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RESOURCES & ENVIRON Geog 1125
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1125 at University of Georgia taught by Hopkins in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Resources and Environ in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
GEOG 1125 TEST 3 REVIEW 39339 Energy Resources gt NonRenewable Resources a resource with a fixed amount I Fossil Fuels coal oil gas O Coal solid combustible mixture of organic compound 3098 carbon gt Who I US 24 I US China and Russia 66 gt How long I Identified reserves at current usage rate 225 years gt Advantages I Ample supply very high energy yield low cost gt Disadvantages I Very high impact land disturbance threat to health high CO2 emissions O Crude oil liquid composed of mostly hydrocarbon refined for gasoline fuel gt Who I OPEC 67 I US 3 uses 26 gt How Long I Current usage rate 25 billion barrelsyear I Identified reserves at current usage rate 53 years I Undiscovered oil may add 2040 years gt Advantages I Low cost high energy yield low land use gt Disadvantages I Need to find substitute pollution high CO2 emissions O Natural gas underground deposits of gas 5090 methane gt Who I US 3 I Russia and Kazakhstan 42 I How much total about 140 trillion cubic meters gt How long I Identified reserves at current usage rate 200 years I Undiscovered reserves may add up to 325 years gt Advantages I Ample supply high energy yield low cost moderate impact gt Disadvantages I High C02 emissions difficult to transport O Nuclear energy energy released from nuclear fission or fusion I Produces 6 of worlds commercial energy I Produces 16 of electricity gt Advantages I Large supply low impact gt Disadvantages I High cost low energy yield radioactive waste dangerous spreads nuclear technology gt Renewable resources resources which can be replenished fairly rapidly 0 Reduce dependence on fossil fuels and reduce pollution O Solar direct radiant energy from the sun gt Advantages I Energy is free no emissions moderate costs perpetual gt Disadvantages I Need access to sun need storage system low efficiency high land use O Hydropower electrical power produced by flowing of water I Supplies 6 of world s commercial energy 4 in US I Supplies 20 of world s electricity 10 in US 99 in Norway gt Advantages I Moderate to high energy yield lowcost perpetual low C02 emissions gt Disadvantages I High construction costs high land impact O Wind electricity generated from wind power I Supplies 18 ofDenmark s electricity gt Advantages I Moderate to high energy yield high efficiency moderate construction costs low impact no C02 emissions gt Disadvantages I Steady winds needed high land usage O Geothermal heat transferred from underground gt Advantages I Very high efficiency moderate energy yield low land use moderate impact gt Disadvantages I Scarcity of sites may be depleted moderate air pollution O Biomass trees gt Advantages I Renewable if harvested sustainably large potential supply gt Disadvantages I Moderate to high impact soil erosion water and air pollution 39339 Agricultural Resources gt Soil I Main agricultural resource I Much of it is depleting due to 0 Soil Erosion the movement of soil components by wind and water Leads to loss of fertility 40 of the world s arable land is depleted by erosion Food production has caused the depletion of 16 of the world s arable land 9999 US about 33 oforiginal topsoil has been lost by erosion o Desertification conversion of marginal land to desertlike conditions with a drop of 10 or more in productivity O Caused by overgrazing soil erosion and drought O Sahel in Africa 0 Salinization processes by which soil accumulates too much salt to be productive O Stunts crop growth kills plants and makes soil unusable O 21 of the world s irrigated cropland has reduced yields from salinization O Waterlogging overwatering I Solutions to soil problems 0 Conservative tillage terracing do no overuse marginal lands reduce irrigation or use desalinated purer water I Secondary Agricultural Resources products produced crops and animals O Cropands provide 76 of world sfood O Grains Wheat rice corn supply calories consumed by humans 0 Rangelands grazing land for livestock O Supply 1 7 of world sfood 0 Ocean fisheries supply 7 of worldsfood gt Types of agriculture I Subsistence farming o Shifting cultivation slash and burn intertillage planting several plants in one area 0 Pastoral nomadism constantly moving to new rangelands 0 Intensive subsistence farming many utilize same area on small plots of land I Commercialagriculture 0 Mixed crop and livestock farming 0 Dairy farming milk cheese dairy production 0 Grain farming very large grain and oat fields owned by corporations 0 Livestock ranching cattle for beef 0 Mediterranean agriculture olive and fruit trees vineyards kiwis 0 Commercial gardening and fruit farming tomatoes and other vegetablefruit o Plantation farming large plots of one plant usually tropical gt quotGreen Revolutionsquot o The introduction of GMOs in grain rice wheat corn that increase crop yields 0 Yields can be 25 times that of traditional grains on the same amount of land O Results I With only 03 of world sfarm laborforce US produces 17 of the world s grain I World grain production tripled from 19501990 O Problems I Population growth still outpaces food production and distribution I Many people about 800 million are undernourished I 1 out of 5 people in the US are suffer from over nutrition I The world produces enough food but it is not distributed evenly O Solutions I lncrease use of GMOs I Better distribution systems I Develop more marginal land by conservative farming methods I Reduce soil erosion 39339 Atmospheric Resources gt Atmosphere mixture of gases and liquid particles suspended in the air I Constant Gases found in same proportions within lower atmosphere as altitude increases percentages stay the same but amount decreases O Nitrogen 78 O Oxygen 21 O Argon 9 I Variable Gases gases that influence weather and life systems O Carbon Dioxide absorbs radiant energy O Water Vapo quite variable I 4 by volume in tropics lt1 in deserts I Source of clouds and precipitation I Absorbs radiant energy O M absorbs damaging UV radiation I Concentrated in stratosphere 1050 km above earth I ltOOOOS by volume I Formation by splitting an Oz molecule with shortwave radiation and combining with O atoms forming 03 ozone I Ozone quotHolequot 0 Caused by CFCs found in coolants aerosol cans sterilants 0 UV radiation breaks apart CFC molecules and chlorine atoms react with O3 breaking it apart Primarily thinning in Antarctica 50 and Arctic 1138 0 Ozone holes are largest in early spring 0 1 loss of 03 leads to 2 increases in UV radiation 0 Consequences O lncreased UV radiation at surface O lncreases cases of skin cancer and cataracts O lncreases damage to health 0 Solutions O Stop using ozonedepleting chemicals O Montreal Protocol agreement of 1987 was a step in this direction Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere 0 Air Pressure force exerted by the weight of a column of air above a given point I Avg at sea level is 1013 mb 1 kg above every cm3 I As altitude increases pressure increases I 50 atmosphere is below 56 km 90 is below 16 km 0 Temperature measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a substance avg molecular motion of an object I T is a function of pressure and volume I T may increase or decrease with altitude I lnversion when T increases with altitude I Temperature Lapse Rate change in T with a change in altitude o Layers of the atmosphere O 2 regions based on chemical composition gt Homosphere uniform chemical composition from surface to 80100 km gt Heterosphere changing chemical composition above homosphere O 4 main later based on temperature gt Troposphere T usually decreases as altitude increases surface to 12 km gt Stratosphere T stays constant or increases with altitude 0 Contains ozone layer gt Mesosphere T decreases with increasing altitude about 5080 km gt Thermosphere T increases dramatically with altitude up to 1650 degrees F above 80 km Climate Change Evidence and Timing 0 Variations in climate may differ on different time scale 0 Climate system interaction of the atmosphere lithosphere biosphere and hydrosphere all are interconnected 0 Evidence of climate change sediment oxygen isotope analysis tree rings palynology geology historical records 0 Causes of climate change O Nonhuman causes plate tectonics volcanoes solar variation eccentricity obliquity deviation from the norm precession changes in orientation of earth s axis changes in ability of oceans to store C02 and heat ocean currents sea leve cloud cover O Human induced causes gt Greenhouse gasses trap outgoing LW radiation and heats up the earth I can lead to global warming I since 1800 CO2 levels have increased 25 0 Global Warming
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