens of millions ofvolts of electrons between oppositely charged parts ofa cloud or between the cloud and the ground Causes charges are separated within the cloud as the tstorm develops positive charges near the top and negative charges at the bottom lightning is the clouds way of trying to equalize this charge imbalance after a charge difference builds to millions or hundreds or millions a lightning stroke occurs to discharge the negative base of the cloud 0 within cloud lightning o cloud to cloud lightning o cloud to ground lightning Lightning stroke invisible step leader of electrons of electrons is formed from the cloud base to the ground one of these pathways reaches the ground and a connection between the areas of unlike charges is completed the path is then illuminated as the electrons move back toward the cloud in the return stroke followed by 34 more Thunder the sound emitted by rapidly expanding gases along a channel of lightning discharge lightning causes the surrounding air T to be heated and it quickly and explosively expands and the pressure or shock waves heard is thunder Derechos strong linear or straight line winds produced by a thunderstorm winds in excess of 58 mph result of downdrafts from the tstorm most outbreaks occur between May and August in Midwest and September to April in southern US TORNADOES violently rotating column of air or vortex attended by a funnel shaped or tubular cloud extending downward from a cumulonimbus cloud in response to extremely low pressure pressure at the center of the vortex often 90100 mb below the surrounding air yielding a very strong pressure gradient high winds upwards of 300 mph travel horizontally at speeds of 45kph and average distance of 16 miles form in association with thunderstorms and likely to occur in the area of the tstorm Requirements associated with a cold front or squall line 2 air masses with strong temp gradient across the frontal boundary moist air with high degree ofinstability upper level support jet stream which helps pull away rising air promoting greater surface uplift Locations most numerous in N America highest concentration Texas to Nebraska Watch conditions are favorable for the occurrence of this type ofweather Warning this type of weather has been spotteddetected by a trained observer HURRICANES an intense tropical cyclonic storm consisting ofa warmcore low pressure cell at its center inward spiraling rainbands and having sustained winds in excess of 74 mph aka typhoon or cyclone begin life only in tropical waters can be found in Atlantic Pacific and Indian Oceans Characteristics cyclonic storm with warm core low pressure at its center diameter of 100600 miles average of360 form over warm ocean waters strong pressure gradient to generate strong winds strongest near the center may have tornadoes within it heavy rain and lightning has an average life span of810 days Requirements warm moist air ocean water temp gt 81 F this is the systems fuel source uplift initiated by an easterly wave must form between 5 amp 20 degrees latitude for sufficient Coriolis force Parts eye eye wall or collar clouds spiralrainbands Life of a hurricane tropical disturbance tropical depression tropical storm Destruction winds storm surge ooding K ppen system 5 principle groups 4 based on T 1 based on precipitation 1st letter T based ACDE amp precipitation based B 2 101 letter for 1st letters ACD seasonality ofprecipitation f no distinct dry or wet season s dry summer m monsoon w dry winter for 1St letter B severity of drought S semi arid W aird for 1St letter E severity of cold T tundra F ice cap A Climates Af tropical rainforest Location centered on the equator amazon basin Africa Indonesia Hawaii Mechanisms ITCZ present all year extensive heating all year Aw tropical savanna Location 2 belts which fringe the Af areas Mechanisms shifting of the ITCZ north and south Am tropical monsoon Location India Bangladesh SE Asia parts of West Africa Mechanisms wind shifts set up by changing pressure patterns B Climates BWh tropical desert ampBSh tropical steppe Location north Mexico southwest US Sahara Saudi Arabia Sahel Mechanisms dominated by STH cells all year BWk mid latitude desertampB Sk mid latitude steppe Location Great Basin Patagonia Gobi desert Great Plains Turkey Mechanisms rainshadow effect remoteness from water sources Lecture 30 Hydrologic Systems Water 9722 is oceans and other saltwater bodies 278 is freshwater 22 is groundwater 77 is in ice and glaciers 1 is in freshwater lakes ponds streams rivers Degradation erosion Processes Hydraulic action Abrasion Corrosion May take theform ofel39ther Downcutting Lateral Erosion Headward erosion Important factors in the rate of erosion velocity of the water volume of the water Transport of material governed by the velocity and volume stream load 1 dissolved 2 suspended 3 bedload moved by 4 processes solution suspension traction saltation Erosional features of rivers meander cut bank p oint bar cutoff oxbow lake meander scar nickp oint alluvial terraces Aggradation deposition process whereby transported weathered material sediments are laid down deposited by water wind or ice alluvium natural levee midstream bar deltas Deltas are controlled by 1 volume of stream and volume of sediment 2 configuration of offshore continental shelf 3 strength of ocean currents and waves Life cycle ofa river does not indicate how long its been there Youth Maturity Old Age Drainage patterns geometric arrangement of streams 1dendritic 2trellis 3radial 4parallel 5annular 6rectangular 7deranged 8centripetal Lecture 3 1 Karst Landscapes Porosity VS permeability zone of aeration permeable layer zone of saturation impermeable layer may be an unconfined aquifer or confined aquifer water table is the upper limit of the zone of saturation Unconfined aquifer permeable layer above and impermeable layer below Confined aquifer impermeable layer above and below it Artesian well Spring Stream Thermal springs amp geysers Ground subsidence Karst a type of landscape associated with the chemical erosion of soluble limestone or dolomite water is a key ingredient no water no limestone no karst may occur at the surface or below Basic Process Carbonation the amount of C02 in the water affects the strength of the carbonic acid which affects the rate of dissolution more C02stronger acidmore dissolved limestone temperature mixing effect owrate climate key factor amount of C02 in the water Common surface karst landscapes doline karst cockpit karst coneamp tower karst uViokarst p olj e karst labyrinth karst Common underground karst landforms and features cave Cave shapes 2 broad classes 1 single conduit passages a linear b angulate c sinuous 2 maze a network b anastomotic c spongework Cave features sp eleothems stalagmites stalacites column tufa Lecture 32 Glacial Processes amp Landscapes Climate change Evidence oxygen isotope analysis ofice cores sea oor sediments tree rings palynology study of fossil pollens geologic formations coal deposits human historical records Climate change theories n0nhuman induced causes plate tectonics Volcanic activity astronomical theory eccentricity changing the shape of the Earth s orbit obliquity changes in the angle or tilt of Earth s axis aXial precession wobblind of the Earth s axis human induced causes changes in atmospheric C02 levels other greenhouse gases nuclear winter Timing afrecent changes 1 9 gt19mrlgtSNN Pleistocene glaciations Last glacial advance began about 35000 ybp 12000 ybp still cool with boreal forests in ga 7000 ybp warmer and dry up to 2000 ypb gradual cooling 8001200 ad slight warming trend the medieval warm period 13501850 quotlittle ice age 18501970 slight warming trend then slight cooling last 2030 years global warming Glaciation Glacier a large body ofice formed on land from the accumulation and recrystallization of snow that is in motion Glacial erosion 2 main processes 1 2 plucking abrasion Types of glaciers 1 continental a ice cap b ice field 2 alpine a valley glacier b cirque glacier c tidal glacier Continental glaciers Degradational features glacial lakes paleolakespluvial lakes Aggradationalgeatures glacial drift glacial till stratified drift erratics moraines terminal moraine recessional moraine ground moraine drumlin kame kettlekettle lake meltwater deposits outwash plain esker Alpine glaciers Degradation 11 features gla cial valleys glacial trough hangin g valley fj ord cirque arete horn tarn Aggrada tional features lateral moraine medial moraine Lecture 33 Coastal processes amp landforms Coastal components coast shore shoreline littoral zone beach Agents waves determined by wind velocity direction duration and fetch components height vertical distance between the crest and the trough length horizontal distance from one crest to the next period time interval between 2 successive crests passing a fixed point swells wave of translation breaker surf swash backwash wave refraction wave bending currents longshore rip tides due to 3 forces 1 Earth s rotation 2 gravitational pull of the moon 3 gravitational pull of the sun tidal range vertical difference between high and low tide Degradational landforms Processes hydraulic action corrasion corrosion attrition Landforms sea cliffs sea cave wavecut platform sea arches sea stacks GEOGl l l 1 Unit Five Notes Soils 1116201143400 AM SOILS ne material covering the earth39s surface composed of both mineral amp organic material dirt weathering provides the raw materials parent material for soil formation amp development Soil Characteristics 39 the array of soil layers their sequence from top surface to bottom bedrock a distinct layer of soil within the soil profile Soil Properties color texture clay sand silt structure consistence cohesion porosity moisture SOIL FORMATION an ongoing process of a renewable resource but not an inexhaustible resource Components of Soil lements or compounds with a crystalline structure the building blocks of rocks found in all soils 7 39 r he part that originally from living matter decaying matter of plants animals and their waste products V lls spaces in the soil or forms athin film around particles also ll pour spaces Factors Involved in Formation Parent Material the type of rock and minerals the soil was formed from made from the underlying rock 39 for a given place more time means more complete development amp increased thickness ofso Development Processes of Soil Horizons Soils develop layers or horizons often quite distinct by 4 processes grains of soil made by adding material to the soil already in place adding organic V M m weathering of rock minerals amp soil particles already present physically or chemically changing them 114 particles are carried out of an area and downward thru soil by percolating water to an area below w deposition ofparticles in a lower area from an area above SO Soils develop Soil Profiles or a particular sequence of soil layers or horizons Main horizons 5gquot 1 organic horizon consisting entirely of organic material by ADDITION upper most layer developed from parent material by TRANSFORMATION lighter colored layer just below the 39A39 horizon by DEPLETION created by translocation of particles from the A amp E horizons above by TRAN SLOCATION quot v where the parent material is transformed by weathering into soil particles to become future soil by TRANSFORMATION 1 any where solid rock bedrock is rst affected by weather a mixture of large pieces of rock and future soil SOIL PROPERTIES Some terms the A E and B horizons those layers in which plant roots are most active used as a su ix in soil classification column of soil extending from the O horizon into the C horizon naturally occurring clump of soil SOIL TEXTURE KNOW HOW TO USE SOIL TEXTURE TRIANGLE size of the particles in the soil an indication of the soils compactness amp amount of pore space Sand Silt Clay 2 05 mm 05 002 mm lt 002 mm 08 002 in 002 00008 in lt 00008 in J a term used to describe a soil similar to a clay or sand but based on the percent of sand silt amp clay and NOT on particle size 1 39 ability of a soil to hold water against the downward pull of gravity SAND low field capacity CLA Y high eld capacity SOIL STRUCTURE the type or arrangement of a soils39peds also plays a role in determing a soils field capacity 4 basic Soil Structures 1 Platy layered peds like akes stacked horizontally HIGH FIELD CAPCITY 2 Prismatic peds arranged in columns HIGH FIELD CAPACITY 3 Blocky or Angular straight sided irregularly shaped peds LOW FIELD CAPACITY 4 Spheroidal or Granular small rounded shaped peds LOW FIELD CAPACITY SOIL COLOR can be used to indicate the organic contend and fertility of a soil and or the type of minerals and elements that are in the soil EX dark brown to black soils high organic content Red or orangish soils high Fe and or Al oxide content SOIL TAXONOMY 12 Orders 53 Suborders 230 Great Groups Entisols soils of recent origin newer soils very thin Inceptisols show the beginnings of a weakly developed B horizon Veltisols clayrich soils which swell or shrink with moisture 9311 Limit a eveloped from volcanic ash Matersaturated organic soils these are swamps EX Okefenokee Everglades etc dry soils found in most desert areassalinization common grassland soils of high agricultural value such as under the Great Plains USthick 0 h oriztm Moderately weathered deciduous trees that lose their leaves each fall forest soils moist highly mineral rich soils Ethawm mt soils of coniferous needle leaf evergreen pine forests highly acidic soils Mam wet climate soils with a high clay content in the B horizon as found in the SE US quotinquot its ropical areas with high rainfall rainforests rich in FE and AL oxides subject to laterz39zatz39 on old amp frozen soils subject to crytoturbation frost churning found in high latitudes amp elevations GEOGl l l 1 Unit Five Notes Introduction to Biogeography11162011 43400 AM INTRODUCTION TO BIOGEOGRAPHY the geography of ora plants and fauna animals Basic ideas n 3 w i v or biological diversity the variety of life forms the ecological roles they perform and the genetic diversity they contain of species life forms 175 million identi ed amp described Estimates of between 37 amp with a working estimate 1362 million Types of diversity variety in the genetic makeup among individuals within a species variety among the species or distinct types of organisms found in different variety of forests deserts grasslands streams lakes oceans coral reefs wetlands amp other biological communities biological amp chemical processes or functions such as energy ow amp matter cycling needed for the survival of species amp biological communities Processes photosynthesis energy flow within amp between systems ecological ef ciency Trophic levels food webs plant amp animal succession geographic dispersal Physical factors Biotic factors Basic Building Blocks Matter from subatomic particles to ecosystems atom 7gt molecules 7gt protoplasm 7gt cells 7gt tissues 7gt organs 7gt organ systems 7gt organisms 7gt populations 7gt communities 7gt ecosystems 7gt biosphere based on atoms protons electrons neutrons ions elements nonhuman made natural amp humanmade compounds organic hydrocarbons carbohydrates etc amp inorganic 2 Sub Areas Phytogeography Zoogeography Plant distributions Animal distributions BIOGEOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES amp PROCESSES Ln 3 1 7 occurs in the cells of plants which contain chloroplasts which contain the pigment chlorophyll 6 C02 6 H20 energy gt C5H1205 6 H20 6 Oz sunlight glucose the above process is broken down into several steps the major two being the Light reactions amp the Dark reactionsCalvz39n Cycle Limitations of photosynthesis rate of respiration by the plant where the plant uses some of the energyfood created in photosynthesis also involves glycolysis amp the Krebs Cycle l x H7 T7 ll 39quot ljllfi m Results of photosynthesis creation of Biomass or useful chemical energy plant amp animal plant biomass or phytomass is created directly by photosynthesis animal biomass is created indirectly by photosynthesis highest amounts of Biomass created in warm wet areas lowest amounts created in cold and dry areas i rquot 39 r r 39 r ENERGY FLOW both within and between syst within a system the leaf uses some of the energy it converts from radiative to chemical 1r 7 r ems form this is chemical respiration between sunlight strikes a leaf of a plant which turns radiative energy sunlight into chemical energy carbohydrate which is energy food for another organism which may be the energy source food for yet another organism Food webs food chains the pathways that energy may take from plants through various trophic levels each step or stage of the food web is termed a trophic level 3 types of organisms in these pathways misfiuw nyn Mu those who make their own food Ex PLANTS OR PRIMARY PRODUCERS U 51 1 those that need to consume other organisms to get the energy food they need Ex ANIMALS 3 types of heterotrophs herbivores primary consumers carnivoressecondary consumers omnivores nquot 1711 those that obtain their energy by breaking dwn dead organic material Ex BACTERIA FUNGI how well energy is passed from one system to another say along a food chain or web as a rule efficiency decreases as energy is moved along a food pathway or chain EX phytoplankton gt zooplankton gt small sh gt large sh 15 1 1 5 1000 energy units gt 150 units gt 165 units gt 825 units can be shown by use of a food pyramid ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS Some basics ofthe 39 39 39 39 r ofthe 39 Terms v llj L i l jn the change in a population s genetic makeup gene pool through successive generations all species descend from earlier ancestral species longterm large scale changes that lead to new species speciation and the loss of other species 1 small genetic changes that occur in a population development of genetic variability through mutations random changes of the DNA in a cell brought about by exposure to external agents radiation chemicals etc random mistakes during DNA replication mutations are random amp unpredictable only source of totally new genetic raw material without human help relatively rare events process by which a particular bene cial gene or set of genes is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes This leads to a population of organisms with a greater proportion of individuals better adapted to certain environmental conditions 111 W MW any genetically controlled structural physiological orbehavioral characteristic that helps an organism survive amp reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions EX s structural adaptations coloration mimicry protective cover gripping mechanisms physiological adaptationshibemation chemical protection behavioral adaptations migration various mating behaviors total way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem a physical chemical and biological conditions a species needs to live and reproduce in an ecosystem the physical location in which a species lives a group of organisms that resemble one another in appearance behavior chemical makeup amp processes and genetic structure 39 species with a broad ecological niche can live in many different habitats eat a variety of foods amp tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions less prone to extinction l habitat tolerate only one type or afew types of food tolerate only a narrow range of environmental conditions more prone to extinction W q w x i 39 species that normally live amp thrive in a particular ecosystem in which they evolved or are naturally found Nonnative species species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into an ecosystem also know as exoticl alienl or introduced species Indicator species species that serve as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is being degraded Keystone species species that play roles affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem How quickly can a species adapt Dependent on 3 limitations 1 A change in environmental conditions can lead to adaptation only for traits already present in the gene pool of a population 2 The population s ability to adapt can be limited by its reproductive capacity 3 Even if a favorable trait is present most of the population would have to die or become sterile so individuals with the trait could dominate amp pass the trait on formation of two species from one species as a result of divergent natural selection in response to changes in environmental conditions mechanism 2phases cannot adapt amp successfully reproduce under new environmental conditions or it evolves into one 01 more new species species are wiped out over a short time 2570 of existing species wiped out by climate change or a comet strike etc H 121 phaizin tn widespread often global period during which extinction rates are higher than normal but not high enough to classify as a mass extinction fossil geologic evidence suggests that at least 2 mass extinctions amp 3 mass depletions have occurred during the past 500 million years GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSAL Physical Abiotic F actorsfactors which control the distribution of species Temperature To certain species plants amp animals will only thrive in warm climates OR only in cold climates some in both adapted to high temps S adapted to within standard low temps Water no water no photosynthesis no plants no animals adapted to low moisture conditions adapted to high moisture conditions deciduous vs evergreen trees and plants drop leaves keep leaves Light availability increase light increase photosynthesis shade tolerant vs shade intolerant need direct sunlight Soils structure texture both affect plant root systems and thus plant survival and dispersal Landformsselevation affects temps and moisture slope steepness affects water availability amp soil thickness slope aspect elevation affects TO and moisture slope steepan affects water availability amp soil thickness slope aspect compass direction a slope is facing affects amount of sunlight and thus TO amp moisture levels Biotic Factors Species Interactions Types interspecific competition predation parasitism mutualism commensalism amensalism members of two or more species trying to use the same limited resources in an ecosystem EX s of resources nutrients food water sunlight space mates building supplies etc ifintense competition exists may lead to 1 Migration of one species 2 Shift in habits or behavior through natural selectionevolution 3 Sharp population decline 4 Extinction from that area the process of dividing up resources in an ecosystem each organism developing its own ecological niche is one way to adapt to these conditions situation in which an organism of one species the predator captures and feeds on parts of all of an organism of another species the pray EX grasshopper eating preying on grass or crops coyote preying on rabbits or mice often 39 the L39 139 39 0fthe 5 quot quot interaction between species in which one organism the parasite preys on another organism the host by living on or in the host The parasite bene ts amp the host is often harmed EX s tapeworms ticks eas mosquitoes mistletoe some fungi species interaction in which the presence of one species is often essential to the survival of another species but usually both species benefit from the interaction EX s honeybees amp owers f d 1 quot39 quot r 39 P black 139 39 foodremoval of parasites clown sh amp sea r quot amp f d r iou L interaction between organisms of different species in which one organism benefits and the other is either helped nor harmed to any great degree EX s epiphytes amp various trees epiphyte gains access to water nutrients amp sunlight while the tree is unharmed the inhibition of one species by another through chemical means EX certain plants produce toxins amp release them into the soil making the soil unusable by other plants thus inhibiting the growth of competing plants GEOGl l l 1 Unit Five Notes Phytogeography 11162011 43400 AM PHYTOGEOGRAPHY the study of the distribution of plants amp their ecosystems both spatially and temporally Biogeochemical Cycles all atoms elements molecules substances etc get cycled through environment Some however are more important than others those are important to organisms to live grow and reproduce are cycled between the nonliving and living components of the environment in what are known as the biogeochemical cycles we will brie y discuss the following Water Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus amp Sulfur Hydrologic Water Cycle The collection puri cation amp distribution of the Earth s water supply through both the abiotic amp biotic components of the environment evapotranspiration condensation precipitation run off consequences of this ow of water causes soil erosion amp moves weathered fragments of rock adding to erosion in one place amp deposition in another is a major medium for transponing nutrients within the Environment puri cation of the water supply as it goes through evaporation amp precipitation as it ows through streams amp lakes and as it passes through the ground Carbon Cycle the ow of carbon primarily as carbon dioxide C02 through theatmosphere hydrosphere lithosphere amp biosphere the environment Consequences key element in controlling the temperatures at the Earth s surface it is a Greenhouse Gas a key element in the formation of organic molecules and compounds upon which life on Earth is based removed from the air by producers plants to make complex Carbohydrates produced during aerobic respiration primarily by animals and released back into the stored as an energy source in the form of fossil fuels released back into the cycle when these are broken down EX burned by humans Oxygen and Hydrogen cycle in a similar fashion to Carbon All three are important elements in carbohydrates Nitrogen Cycle the movement of nitrogen in various chemical forms through the environment it is an important element for most organisms BUT in its most abundant form N2 it cannot be absorbed amp used directly as a nutrient by plants amp animals it is broken down during lightening strikes amp certain bacteria in the soil amp aquatic systems can convert it into useful compounds consists of several steps m 39 process in which specialized bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen N2 into ammonia NH3 that can be used by plants EX soybeans and alfalfa 191 nu rocess in which most of the ammonia in soil is converted to nitrite ions NO239 by aerobic bacteria amp nitrate ions N0339 which are taken up by plants animals get their N by eating plants or herbivores conversion of nitrogenrich organic compounds into ammonia NH3 amp ammonium ions NH4 conversion of ammonia amp ammonium ions back into nitrite amp nitrate and then into N2 which is released into the atmosphere Phosphorus P Cycle cycles through the water lithosphere and living organisms and is commonly found as phosphate salts is important for plant growth but is a limiting factor in plant growth of its low abundance in soils since levels are low in soils it must added in hightech agricultural activities this disrupts the normal cycle if increased amounts of P are introduced into aquatic systems it can lead to increased plant bacteria amp alga growth which leads to oxygen depletion by the subsequent decomposition of the dead organic matter by aerobic decomposers Sulfur Cycle circulated through the environment in various compounds can be added as hydrogen sul de HzS from active volcanoes amp the decay of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria as sulfur dioxide 80 from volcanoessulfate salts 804239 from sea spray human activities account for about 33 of all sulfur compounds amp 99 of SO reaching the atmosphere sulfur trioxide gas 803 reacts with water to from sulfuric acid H2804 a component of acid deposition PLANT GEOGRAPHY the study of the distribution of plants amp their ecosystems both spatially and temporally Biome broadest justifiable division of plants and animals an assemblage or association of plants and animals that forms a regional ecological unit Basic Types in mg closely spaced 1me developed 3layer canopy highest biodiversity of any terrestrial environment within the 39Af7 climate areas less dense canopy than Tropical Rainforest with less well developed canopy layers also known as Tropical Scrub has a pronounced dry season 39Am39 amp 39Aw39 climate areas so trees loose their leaves during this dry period grasslandshrub transition zone between the Tropical Rainforest the Tropical Deciduous Forest amp Desert Biomes dominated by tall grassland with widely spaced trees EX grasslands amp Acacia trees of eastern Africa 39Aw39 climate areas sparse vegetation or none at all due to low precipitation and high evapotranspiration vegetation is of the xeroghigtic or succulent variety ex Cactus Tropical warm amp MidLatitude cold Deserts are differentiated due to varied climatic conditions amp thus differing vegetation 39BW39 amp 39BS39climate areas dominated by sod fonning grasses areas of both shortgrass and longgrass prairie EX Great PlainsUS PampasArgentina Russian Steppe mixture of 39BS39 climate areas amp drier regions of CfaampDfa areas dominated by broadleaf deciduous trees of eastern US Europe amp eastern China also large areas of mixed deciduous amp needleleaf evergreen trees esp in southern areas such as the SE US EX oak birch walnut maple elm ash with pine species in southern areas loblolly southern pine sand pine etc 39Cfa39 amp southern 39Dfa39 climate areas needle leaf trees of US northwest coast also known as the Temperate Evergreen Forest EX redwoods Douglas r Sitka spruce 39Cfb39 climate area consists of widely spaced evergreen amp deciduous trees amp hard or waxyleaved evergreen bushes found in areas of the Mediterranean 39Csa39 climate type dominated by cyclic re disturbance EX chaparral of coastal California J 39 J by T or conebearing trees Also known as the Boreal Forest in Canada or the T aiga in Siberia EX Spruce hemlock r pine larch 39be39 39ch39 39Dfal39clz39mate areas dominated by mosses lichens sedgesmarsh grasses amp a few dwarftreesshrubs this area is controlled by germafrost amp is in the 39ET39 climate area c 11 p a somewhat predictable process in Which one set or assemblage ofplant species sp replaces an existing assemblage over a long period oftime Primary Succession vs Secondary Succession differentiated by the starting conditions of the site 4 sequential development of communities in a bare area that has never been occupied by a community of organisms OR an area that has been recently denuded of an existing community amp the associated soil and is thus starting in a condition of bare rock EX a recently glaciated area that has been stripped bare of soil down to the bedrock quot sequential development of communities in an area in which vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil is not destroyed some plants and seeds may still exist in the soil EX an old farming eld that has been left fallow amp on which vegetation begins to take hold 3 subtypes 1 linear autogenic succession basically a oneway succession such that a particular stage or assemblage is not regeateal 2 cyclic autogenic stages or assemblages can be regeateal and often are May also skip a stage 3 allogenic change in species composition brought about by outside forces or disturbance ie disease fire ood landslide etc quot kind of end point or final stage where the plant assemblage is in balance or best suited for the existing climate amp soil characteristics GEOGl l l 1 Unit Five Notes Zoogeography 11162011 43400 AM ZOOGEOGRAPHY the geographical distribution of animal species amp populations on the earth39s surface What controls where an animal lives the ecological niche or broader habitat that the species has evolved and adapted into Aquatic Life Zones two major divisions Saltwater or Marine amp Freshwater can also be delineated into 3 layers surface middle amp bottom important environmental factors to consider salinity temperature access to sunlight dissolved oxygen availability of nutrients Marine systems Coastal Zone high net primary productivity contains 3 ecosystems Estuaries areas where freshwater and saltwater mix Coastal wetlands land areas covered with saltwater all or part of the year Salt marshes amp Mangrove forest swamps Coral reefs found in relatively shallow tropical waters Open Sea low net primary productivity divided into 3 vertical zones Euphotic high levels of sunlight penetrate Bathyalzmedium levels of sunlight penetrate Abyssalvery low levels of sunlight penetrate Freshwater systems Lakes classi ed based in nutrient content and primary productivity Oligotrophic lake usually newly formed nutrient poor often deep and have crystal clear blue or green water Eutrophic lake nutrientrich large supply of nutrients N amp P usually shallower murky brown or green color amp poor visibility Mesotrophic lake in between the rst two most lakes fall within this category Rivers amp Streams can be delineated into 3 zones Source Zone mountain headwater streams at high elevation Transition Zone wider lowerelevation streams Flood Plain Zone area of rivers which empty into the ocean Inland wetlands Marshes dominated by grasses Prairie potholes depressions carved out by glaciers Swamps dominated by trees and shrubs Floodplainsreceive excess water during heavy rains and oods Zoogeographic RealmsKNOVV ZOOGEOGRAPHIC REALM MAP encompasses North America Greenland and the Central Highlands of Mexico one of the least diverse realms EX American bison pronghorn antelope Bald eagle prairie dogs Whooping crane etc 39 Europe northern Asianorth of the Himalayas amp North Africanorth of the Sahara also an area of low diversity the PaleoarcticampNeoarctic sometimes combined as the H olarctz39c EX Siberian tiger Giant panda 3 squot coastal Mexico through Central and South America one of the richest amp most varied faunal assemblages EX tapir jaguar llama Vicuna macaws numerous marsupials boa constrictor prehensile tailed monkeysSpider Colobus etc 1 Sub Saharan Africa also one of the richest amp most varied faunal assemblages EX zebra giraffe hyena ostrich gorilla chimpanzee numerous antelope sp etc the island of Madagascar and nearby Comoro Islands quite different from Africa despite their proximity EX lemurs elephant shrew South central amp southeast Asia fairly diverse fauna but not quite as diverse as the Ethiopian EX orangutan Bengal tiger Indian elephant mongoose Geography Exam 3 GeomorphologyThe science oflandforms their origin evolution form and spatial distribution development and changes on the Earth s surface over time Topography Earth s ridges valley s amp other surface features the change in elevation over the Earth s surface Uniformitarianism the theory that geologic events are caused by natural processes many ofwhich are operating at the present time Landform individual element of a landscape ex mountain river hill etc Tectonic developed by the rearrangement of the Earth 5 crustinternal 2 Fluvial developed by moving liquid water 3 Glacial developed by glacial ice solid water 4 Coastal developed by waves 5 Eolian developed by wind Equilibrium states 5teadystate little change with inputs and outputs equal Dynamic uctuates around an avg value demonstrates a trend over time Earth39s Internal Structure arranged in concentric layers heavier elements towards the center each layer distinct in chemical composition or temperature result of cooling since formation of the earth some 46 BYBP We know this because ofindirect evidence ofseismic waves coolerhigher velocity hotter slower velocity 3 types of seismic waves P waves push or compressional waves go through the mantle outer and inner core but change direction etc 5 waves shear or shake waves go only through the mantle L waves surface waves the ones we feel INNER CORE lowest part of core solid and rigid consists ofiron Fe and nickel Ni OUTER CORE liquid molten more plastic consists of Fe and Ni but at a lower pressure so its melting T is lowerliquid generates 90 of the Earth s magnetic field Gutenberg Discontinuity an uneven broad transition zone between the outer core and the lower mantle discontinuity a physical difference esp density between two layers LOWER MANTLE solid consists of oxides of Fe magnesium Mg and silicon Si UPPER MANTLE partially molten consists of silicate materials upper and lower mantle comprise about 80 of Earth s volume ASTHENOSPHERE molten source of magma which pushes up into the crust amp onto the surface LITHOSPHERE uppermost solid portion of mantle plus the crust zone of contact between the uppermost mantle and the crust is the Mohorovicic discontinuity Moho is closer to the surface under oceanic crust vs continental crust Continental crust vs Oceanic crust usually lower density higher density sialic rock or sial Si amp Al simatic rocks or sima Si amp Mg eX granite shale marble eX basalt lava Topographic relief the vertical difference between highest elevation and lowest high relief mountains vs low relief coastal plain oldest rocks on the planet are about 4 billion years old Geologic Time Scale a method of indicating the age of the Earth a sequence based on relative positions of rocks strata layers is a relative time scale assumes superposition that younger rocks amp sediments are near the top of a formation amp older material is near the bottom is governed by uniformitarianism absolute ages are determined by methods such as radioactive isotope dating Geologic Cycle Paleozoic 542250 bya Mesozoic 25065 bya Cenozoic 65 now Top two periods of Cenozoic Tertiary 6518 Quaternary 18now Top two epochs of quaternary period Pleislocene18001 Holocene 001now 3 components of the building and wearing down of landforms hydrologic cycle movement of water H20 tectonic cycle movement of crustal material and magma rock cycle formation of the three basic types of rock Rock Cycle oldest known rock is 4 billion years old mineral an element or combination of elements that forms an inorganic natural compound which has specific qualities such as a unique crystalline structure hardness etc rock an assemblage of minerals bound together usually 2 to 5 different materials sometimes as a mass ofa single material thousands of rock types but all the result of 3 rockforming processes igneous sedimentary amp metamorphic the interactions between these 3 processes is the Rock Cycle Igneous process amp rocks formed by crystallization of magma the solidifying of magma either below or on the surface may cool fast creating a finegrained structure extrusive or slow creating a coarsegrained structure intrusive Intrusive types form below the surface within the crust Ex plutons batholiths laccoliths made of granite type material granite rhyolite many mountainsranges are exposed plutons Sierra Nevada CANV Stone Mt GA Extrusive types form on the surface of the crust Ex lava or basalt volcanic ash obsidian pumice the ocean oor is primarily composed of basaltic igneous rock Sedimentary process amp rocks formed from existing material by weathering erosion transport amp deposition lithification the cementation compaction and hardening of sediments into rock 2 main types cIastic made from bits amp pieces of former rocks these are visible pieces such as the sand at the beach or the soil in your backyard Ex sandstone shale siltstone conglomerates nonclastic or chemical made from minerals dissolved in solution water the material such as various salts dissolved in a river lake or ocean Ex limestone coal evaporates salts chalk gypsum Metamorphic process amp rocks formed from existing material by physical andor chemical change under high pressure andor high temperature usually more compact than original material amp thus harder C0ntact metamorphism change brought about by magma touching quotcookingquot the adjacent rock foliated rockex slate schist gneiss mylonite nonfoliated rock ex quartzite marble greenstones Plate Tectonics the theory of global dynamics in which the lithosphere is believed to broken into individual pieces or plates that move in response to convection in the upper mantle Wegener German meteorologist Theory of Continental Drift landmassPangea SeaFloor Spreading the movement of crustal material by the upwelling of magma along a system of mid oceanic ridges the upwelling pushes the crust away from the ridge oldest crust is furthest from the ridge newer crust closest oldest sea oor dated so far formed 200 MYBP idea of magnetic reversals or paleomagnetism enhanced this theory Magnetic reversals paleomagnetism refers to the magnetic alignment of charged particles esp Iron material in the rock which exhibit a symmetrical pattern as you move away from the midoceanic ridge Divergent plate boundaries where plates are moving apart from each other under tensional stress created by upwelling of magma ridge push and slab pull areas of abundant earthquake activity and relatively mild volcanic activity sea oor spreading along mid oceanic ridges EX along the midAtlantic Ridge or the creation of the Red Sea on continents may form rift zones or valleys EX Great Rift Valley of East Africa Convergent plate boundaries under compressional stresses createsubduction zones amp areas of high earthquake activity 3 types Oceaniccontinental oceanic crust which is denser is subducted forced under the continental crust which is less dense amp remelted in the Asthenosphere this creates an underwater trench along the plate boundary continental crust is compresses forming folded mountains and volcanic mountains where magma reaches the surface through cracks and weak points high earthquake and volcanic activity EX Nazca amp South American plates converge creating the Peru Trench underwater the Andes mountains also in the Pacific NW of the US Oceanicoceanic subduction of one plate and remelting ofit deep trenches created at the boundaries high level of volcanic and earthquake activity formation of volcanic island archipelagoes Ex the Philippine islands Iapanese islands and the Aleutians off Alaska Continentalcontinental areas of great compression and mountain building high earthquake activity but little or no volcanism little or no subduction of continental crustal material Ex the Appalachians the Himalayas Transform Lateral plate boundaries areas of shear stresses transform faults created high earthquake activity amp some crustal deformation nosubduction or volcanism Ex San Andreas Fault Zone Volcanism Extrusive Volcanism Volcano a landform with a vent or fissure crack on the surface which is the end ofa conduit originating from below the crust in the Asthenosphere often a mountain landform fissures usually do not form features of high relief magma originating in the Asthenosphere is expelled through the conduit and out the vent magma often collects in a magma chamber below the volcano before expelled Crater the surface depression at the summit of the volcano a volcano may be categorized as Active currently erupting or has erupted during recorded history Dormant an active volcano that is in repose but is expected to erupt in the future Extinct a volcano that is not expected to erupt again 75 of volcanoes are on the sea oor most convergent and divergent plate boundaries have high volcanic activity hot spots are also areas of high volcanic and earthquake activity Lava the molten rock issued from a volcano the term used for magma once it has erupted onto the Earth s surface 2 types of lava ma c basaltic lava high in Mg amp Fe lt50 silica thus less viscous which means it ows readily and thus less gas is trapped within leading to a less explosive eruption feIsicricher in silica thus more Viscous meaning it ows slower it is also more acidic and more gases are trapped leading to more explosive eruptions 2 types of eruptions effusive relatively gentle nonviolent eruptions because gases readily escape thus less explosive material issued is primarily mafic magma if eruption is through a vent it may form a shield volcano Islands ofHawal39l39 Galapagos if eruption is through a fissure it forms a plateau basalt or ood basalt Columbia Plateau explosiverelatively violent eruptions because conduit often gets plugged with cooledsolidified magma and thus a greater amount of gases are trapped in the magmaincreasing pressure material issued is primarily felsic magma with a much greater content of pyroclastics if the eruption is through a vent and this often forms a composite volcano or stratovolcanoMt St Helens Mt Ranier Mt Vesuvius Iahar or pyroclatic ow may accompany an explosive eruption lahar a ood of ash mud and water created by melting of snowcap during an eruption or volcanic event nu eardentes pyroclatic owa cloud of hot volcanic gas and ash that moves down the anks of the volcano Phreatic eruptions violent eruptions made more severe by water entering the magma chamber increasing pressure from steam amp increasing the explosive power Ex Kratatau Santorini Caldera a large more or less circular depression or basin associated with a volcanic vent its diameter often many times greater than the original vents may be the result of collapse or subsidence or may also result from an explosive event Hot spot the surface expression of a mantle plume that has either created or found a crack in the crust creating a conduit to the surface Intrusive Volcanism plutonic landscapes landforms and features whose origin is from the cooling of magma below the surface within the crust pluton a body of intrusive igneous rock 2 main types of intrusive volcanism Discordant disrupts or changes often melts or metamorphoses the existing geologic structure it intrudes creates a space and then fills it in batholith large discordant pluton exposed over an area of at least 100ka Ex Stone Mt GA stock a relatively small roughly circular discordant pluton usually less than 100ka in surface exposure dike a relatively narrow mass of cooled magma that cuts across preexisting strata or other structural features of the surrounding rock in a vertical orientation volcanic neck the solidified magma that originally filled the vent or neck of an ancient volcano and has been exposed by erosion Ex Devil s Tower WY Shigrock NM Concordant intrusive magma that didn39t disrupt or destroy the existing geologic structure but conformed to it fills existing spaces Iaccolith concordant pluton which has arched up strata into which it was injected so it forms a lensshaped body with a horizontal oor smaller than a batholith siII a relatively narrow mass of cooled magma that was injected between preexisting strata of the surrounding rock in a horizontal orientation range from a few cm to hundreds of meters thick amp may extend for several kms Earthquakes A sharp release of energy resulting in a series of elastic waves transmitted through the Earth at the moment of rupture along a fault The rupture is initiated where stress along the fault exceeds the elastic limit of the rock so that sudden movement occurs They are also associated with volcanic activity Seismic waves pulses of energy generated by an earthquake that pass through the Earth as shock wavestransmission speed amp direction can vary according to the T and density of the various layers within the planet P wave primary seismic wave a compression or push wave that moves through material at right angles to its direction of movement cannot pass through liquids S wave secondaryshear seismic wave shear or shake wave which moves through material at right angles to its direction ofmovementcannot pass through liquids L wave surface wave wave that travels along Earth s surface but not through the Earth and at slower velocities than either P or S waves earthquakes are measured by their magnitude and intensity magnitude quantitative measurement of the amount of shaking of the ground intensity qualitative measurement of the damage of an earthquake episode focus place of origin of an earthquake may be at or near the surface or deep within the crust the point which the P and S waves are generated epicenter the point of the Earth39s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake the point from which the L waves are generated Faults 1 Compressional reverse compression of crustal rockinto a smaller horizontal space shortening of the crust reverse fault is where the hanging wall has moved upward in relation to the footwall and thus overrides it along a steep fault plane creating an overhanging fault scarp 2 Tensional stretching of crustal rock apart so there is more horizontal space lengthening of the crust does not create an overhanging fault scarp 3 Echelon a series ofnearly parallel normal faults often form a landscape known as horst ampgrab en topography horst an elongate fault block that has been uplifted in relation to the blocks on either side graben an elongate fault block that has been lowered in relation to the blocks on either side 4 Shear blocks of crustal rock that move laterally horizontally along the fault plane strike slip fault transform fault Tsunami a seismic sea wave set off by an earthquake whose epicenter is on the sea oor creates crested waves tens to hundreds of feet high may travel at speeds up to 630 mph Structural Landscapes the relationship between geologic structure amp the visible landscape amp how this is formed by various processes formed by tectonic forces or stresses compression tension amp shearing Folding and Folded Structures the process that bends or warps deforms rock strata when subjected to compressional forces best seen in sedimentary rock Primary features Anticline archlike upfoldwith the limbs beds dipping away from its aXis hinge Syncline troughlike downfoldwith the limbs dipping toward the aXis folds may also plunge or dip from the horizontal plane Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Soils soil profile soil horizon soil properties soil formation minerals organic matter water Definition fine material covering the earth39s surface comp of both mineral amp organic material dirt weathering provides the raw materials pare material for soil formation amp development Definition the array of soil layers their sequence from to surface to bottom bedrock Definition a distinct layer of soil within the soil profile Definition color can give you an idea of minerals texture clay sand silt structure how well water soaks through consistence cohesion porosity moisture Definition on ongoing process of a renewable source but n inexhausible one Definition elements of compounds with a crystalline struct the building blocks of rocks found in all soil Definition the part originally from living matter decayin mmatter of plants animals and their waste prod Definition fills spaces in the soil or forms a thin film arou particles Term air Term parent material Term residual soil Term transported soil Term climate Term biological agents Term topography Term time Term addition Term Definition also fills pore spaces Definition the type of rock and minerals the soil was formed Definition made from the underlying rock Definition made from material not found in underlying ro Definition if temperature and precipitation differ will yie different soils even from the same parent mate Definition decomposers microorganisms bateria fungi ty humus or organic material Definition flat vs steep slopes windward versus leeward Slt sun exposure wetterthicker south is usually d Definition longer that a soil has to develop generally the th it will be Definition grains of soil made by adding material to the 5 already in place adding organic matter Definition weathering of rock minerals amp soil particles already transformation present physically or chemically changing them Definition particles are carried out of an area and downwz through soil by percolating water to an area be Term depletion Definition deposition of particles in a lower area from an a above Term translocation Definition organic horizon consisting entirely of organi material by addition Term 39039 horizon Definition upper most layer developed from parent materia transformation Term 39A39 horizon Definition colored layerjust below the 39A39 horizon by deple Term 39E39 horizon Definition created by translocation of particles from the 39A39 horizons above this layer takes the most time I f 39 B horizon develop Term Definition where the parent material is transformed by weathering into soil particles to become future so I I 39 C hon zon transformation Term Definition where solid rock bedrock is first affected by we mixture of large pieces of rock and future soi Term 39R39 horizon Definition Term the A E and B layers sol used as a suffix in soil classification solum Term pedon Term soil texture Term loam Term soil structure Term platy Term prismatic Term blocky or angular Term spheroidal or granular Definition column of soil extending from the O horizon int C horizon ped naturally occuring clump of soil Definition size of the particles in the soil an indication o soils compactness amp amount of pore space Definition a term used to describe a soil similar to a clay sand but based on the percent of sand silt amp clay and NOT on particle Definition sand low field capacity clay high field capacity 4 basic Soil Structures the type or arrangemen soils peds also plays a role in determining a 51 field capacity Definition layered peds like flakes stacked horizontally Definition peds arranged in columns Definition straight sided irregularly shaped peds Definition small rounded shaped peds Term Term Term Term Term Term Term Term soil color andisols aridisols mollisols alfisols spodosols ultisols oxisols Definition can be used to indicate the organic content an fertility of a soil andlpr the type of minerals ar elements that are in the soil ex dark brown to black soils high organ content Red or orangish soils high Fe andor Al 0Xl content Definition developed from volcanic ash Definition dry soils found in most desert areas salinizati common Definition grassland soils of high agricultural value such under the Great Plains US thick 0 horizon Definition moderately weathered deciduous forest soils in highly mineralrich soils Definition soils of coniferous needleleaf evergreen pin forests highly acidic soils Definition warm wet climate soils with a high clay content i B horizon as found in the SE US Definition tropical areas with high rainfall rainforests rich and AL oxides subject to laterization Term gelisols Term Types of diversity Term Genetic Diversity Term Species Diversity Term Ecological Diversity Term Definition cold amp frozen soils subject to crytoturbation frost churning found in high latitudes amp elevat Definition Genetic Species Ecological Functional Definition variety in the genetic makeup among individ Definition variety among the species or distinct types organisms found in different habitats of tb planet Definition variety of forests deserts grasslands streal lakes oceans coral reefs wetlands amp othe biological communities Definition Fu n O n a I Dive biological amp chemical processes or functions as energy flow amp matter cycling needed for survival of species amp biological communiti Definition Term Plant distributions Phytogeography Defini ion Term Animal distributions Defini ion Term Ph the process of converting C02 and HZO in carbohydrate and 02 using sunlight as the en source Defini ion Term Photosynthesis occurs i the cells of plants which contain chloroplas which contain the pigment chlorophyll Defini ion Term t rate of respiration availability of water p h I S rate of evaporation amp transpiratio Definition Term Blom ass useful chemical energy created from photosynthesis Definition Term the net photosynthesis for a given communi this considers all growth amp reduction factors affect the amount of biomass xed in an ecosystem Net Primary Productivi1 Definition N photosynthesis respiration Definition the pathways that energy may take from pla through various trophic levels what eats wh Definition Term each step or stage of the food web Trophic level Definition Te rm Au p h S those that make own quotfoodquot Definition Term those that must consume other organisms to the energy food they need Animals Heterotrophs Definition Term herbivores primary consumers carnivoressecondary consume omnivores 3 types of heterotroph Definition Term those that obtain their energy by breaking d dead organic material EX Bacteria fungi Definition Term how well energy is passed from one system another say along a food chain or web Ecological Efficiency Definition Term as energy is moved along a food pathway 1 chain Ecological effICIency decreases Definition EVO I or the change in a population s genetic makeu gene pool through successive generations Evolution all species descend from earlier ancestr species Definition Term long term large scale changes that lead to I species speciation and the loss of other spe Macroevolutlon Definition Term small genetic changes that occur in a popula Microevolutlon mutations Definition Term are random amp unpredictable only source of totally new genetic ra material without human help a relatively rare events Definition Term process by which a particular bene cial gent set of genes is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes N ra I on This leads to a population of organisms V a greater proportion of individuals better ada to certain environmental conditions Definition Term Adaptation or adaptiw trait Term EX 5 structural adaptations Term any genetically controlled structural physiological or behavioral characteristic that helps an organism survive amp reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions Definition coloration cover mimicry protective gripping mechanisms Definition hibernation chemical protection physiological adaptation Term behavioral adaptations Term Ecological Niche Term Definition migration various mating behaviors Definition total way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem all physical chemical amp biologi conditions a species needs to live amp reproduc an ecosystem Definition the physical location in Which a species liVi Term Term Term Ex of generalists Term Term Habitat Species Generalists Specialists Definition group of organisms that resemble one anotht appearance behavior chemical makeup d processes amp genetic structure Definition species with a broad ecological niche can live in many different habitats eat a var of foods amp tolerate a wide range of environm1 conditions less prone to extinction Definition humans ies cockroaches miceamp rats raccoons coyotes channel catfish various w species etc Definition species with a narrow ecological niche may live in only one type of habitat tolerate one type or a few types of food tolerate onl narrow range of environmental conditions more prone to extinction Definition red cockaded woodpecker giant pandas snail kite numerous tropical rain forest species Ex of specialists Definition Term species that n01mally live amp thrive in a partii ecosystem in which they evolved or are 39natul Native SpeCIes found Definition Term EX Amelich bison American alligator etc Definition Term species that migrate into an ecosystem or a deliberately or accidentally introduced into ecosystem also known as exotic alien or introduced species Definition Term kudzu Argentine re ants nutIia etc Ex of nonnative specie Definition Indicator Species species that serve as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is being degrade Definition Term many birds frogs amp toads Ex of indicator species Definition Term species that play roles affecting many othe organisms in an ecosystem Keystone SpeCIes Definition Term EX wolf leopard lion sea otter great white sha various bees bats amp ants Definition 1 A change in environmental conditions can to adaptation only for traits already present in HOW a genepool ofapopulation 2 The population s ability to adapt can be lin a d a by its reproductive capacity 3 Even if a favorable trait is present most 0 population would have to die or become sterill individuals with the trait could dominate amp p the trait on Definition Speciation formation of 2 species from one species as a r of divergent natural selection in response 1 changes in environmental conditions Definition Term separation of populations ofa species int different areas for fairly long times Definition Term long term geographic separation of member aparticular sexually reproducing species Reproductive Isolation Definition Term complete disappearance of a living species f the Earth happens when a species cannot adapt amp successfully reproduce under new environme conditions or it evolves into one or more ne species Definition Term Normal extinction of various species as a resu changes in local environmental conditions ba n d eth n 0 I1 Compare mass depletion mass extinction Definition Term A catastrophic widespread often global evel which major groups of species arewiped out extl n on a short time compared with normal backgro extinctions Compare background extinctic mass depletion Term Definition Temperature Abiotic factor T celtain species plants amp animals will 1 Term Water conditions Term Light availability Term Soils Term Landforms mutualism thrive in warm climates OR only in cold climates some in both EX megatherm plants adapted to high temperatures microtherm plants adapted to within stand low temperatures Def inition Abiotic no water no photosynthesis no plants animals EX xerophyte plants adapted to low mois conditions hygrophyte plants adapted to high moist conditions Definition Abiotic increase light increase photosynthesis EX shade tolerant base of rainforest vs S intolerant need direct sunlight Definition Abiotic structure texture both affect plant root syst and thus plant survival and dispersal root and plant support and water availabilj De nition Abi elevation affects T and moisture slope steepness affects water availability amp thickness slope aspect compass direction a slope i facing affects amount of sunlight and thus T amp moisture levels N vs S facing slope of a mountain coolerwetter vs warmerdrier species interaction in which the presence of one species is often essential to the survival of another species but usually both species bene t the interaction commensalism Amensalism Biogeochemical Cycles Hydrologic Cycle Carbon cycle Nitrogen Cycles interaction between organisms of different species in which one organism bene ts and the other is neither helped nor harmed to any great degree epiphytes and various trees the inhibition of one species by another through chemical means ex certain plants put toxins in the soil so other plants can39t grow Water carbon nitrogen phosphorous and sulfur collection puri cation and distribution of earth39s water supply through both the abiotic and biotic components of the environment the ow of carbon primarily as carbon dioxide through the atmosphere hydrosphere lithosphere and biosphere produced during aerobic respiration the movement of nitrogen in various chemical forms through the environment nitrogen fixation nitrification ammonification Phosphorus cycle sulfur cycle process in which specialized bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen into ammonia that can be used by plants ex soybean process in which most ammonia in soil is converted to nitrite ions N02 by aerobic bacteria and nitrate ions which are taken up by plants conversion of ammonia and ammonium ions back into nitrite and nitrate and then into N2 which is released atmosphere cycles through the water lithosphere and living organisms and is commonly found as phosphate salts for plant growth circulated through the environment in various compounds Biome Tropical rainforest Tropical Deciduous Forest Tropical Savanna broadest justifiable division of plants and animals an assemblage or association of plants and animals that forms a regional ecological unit basic types deserts grasslands or forests tal closely spaced broad leafed trees three layer canopy Highest biodiversity less dense canopy than tropical rainforest with less well developed canopy layers grassland shrub transition zone between the tropical rainforest the tropical deciduous forest and desert biomes dominated by tall grasslands with widely spaced trees grasslands of eastern africa D rt sparse vegetation or none at all to due to low es e precipitation and high evapotranspiration succulent plants dominated by sod forming grasses ex great plains russian steppe grassland dominated by broadleaf deciduous trees of eastern US Europe and eastern china and and Mixed Forest Evergreen in SE Us needle leaf trees of US NW Coast ex Temperate Woods Rainforest Temperate evergreen forest Mediterranean Scrub or Shrubland Northern coniferous Forest Tundra Ecological Succession 3 Subtypes of secondary succession consits of widely spaced evergreen and deciduous trees and hard or waxy leaved evergreen bushes found in mediterranean climate costal califomia dominated by coniferous or cone bearing trees also known as the boreal forest in Canada dominated by mosses lichens sedges and a few dwarf trees shrubs this area is controlled by permafrost a somewhat predictable process in which one set or assemblage of plant species replaces an existing assemblage over a long period of time linear autogenic sucession cyclic autogenic and allogenic basically a one way succession such that a particular stage or assemblage is not repeated linear autogenic SUCCESSIOI I stages or assemblages can be repeated and cyclic autogenlc Often change in sp composition brought about by a I I c quotoutsidequot forces or disturbances high net primary productivity contains estuaries costal wetlands and coral reefs divided into 3 vertical zones euphotic S bathyal and abyssal high levels of sunlight penetrate Eupho c B a t h y a I medium levels of sunlight penetrate low levels of sunlight a byssal classi ed by nutrient content and primary La S productivity usually newly formed nutrient poor often 039 I c deep and have crystal clear blue or green water Lake nutrient rich large supply of nutrients Eu p h usually shallower murky water in between the rst two most lakes fall M I c within this category lake in between the rst two most lakes fall m p h I c Within this category lake can be delineated into 3 zones source zone transition zone ood plain zone Streams depressions carved by glaciers Prairie Potholes encompasses N America greenland and the central highlands of Mexico least diverse Ex American bison pronghorn antelope bald eagle praire dogs whooping crane Europe Northern Asia and Nonh Africa Siberian Tiger Ex Neotropical Paleotropical Madagascan lndo Malayan Australian New Zealand costal Mexico central and south america varied species EX tapir jaguar llama civuma macaws numerous marsupials sub saharanafrica varied species Ex zevbra giraffe hyena ostrich gorilla chimpanzee numerous antelope island of madagascar elephant shrew south central Asia slightly diverse Ex orangutan new guinew and nearby islands australia and nearby islands Most marcipuals Kangaroo wombat Tasmanian devil koala rather unique fauna Endemic sp include the kiwi and the tuatara GEOG llii Exam 2 Review The following list IS NOT all INCLUSIVE Clouds processrequirements of formation Types of Fog radiation vs advection vs evaporation vs upslope Radiation cooling decreases air T to the dp T late fallwinter Advection warm moist air moves over to a colder surface Evaporation when air reaches its sat point by adding watervapor Upslope warm moist air flows up along an elevated place Frozen dew vs frost Frozen dew dew that has formed then frozen condensation temp V Frost covering of ice is produced by deposition watervapor 9 solid Precipitation Processes Bergeron vs CollisionCoalescence Process BP Forms rainsnow when temps are below lO C ce crystals collect more wv than they lose so they grow CC tropics raindrops form max size 5mm Types of Precipitation rain vs snow vs sleet vs freezing rain vs hail LOW PRESSURE USSUALLY BRINGS RAIN HIGH PRESSURE DOESN T Rain nimbostratuscumulus clouds BP 9 F L CCP 9 L L Snow BP 9 F F SIeeT freezes as it falls frozen raindrop BP 9 CCP 9 L F F Freezing Rain F L LF Hail lumps of ice produced in cumulonimbusthunderclouds Eastside vs Westside of a STH E astside cold ocean current leads to stabledry conditions Sahara of NW Africa Westside warm ocean current leads to greater instabilitywet SE US Florida Air Masses amp Fronts Types of Air Masses cP vs cA vs mT vs mP vs cT T amp humid for each type CP cold air displaces warm air CA bitterly cold and dry stable MT warmhumid unstable in East stable in West MP coolhumid unstable in Winter Stable in Summer CT hotdry Types of Fronts cold vs warm vs stationary vs occluded Cold cold air is displacing warm Stationary parallel to bound cumuluscumio Clouds doesn t move more violent weather Know The symbols usually around cold TronT you geT ThundersTorms heavy shorT rain Warm warm displaces cold air Occluded cold over warm sTraTus clouds Mid laTiTude Wave Cyclone 6 sTages kind of pressure associaTed wiTh iT LOW 39 warmcold air masses move parallel To a TronT waveforms circulaTion develops warm overrides cold air cold and warm TronT are esTablished cold overrides warm occluded TronT is formed Tull occ TronT inTense wave cyclonesTrong winds 6 sysTems breaks down moisTure T amp precipiTaTion condiTions for each secTorCold Warm Cool Cold Cold Ts dry clear air inTense precip Warm warm Ts clear skies scaTTered cumulus clouds Cool humid sTraTus clouds Wind direcTion around The LOW amp in each secTor 2 3 4 5 Cloud Types assoc wiTh each fronTal boundary ThundersTorms amp Tornadoes RequiremenTs amp STages ofThundersTorm Warm moisT air high surface Temps Cumulus sTage MoisTure sTage raindropshailTornadoes DissipaTing lighT rain RequiremenTs Tor amp LocaTions of Tornadoes large TemperaTure gradienT happens mainly in Tornado alley In The souTheasT usually occur in spring Ligthing amp Thunder causes definiTion of each sTages of ligthing sTrollte g Tning flashes of lighT caused by elecTrical discharge Thunder violenT expansion of heaTed air bw cloud and ground Thunder happens because of The heaT of The ligthing sTillte sTep leader ReTurn sTrollte Hurricanes characTerisTics requiremenTs Tor formaTion locaTions Formed overwarm ocean walers Slrongesl al The cenler May have Tornadoesheavy lighlning 8 10 days max 2 weeks Needs warm moisl air Eye cenler of low pressure calm winds Eye wall collar clouds slrongesl pressure gradienl mosl inlense winds heavy rain Spiral rain bands nimbo clouds lighl moderale rain Sludy lhe calegories Life Cycle Parls of a hurricane Focus Sludy 81 Table 82 Tropical dislurbance inilial mass of lslorms weak in circulalion T depression given a winds bw 2538 mph 4O 68 kph T slorm developed cc eye wall rain bands no eye winds bw 3874 mph 61 l 19 kph given a name Hurricane fully developed slrong cc eye eye wall spiral rain bands winds gt 74 mph l 19 kph Climale Classificalion Koppen Syslem based on calegories based on T vs precip Based on pallerns of vegelalion 4 cal based on T 1 based on precip whal firsl and second lellers mean TS T based A C D F P based B 2nd 1 leller A C D seasonalily of precipilalion f no given drywel season m monsoon dry s m w dry winler isT leller B severily of drough s semi arid w arid e severily of cold l lundra f ice cap Climale Types 39A39 39B39 39C39 39D39 39E39 for each lype know where if is localed and The mechanisms which cause lhem A Af lropical rainforesl Hawaii on equalor TCZ presenl all year exlensive year round healing Aw lropical weldry savanna shifling of lhe TCS NS Am lropical monsoon India SE Asia wind shifls sel up by changing pressure pallerns Cw sublropical monsoon NE India INTRODUCTION TO BIOGEOGRAPHY 11302011 25400 PM the geography of flora plants and fauna animals Basic ideas Biodiversity or biological diversity of species life forms 175 million identified amp described Estimates of between 37 amp 111 million species with a working estimate 1362 million Types of diversity Genetic Diversity Species Diversity Ecological Diversity variety of forests deserts grasslands streams lakesoceans coral reefs wetlands amp other biological communities Functional Diversity biological amp chemical processes or functions such as energy flow amp matter cycling needed for the survival of species amp biological communities Processes photosynthesis energy flow within amp between systems ecological efficiency Trophic levels food webs plant amp animal succession geographic dispersal Physical factors Biotic factors Basic Building Blocks Matter from subatomic particles to ecosystems atom gt molecules gt protoplasm gt cells gt tissues gt organs gt organ systems gt organisms gt populations gt communities gt ecosystems gt biosphere based on atoms protons electrons neutrons ions elements nonhuman made natural amp humanmade compounds organic hydrocarbons carbohydrates etc amp inorganic 2 SubAreas Phytogeog ra phy Zoogeog ra phy Plant distributions Animal distributions BIOGEOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES amp PROCESSES Photosynthesis occurs in the cells of plants which contain chloroplasts which contain the pigment chlorophyll 6 C02 6 H20 energy gt C6H1206 6 H20 6 Oz sunlight glucose the above process is broken down into several steps the major two being the Light reactions amp the Dark reactionsCavin Cycle Limitations of photosynthesis rate of respiration by the plant where the plant uses some of the energyfoodcreated in photosynthesis also involves glycolysis amp the Kits M If increase respiration9 then decrease efficiency of photosynthesis If increase heat Temp9 then increase respiration availability of water If increase watere then increase C02 uptake by plant which increases photosynthesis rate of evaporation amp transpirationIf increase of evapotranspiratione then decrease efficiency of photosynthesis Results of photosynthesis Net Primary ProductivityThe net photosynthesis for a given community this considers all growth amp reduction factors that affect the amount of biomass fixed in an ecosystem NPP photosynthesis respiration the chemical energy the chemical energy made by plants in used by the plants to photosynthesis live grow reproduce etc ENERGY FLOW both within and between systems within a system The leaf uses some of the energy it converts from radiative to chemical form this is respiration between sunlight strikes a leaf of a plant which turns radiative energy sunlight into chemical energy carbohydrate which is energy food for another organism which may be the energy source food for yet another organism Food webs food chains The pathways that energy may take from plants through various trophic levels what eats what each step or stage of the food web is termed a trophic level 3 types of organisms in these pathways autotrophs those that make their own foodplants or primary producers heterotrophs those that must consume other organisms to get the energy food they needAnimals 3 types of heterotrophs herbivores primary consumers carnivoressecondary consumers omnivores decomposersthose that obtain their energy by breaking down dead organic material EX Bacteria Fungi Ecological Efficiencyhow well energy is passed from one system to another say along a food chain or web as a rule efficiency decreases as energy is moved along a food pathway or chain EX phytoplankton gt zooplankton gt small fish gt large fish 1500 1100 500 1000 energy units gt 150 units gt 165 units gt 825 units can be shown by use of a food pyramid ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS Some basics of the biological component of the environment Terms Evolution or Biological Evolution the change in a population s genetic makeup gene pool through successive generations all species descend from earlier ancestral species Macroevolution Long term largescale changes that lead to new species speciation and the loss of other species Microevolution Small genetic changes that occur in a population development of genetic variability through mutations random changes of the DNA in a cell brought about by exposure to external agents radiation chemicals etc random mistakes during DNA replication mutations are random amp unpredictable only source of totally new qenetic raw material without human help relatively rare events Natural Selection process by which a particular beneficial gene or set of genes is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes This leads to a population of organisms with a greater proportion of individuals better adapted to certain environmental conditions Adaptation or adaptive trait any genetically controlled structural physiological or behavioral characteristic that helps an organism survive amp reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions EX s structural adaptations Coloration mimicry protective cover gripping mechanisms physiological adaptationshibernation chemical protection behavioral adaptations migration various mating behaviors Ecological NicheTotal way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem all physical chemical amp biological conditions a species needs to live amp reproduce in an ecosystem Habitatthe physical location in which a species lives Species group of organisms that resemble one another in appearance behavior chemical makeup amp processes amp genetic structure Generalists species with a broad ecological niche can live in many different habitats eat a variety of foods amp tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions less prone to extinction EX s humans flies cockroaches mice amp rats raccoons coyotes channel catfish various weed species etc Specialists species with a narrow ecological niche may live in only one type of habitat tolerate only one type or a few types of food tolerate only a narrow range of environmental conditions more prone to extinctionEX s redcockaded woodpecker giant pandas snail kite numerous tropical rain forest species Native species species that normally live amp thrive in a particular ecosystem inwhich they evolved or are 39naturally39 found EX s American bison American alligator etc Nonnative species species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into an ecosystem also known as exotic alien or introduced species EX s kudzu Argentine fire ants nutria etc Indicator speciesspecies that serve as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is being degraded EX smany birds frogs amp toads Keystone species species that play roles affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem EX s wolf leopard lion sea otter great white shark various bees bats amp ants How quickly can a species adapt Dependent on 3 limitations 1 A change in environmental conditions can lead to adaptation only for traits already present in the gene pool of a population 2The population s ability to adapt can be limited by its reproductive capacity 3 Even if a favorable trait is present most of the population would have to die or become sterile so individuals with the trait could dominate amp pass the trait on Speciation Formation of 2 species from one species as a result of divergent natural selection in response to changes in environmental conditions mechanism 2 phases 1Geographic IsolationSeparations of populations of a species into different areas for fairly long times 2 Reproductive Isolation longterm geographic separation of members of a particular sexually reproducing species Extinction complete disappearance of a living species from the Earth happens when a species cannot adapt amp successfully reproduce under new environmental conditions or it evolves into one or more new species Background Extinction normal extinction of various species as a result of changes in local environmental conditions a few species here and there of varied taxa Mass Extinction catastrophic widespread extinction event in which major groups of species are wiped out over a short time 2570 of existing species wiped out by climate change or a comet strike etc Mass Depletion widespread often global period during which extinction rates are higher than normal but not high enough to classify as a mass extinction fossilgeologic evidence suggests that at least 2 mass extinctions amp 3 mass depletions have occurred during the past 500 million years GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSAL Physical Abiotic Factorswhich control the distribution of species Temperature T certain species plants amp animals will only thrive in warm climates OR only in cold climates some in both megatherm plants adapted to high Temp s microtherm plants Adapted to within standard low Temp s Water no water no photosynthesisno plantsno animals xerophxte adapted to low moisture conditions hygrophxtemdapted to high moisture conditions deciduous vs evergreen trees and plants drop leaves keep leaves Light availability Increase light increase photosynthesis shade tolerant vs shade intolerant need direct sunlight Soilsstructure texture both affect plant root systems and thus plant survival and dispersal Landforms elevation affects T and moisture slope steepness affects water availability amp soil thickness slope aspect compass direction a slope is facing affects amount of sunlight and thus T amp moisture levels lrl irwh Hana i Biotic Factors Species Interactions Types interspecific competition predation parasitism mutualism commensalism amensalism Interspecific Competition members of two or more species trying to use the same limited resources in an ecosystem EX s of resources nutrients food water sunlight space mates building supplies etc if intense competition exists may lead to 1Migration of one species 2 Shift in habits or behavior through natural selectionevolution 3Sharp population decline 4 Extinction from that area Resource Partitioning the process of dividing up resources in an ecosystem each organism developing its own ecological niche is one way to adapt to these conditions PredationSituation in which an organism of one species the predator captures amp feeds on parts or all of an organism of another species the prey EX grasshopper eating preying on grass or crops coyote preying on rabbits or mice Often increases the biodiversity of the ecosystem Parasitism interaction between species in which one organism the parasite preys on another organism the host by living on or in the host The parasite benefits amp the host is often harmed EX s tapeworms ticks fleas mosquitoes mistletoe some fungi Mutualismspecies interaction in which the presence of one species is often essential to the survival of another species but usually both species benefit from the interaction 39iU it if u lul izl n1 r l l CommensalismInteraction bw organisms of different species in which one organism benefits amp the other is either helped nor harmed to any great degree EX s epiphytes amp various trees epiphyte gains access to water nutrients amp sunlight while the tree is unharmed Amensalism The inhibition of one species by another through chemical means EXcertain plants produce toxins amp release them into the soil making the soil unusable by other plants thus inhibiting the growth of competing plants 11302011 25400 PM
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