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by: Conrad Pfeffer


Conrad Pfeffer
GPA 3.58


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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Pickren in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/202214/geog-1101-university-of-georgia in Geography at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter 4 Keywords Nature and Society Social production of nature p133 not in glossary the idea that nature is socially produced describes the refashioning of landscapes and species by human activity especially capitalist production and labor processes Humans must turn the environment into things that sustain our existence The ways in which we do that has very important consequences for the whole system I Conservation Philosophy that humans should serve as stewards not exploiters of the natural world wise use of natural resources holds that natural resources should be used wisely and that humans should serve as stewards implies responsibility to future generations as well as the natural world itself in the utilization of resources A Cultural ecology the study of how human society has adapted to environmental challenges through technological and human adaptations Ex how do people in Indonesia manage forests Do they think nature is sacred It addresses how certain nonmaterial practices beliefs traditions social institutions etc impact our material practices food production provisioning of shelter etc Ex the challenges such as steep slopes and aridity are solved though technologies such as irrigation and terracing and the organization of people to construct and maintain these systems More modern Ex the use of biotechnology and agricultural chemicals that increase production A Environmental justice movement reflecting a growing political consciousness largely among the world s poor that their immediate environs are far more toxic than those in wealthier neighborhoods a Newton Florist Club First nature Second nature Political ecology stresses that humanenvironment relations can be adequately understood only by reference to the relationship of patterns of resource use to political and economic forces places cultural ecology within a wider context looks at how governments and market forces impact things like resource use How does our system of production capitalism socialism etc impact society s relationship with the environment ICDU39I G Technology physical objects or artifacts Ex the plow activities or processes Ex steelmaking knowledge or knowhow Ex biological engineering 0 Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring about DDT and the wide use of pesticides Linked DDT and cancerbreast milk 10 PAT a formula that relates human population pressures on environmental resources to the level of affluence and access to technology in society I stands for impact on Earth s resources P stands for population A stands for af uence as measured by per capita income T stands for a technology factor The formula suggests the level of affluence of households plays an important role in their impact on the global environment Additions to Slides When am in nature Social production of nature What is nature industry is not nature the vast majority of the world is second nature The relationship between society and nature is usually mediated through technology Technology mediates The technology of strip mining is controversial has huge impact Technology makes our lives easier but also produces negative feedbacks The world is not just interaction between nature and technology There is politics etc PAT Each of these variables in the equation are more complex than they seem The US has displaced a lot oftheirtrash and pollution They have simply moved their pollution geographically ls technology the solution to it all Or is it changing our habits Dupont pesticide companies used to be war factories major producer of DDT Rachel Carson showed how the chemicals had decimated areas challenged the idea that technology equals progress Post WWII booming economy tech progress Cultural beliefs can impact how people adapt to nature St Vincent started exporting food at the same time food was becoming scarce there export instead of domestic consumption Political economist would ask questions about that JudeoChristian idea humans are to dominate nature Preservation Environmental Justice Chapter 4 Globalization and the Environment Keywords 1 Electronic waste ewaste demonstrates how globalization and the environment are linked by examining the production consumption and disposal of consumer electronics China banned the importation of ewaste in 2001 but it didn t stop it How is a spatial fix applied to the negative externalities Cathode Ray Tubes CRT the thing in the television that produces the picture contains a lot of lead 10 times cheaper to export a CRT to China than to recycle it domestically Extended producer responsibility requires continuing accountability on producers over the entire life cycle of their products take back Externality refers to a situation in which the impact of a transaction i born by a third party not involved in the transaction can be both positive and negative the spatial x is a way to externalize the costs of environmental problems positive example your neighbor xes up their house but it actually increases the value of your house I A A U1 0 l G O negative example neighbor doesn t keep their house clean tidy then it decreases the value of your house electronics are externalized so someone ultimately pays for that pollution Planned Obsolescence things are made to break a designed principle that came about in the 40s designed for the dump they want it to last long enough to not make people mad but also make it where it doesn t last forever Perceived Obsolescence people having a perception that an object is out of style or useless the idea that something has no value even though it actually is usefulfunctional Ex discman vs iPod Spatial fix refers to the idea that issues or problems can be temporarily solved by moving them around Exmoving polluting industries to Asia may help solve the problem of clean air in Europe but it does not solve the ultimate problem of pollution forthe planet Basel Ban international agreementlaw that bans the export of hazardous wastes from rich to poor countries Downstream how we should manage things once its already waste the US has refused to sign it most European countries have signed it China is part of the ban it is working in many countries Moore s Law proposed by Gordon Moore says chip speed will double every 18 months forever technology is following a linear trend Additional Notes over 1 000 toxic chemicals that are commonly used in hightech industry 40 of mercury lead and in our landfills comes from electronics Silicon Valley iPods you can t change the battery in iPods Disposable printer built not to last Currently our economy is based on consuming NOT producing 864 ofour Ewaste is trashed 136 is recycled 5080 of recycled ewaste is actually exported to developing countries delayed dumping US has 3 million tons of Ewaste Recycling many recyclers are actually waste brokers who sell the waste to customers in developing countries The ewaste is then either recycled or dumped but under hazardous environmental and working conditions The economics of recycling electronics works against us It costs more to recycle than to ship off 10 times cheaperto export a CRT to China than to recycle it domestically Upstream solutions eliminate toxics at the source in production Green chemistry and pollution prevention more important than downstream if we have to be responsible for our own waste then that causes incentive to create things that aren t toxic Extended Producer Responsibility by making producers nancially responsible for endoflife waste management producers will have a financial incentive to design their products with less hazardous and more recyclable materials Ex Dell and many other companies will now take back your old computer Chapter 5 Key Words 100209 Culture shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life vales beliefs practices etc I Cultural geography focuses on the ways in which space place and landscape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes place space and landscape We produce meanings and practices within a particular setting Ex LGBT community how cultural group carves out a space to asset itself Ethnicity gender isn t something we just are also something we do main ideas what is the relationship between places and cultures race has no genetic basis most variation is within not between races 85 racialization sexuality M 10501 Chapter 5 Keywords Hip hop and geography keywords 1 Robert Moses visionary architect who transformed NYC helped create the modern suburb bulldozed lowincome housing replaced it with highrise towers destroyed the South Bronx happened around the 1930s1970s 2 Cross Bronx Expressway white ight to the suburbs 60000 urban renewal Negro Removal moves poor into the Bronx jobs and most population gone leaving a truly isolated and disadvantaged population 3 Urban renewal Negro Removal moves poor into the Bronx 4 The south Bronx middle class whites were leaving the Bronx poor blacks moving in The bronx lost 700000 people 40 industrial jobs lost youth unemployment was 60 5 Benign neglect ideapolicy that if we want to solve poverty in cities then just withdraw stop paying for services in hopes that they would move out 43000 housing units had been burned via arson 6 DJ Kool Herc began playing the breaks on records from Jamaica block parties are big in Jamaica 7 the breaks the part ofa song that might have just the rhythm section or breakdown breakdancing and rapping were spawned by the discovery of the breaks 8 4 elements of hip hop culture 1 DJing 2 Rapping or toasting 3 Breakdancing it was about who had the best style 4 Graffiti 9 the toaster get on the microphone first versions of rappers Jamaican artists were the immediate precursors to American rappers URoy is a famous one 10 all city 11 represent youth sort of took over the neighborhoods youth gangs in SB 12 main ideas How does the geographical context of places shape culture How does culture shape places What is the relationship between hip hop and the local or the hood or street How did hip hop change in its relationship to broader scales national global regional etc Hip hop developed from joblessness isolation in NYC The Bronx is Burning 1970 s arson Slumlords cut offall the heat and water stop paying city taxes and right before they get youburn it down and collect insurance Afrika Bambaata formed the Zulu Nation a positive street gang dedicated to music and knowledge helped to end the gang era 2 options gangs or party The Block Party chanting or rhyming over a beat has been around in African music for centuries Futura Chapter 6 Key Words 1 Derelict landscape 2 territoriality 3 landscape as text 4 semiotics From lecture 5 1996 Atlanta Olympics and homelessness Atlanta Committee forthe Olympic Games ACOG 6 Tent City Athens 7 Madhousers Main ideas Place is often constructed and interpreted in ways that tells us about insiders and outsiders who belongs and who doesn t Chapter 7 Keywords primary activities secondary activities dominated by the core 75 but peripheral areas are growing tertiary activities quaternary activities geographical or international division of labor see also chapter 2 glossary different regions specialize in different economic activities newly industrializing countries NlC s economic development pg 252 O FnP FDN 0 Human Geography Chapter 1 Globalizationincreasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic environmental political and cultural change 0 Three Views 1 Hyperglobalist View extreme view that open markets and free trade and investment across global markets allow more and more people to share in the prosperity of a growing world economy belief that globalization will make the world a better place make every nation like the Us Globalization irons out all unevenness and different between place a great leveler they see it as an end state believe in the quotdenationalizationquot of economies 2 Skeptical View believe that contemporary levels of global economic integration represent nothing particularly new and that much of the talk about globalization is exaggerated argue that contemporary economic integration is actually much less significant than it was in the late 19th century when nearly all countries shared a common monetary system known as the gold standard Europe North America and East Asia control the world economy 3 Transformationalist View believe that contemporary processes of globalization are historically unprecedented as governments and peoples across the globe confront the absence of any clear distinction between the global and the local see globalization as a longterm historical process that is underlain by crises and contradictions make no claims about the future trajectory disparities of wealth will unfortunately increase o World Regionslarge scale geographic divisions based on continental and physiographic settings that contain major groups of people with broadly similar cultural attributes Examples include Europe Latin America and South Asia o Neoliberal Policieseconomic policies that are predicted on a minimalist role for the state assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization but also for political and social life Capitalismform of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and the control of the means of production distribution and exchange of goods by private ownership Al Quaeda terrorists wanted to tear down capitalism Human Geographydeals with spacial organization of human activities and with people s relationships with their environment Supemational Organizationscollection of individual states with a common goal that may be economic or political in nature and that diminish individual state sovereignty in favor of the group interests of the membership Examples include the European Union NAFTA o Geographic information systems GIS involve an organized set of computer hardware software and spatially coded data that is designed to capture store update manipulate and display geographically referenced info o Geographical Imaginationallows us to understand changing patterns processes and relationships among people places and regions being able to see that places are interdependent understanding connections 0 Systems o Intersubjectivityshared meanings that are derived from the lived experience of everyday practice the meaning that you get from experiences o Lifeworld the takenforgranted pattern and context for everyday living through which people conduct their daytoday lives without having to make it an object of conscious attention everyday interactions that you experience 0 Ordinary Landscapeseveryday landscapes that people create in the course of their lives together 0 Spatial Analysisstudy of geographic phenomena in terms of their arrangement as points lines areas or surfaces on a map Location distance space accessibility and spatial interaction are five key concepts to spatial analysis o Locationabsolute relative cognitive l absolute location fixed mathematically through coordinates of latitude and longitude 2 relative location fixed in terms of site physical attributes or situation location of a place relative to other places and activities 3 cognitive location psychological representations of locations that spring from people s individual ideas mental maps o Distanceabsolute relative cognitive l absolute distance physical measure whose unites we may count in kilometers or miles 2 relative distance measure expressed in terms of time effort or cost 3 cognitive distance the distance that people perceive to exist in a given situation o Formal Regiongroups of areal units that have a high degree of homogeneity in terms of particular distinguishing features such as religious adherence or household income o Functional Regionregions with some variability in certain attributes but with an overall coherence to the structure and dynamics of economic political and social organization o Sense of Placefeelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and the symbolism that they attach to it o Symbolic Landscapesrepresentations of particular or aspirations that the builders and nanciers of landscapes want to impart a larger public Example the neoclassical architecture of the buildings in Washington DC Powerpoint term remote sensing the collection of info about parts of Earth s surface by means of aerial photography or satellite imagery designed to record data on visible infrared and microwave sensor systems Main Ideas Why Places Matter How we study Geography Globalization Chapter 2 Cartographyname given to the system of practical and theoretical knowledge about making distinctive visual representations of earth39s surface in the form of maps Colonialismestablishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society Commodity Chainnetworks of labor and production processes that originate in the extraction or production of raw materials and whose end result is the delivery and consumption of a finished commodity o Environmental Determinism a doctrine holding that human activities are controlled by the environment most geographic writing in the nineteenth century was strongly in uenced by this it rests on a belief that the physical attributes of geographical settings are the root of people s physical differences AND economic vitality cultural activities and social structures Ethnocentrismattitude that one s own race and culture is superior to those of others o Imperialismextension of the power of anation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories the deliberate exercise of military power and economic in uence by powerful states in order to advance and secure their national interests 0 International Division of Laborspecialization of different people regions and countries in certain kinds of economic activities Neocolonialismeconomic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their in uence over other areas or people instead of formal direct rule colonialism controls are exerted through such strategies as international financial regulations commercial relations and cove1t intelligence operations Core Regionsregions that dominate trade control the most advanced technologies and high levels of productivity within diversi ed economies they enjoy relatively high per capita incomes the rst core regions were Holland England and France Today it is the US Japan and Europe Semiperipheral regionsregions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by core regions consist mostly of countries that were once peripheral this category underlines the fact that neither peripheral status nor core status is necessarily permanent World System an interdependent system of countries linked by economic and political competition Berlin Conference 1885 Scramble for Africa The purpose of the conference was to split Africa up into parts for the European powers Key Themes Impact of Colonialism on the development of the world system Colonialism and Capitalism as highly related Rwanda Key Words o Dual Colonialism2 levels of colonialism ExampleBelgians had most power but also give power to the Tutsi s o Identity CardsSaid what identity the Belgians assigned a person o Interahamwe Those who ght together The Hutu extremists who taught ghting and how to use guns militia underthe radar receiving guns from the French on the outside it seems as if there is a peace agreement going on BUT actually the Hutu s were planning violence o April 6 l994President of Rwanda was on a plane and was shot down and killed a plane carrying the Rwandan president Juv nal Habvarimana and Cvprien Ntarvamira the Hutu president of Burundi was shot down killing both It has been said that the Hutu extremists assassinated their own President in order to spark warmassacre o Hutu Manifestol957 Rwanda needs to become a country that has democraticmajority rule 1957 basically said that Rwanda needs to become a country that has democratic majority rule o RPFRwandan Patriotic FrontTutsi39s who ed from Rwanda when Belgium took over About 7000 people all the Tutsi political leaders living in Uganda formed this about 7000 of them military tactics began attacking places in northern Rwanda trying to establish control French sent troops to aid Hutus a little war broke out in 1990 o HutuMajority of population8587 of RwandaTook control after independence Main distinctionFarmed crops majority of population 8587 most ofthe killing was Hutu extremists killing the Tutsi minority o Tutsi1215 of Rwanda More white than Hutu s Higher in society Main distincion Owned cattle o Twalived hunter life styles in the jungle natives of Rwanda very short people o Belgians took over Rwanda this is when Tutsi and Hutus became different races Gave everyone an id that assigned an identity to you Tutsis seen as more white what used to be classedbased was now a raceethnicity Tutsis were the only ones allowed to go to Catholic Schools In Belgium there is a French speaking group and a Flemish Dutch speakinggroup 1962 Belgium released controlled Rwanda becomes independent Main Ideas How did the class division between the Hutu s and Tutsi become an ethnic con ict that led to genocide Social construction of race and ethnicity Chapter 3 o Agesex pyramidA represetation of a population based on its composition according to age and sex shows percentages of different ages and sexes of a pop shows patterns of growth Amartya Sen a Bengali economist best known for his work on famine Human development theory welfare economics and the underlying mechanisms of poverty said that famine was not because oflack offood but bc of social and political factors such as war politics o Thomas Malthusl798 He wrote An essay on the ofpopulation It said 1 Food is necessary for human beings And 2 Populations will continue to grow The population would eventually exhaust food supply Malthus s main idea Neomalthusians people today who share Malthus s perspective and who predict a population doomsday They believe that growing human populations the world over with their potential to eXhause Earth s resources pose the most dangerous threat to the environment they argue that strict demographic controls everywhere will solve the problem 0 Baby Boompopulation of individuals born between the years of 1946 and 1964 generation born in post war period massive increase in birth rate o CensusCount of the number of people in a country region or city US Has one every 10 years o Demographythe study of the characteristics of human populations Forced MigrationMovement of an individual against his or her will example the Trail of Tears on the Us where the Cherokee Nation was forced to leave Georgia for Oklahoma Intemally Displaced Persons IDP39s individuals who are uprooted within the boundaries of their own country because of con ict or human rights abuse Push Factorsevents and conditions that impel an individual to move from a location examples poverty debt and joblessness are push factors for Mexico Pull Factorsforces of attraction that in uence migrants to move to a particular location examples better wages more jobs are pull factors for Mexico to come to America RefugeesIndividual who crosses national boundaries to seek safety and asylum o NAFTANorth American Free Trade AgreementReduced trade barriers between US Mexico and Canada as a result not a lot of border tariffstaxes are involved in the moving of capital from Mexico US and Canada important push and pull factor in immigration the globalization ofthe economy had big effects on Mexico the dislocation of people economic mobility often has to do with human mobility lifted subsidies eliminated Mexico s ability to protect their own farmers Maquiladoras are usually laborintensive factories that assemble products into nished goods and send them back to the US Random things he emphasized on Friday 1 there is an impact colonialism has on the development of the world system 2 colonialism and capitalism are tightly related Why is it that Europeans started exploring the world competing aristocrats declining resources links between industrial rev and the raw materials depending on the extraction of the Exam 2 Study Guide Geography 1101 Pickren Test Date March 2152 2012 Chapter 4 Social production of nature used to describe the refashioning of landscapes and species by human activities especially capitalist production and labor process Conservation the view that natural resources should be use wisely and their society s effects on the natural world should represent stewardship and not exploitation Preservation an approach to nature advocating that certain habitats species and resources should remain off limits to human use regardless of weather the use maintains or depletes the resource in question Cultural ecology 7 study of the relationship between cultural group and its natural environment Political ecology 7the approach to cultural geography that studies human environment relations through the relationships of patterns of resource use to political and economic forces Environmental Justice movement re ecting a growing political consciousness largely among the worlds poor that their immediate environs are far more toxic than wealthy neighborhoods First Nature 7 pristine natural untouched environments Second Nature environments modi ed by human activity Technology physical objects or artifacts activities or process and knowledge or know how Rachel Carson 7 wrote groundbreaking book Silent Spring which warned of the dangers of agriculture pesticides to ecosystems I PAT 7 formula for distinguishing the sources of social impacts on the environment Formula relates human population pressures on environment resources to the level of af uence and access to technology in a society 0 I impact on earths resources 0 P 7 Population 0 A 7 af uence as measured per capita income 0 T technology Metabolism 7 Humans must turn the environment into things that sustain our existence Newtown Florist Club What is nature What does it mean to say that nature is socially produced 0 Nature is both a physical realm and also socially created impacted by ideas and material practices The idea that nature is socially produced describes the refashioning of landscapes and species by human activity especially economic production and labor processes We can look at landscapes and try to see human beings As humans we transform nature into something that can sustain our population What is the purpose of IPAT formula 0 To conceptualize the relationship between social and global environmental changes this formula distinguishes the sources of social impacts on the environment Who is Rachel Carson 0 Author of Silent Spring 1962 o Warned of the dangers of agriculture pesticides to the ecosystem 0 She challenged the practices of agriculture scientist and the government and called for a change in the way human kind viewed the natural world 0 Critical in making a critique of our relationship with the world and technology 0 One of the key people who made environmental issues a mainstream 0 Book widely read sued by companies died in 1963 What is environmental justice 0 Institutional in equality of environments in neighborhoods 0 Key origins of environmental justice movement 0 Love Canal incident I 1978 in love canal neighborhood near Niagra Falls women found toxic waste coming in her basement I 26 women were pregnant in the neighborhood and only 4 gave birth to a child without a birth defect Louis Gibbs brought environmental awareness to vast middle class population 0 Warren County NC I 1982 selected for a site of special landfill of PCB s I Big spill happened an the dump of the spill was put in this county I The people put up a protest county happened to be majority African American I Notion of NIMBY not in my backyard water table was extremely high and in the 90 s chemical leaks were found 0 Louisiana Cancer Alley I 85 mile stretch on Mississippi River I 11 of petro industries found here and high cancer rates 0 Example of Environmental Justice 0 Newtown Florist Club in Gainesville I Destroyed by tomados in 1936 A lot of the city was destroyed and some of the black communities were built on top of a land ll known as Newtown Newtown Florist Club was a group of women who brought owers and organized gatherings for funerals in the community I They started noticing a lot ofpeople dying because ofthe same cause I In 1990s they tried to nd a link in the deaths to the environment and set out on a private investigation I They found 16 illegal emissions and if you dug low enough you could nd trash from the land ll Ew aste What is a spatial fix and how does it apply to the treatment of the environment 0 Pollution is a great example concrete factories moved from US to Haiti still a pollution issue 0 The spatial x is a way to extemalize the cost of environmental problems What is the dark side of electronics industry 0 The dark side of high tech is that there are about 1000 toxic chemicals that are commonly used in the industry 0 CRT s contain about 4le of lead mercury in LCD bulbs of screens and tvs Why do electronics become obsolete so quickly 0 Flamed obsoleteness as they were designed to go straight to the dump o Constant upgrades 0 Part of it has to do with Moore s Law from Intel he projected that chip speed will double every 18 months 0 Our economy is based on planned obsoleteness 7 cheaper to buy new stuff than to x it o Perceived Obsolescence a perception that a product isn t good anymore we are obsessed with stuff they are still functional but not cool or fashionable What happens when we try to recycle electronics safely in the US 0 Most ofthe recycling does not happen in US 0 Ewaste sold to recyclers who then sell waste to developing countries where it is either recycled or dumped normally under hazardous conditions 0 It is cheaper to export a CRT then recycle it in US 0 It is legal to send hazardous thing into another country with their consent 0 Only 1315 is recycled in the US What are some of the proposed solutions to the problem of toxic e waste export o Basel Ban banning the export of hazardous waste from rich to poor countries Use more green production eliminate use of toxic chemicals at the start of production which is pollution prevention Extended Producer Responsibility puts the pressure of removing electronic waste on the producer of the product makes them design more ecofriendly products Chapter 5 Culture shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life Cultural Geography how space place and landscape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes space place and landscape Gender 7 the social differences between men and women rather than anatomical differences that are related to sex Gender Performativity Gender is a learned behavior Race problematic classi cation of human beings based on skin color and other physical characteristics Radicalization tires to understand how whiteness become the norm Sexuality the set practices and identities that given culture considers related to each other and to those things it considers sexual acts and desires Jane Elliot blue eyed brown eyed experiment In 1970s did an experiment with elementary class Children quickly adopted there set identity What is culture and what is the relationship between culture and place 0 Culture is a shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic meanings How place and space change culture Culture has been effected by globalization Contemporary approaches now look at how culture relates to politics and economics What is the relationship between culture place and identity 0 Ways in which groups make their presence known in certain places and making claim of geographic space Sexuality a set of practices and identities that a given culture considers related to each other and to those things it considers sexual acts and desire o LGBT community is a good example of how a culture group carves out a space for itself Ethnicity socially created system of rules about who belongs to a particular group based upon actual or perceived commonalities 0 Certain streets of cities or ethnic restaurants 0 Race problematic classi cation of human beings based on skin color and other physical characteristics 0 Gender category re ecting the social differences between men and women What does it mean to say that categories of identity like race and gender are social constructions o Biologically speaking there are no such thing as race in human species Racial differences are human creations rather than eternal essential categories Whiteness is considered the norm Racial structures remain in place for the same reason other structures do there are material bene ts for a dominant group It is a product of history Gender is socially constructed Normally men are given power over women Hip Hop and Geography Robert Moses visionary architect who transformed NYC helped create modern suburb Bulldozed lowincome houses replaced with highrise towers He destroyed South Bronx Cross Bronx Expressway away for people to get out of the city quickly It led to the removal of middle class in Bronx Urban Renewal At the same time Manhattan changes are happening Ghettos were removed and displaced poor lower class Poor were placed in highrise apartments and pushed out of Manhattan The South Bronx 7 caught in master development plan and becomes origin of hip hop Benign Effect the civil rights movement actions that the government did was in harm so the government should not be involved and let the economy drive community Planned shrinkage 7 If you withdraw services people will move They closed down subways schools police and re ghters Things got bad so people moved away DJ K001 Herc First hiphop DJ Began playing breaks on records Break dancing and rapping were spawned by the discovery of breaks Afrika Baambataa Gang member at rst Formed Zulu nation and turned pointless street violence to cultural importance A positive street gang dedicated to music knowledge 4 elements of hip hop lDJing 2 Raping or Toasting 3 Break dancing 4 Graf ti Toasting Jamaican Artist were the immediate precursors of American rappers They were called Toasters They chanted or rhyming over a beat has been around African music for centuries All City 7 meant you graffiti a train that ran through all of NYC Represent 7 based in the beginning of competition bw neighborhoods so the modern slang of you got to represent your affiliation came afterward Prop 13 7 Legislation 1979 passed in CA cap levels of property taxes that the government can collect dramatically alters the state and local nances 0 CA was a very nice place to live known for public spending schools and hospitals 0 Shift away from economic growth 0 National shift away from taxation and typically as CA goes the rest of the country goes 0 If you think about the New Deal Prop 13 is the opposite and new model what we have today 0 1980s recession happens esp in central LA infant mortality rates is Watts were tripe then surrounding Santa Monica Drugs 7 Crack hit LA hard helped by Rick Ross the contras and the CIA Watts Riots Really radicalized a generation that would go on to be gangster rappers o In AUG 2 brothers were arrested for DUI They thought it was discrimination and police started beating them 5day riot broke out 0 National Guard had to be called in Operation hammer LAPD They would go through the neighborhood and arrest anyone on the streets just because they fit the profile of a gang member 0 By 1982 half of the black male population was database as a gang member 0 They would destroy houses with a batter ram and graffiti LAPD How did political economical and social changes in NYC and LA impact the particular hip hop cultures that developed in those places 0 In NYC Hip Hop developed in conditions of isolation and joblessness densely populated living and around new highways In LA deindustrialization disinvestment the drug trade gangs and police brutality all led to hip hop development Who was Robert Moses and what impact did he have on the South Bronx Architect that created the modern suburb Created high rise apartments Destroyed South Bronx Started in 1920s he wanted to make Manhattan the wealthy area Constructed highways Uprooted many people out of the cities Supporters said he was building a city that the people wanted own caryard What was the relationship hetw een style and local neighborhoods 0 People felt that had to represent their affiliation to their local neighborhood and be hard 0 Goal of graf ti was to go all city with your art to paint a train that went through all of the neighborhoods How did hip hop expand in scale from local to the national back to the local 0 Hip hop had shifted to a national scale 0 NWA would late revoke that shift and return to emphasize the regional and local the hood as an important site for local hip hop 0 Raps gone national and is the process of going regional Seems contradictory but is how the spread of rap occurred 0 Now we have regional sounds of rap 0 Shifting away for NYC style sounds re ect region 0 NYC was boombox and earphones music 0 LA was more for music to listen in the car What in uenced the development of gangster rap 0 The isolation of the poor communities 0 The Watts Prophets 0 Black neighborhood since 1920s 0 Least desirable land in LA 0 After WW2 law passed and blacks moved to Compton white neighborhood 0 Whites moved away and gangs were formed 0 Watts Riots of 1965 0 Formation of the Crips and Bloods 0 Crack hit LA hard from gangs 0 Prop 13 0 Rick Ross Chapter 6 Derelict landscape landscapes that have experimented abandonment misuse or disinvestment Territoriality the specific attachment of individuals or people to a specific location or territory Landscape as a Text the idea that landscapes can be read and written by groups of individuals Semiotics the practice of writing and reading signs How do people derive meaning from their surroundings What do it mean to say landscape as a text Things we do all the time Very subjective Fencing around government housing More obvious clues like signs Reading the landscape Shopping mall Semiotic Site Designed not to have easy ways to get out How do landscapes display power relationships In other words how and why do landscapes tell us who is an insider and an outsider Territoriality is about making claims to space Unwritten protocol about how to claim space such as a regular use Bubbles or area of space that we try not to avoid On larger scale territoriality is mostly a product of forces that stem from political relations and cultural systems Facilities classi cation communication and enforcement and helps classify people andresources in terms of location which is much easier than by social characteristic Gives tangibles form to power and control but does so in a way that directs away from personal relationship between the controller and controlled Why did the city of Atlanta want to remove homeless people from downtown prior to the 1996 Olympics Atlantic Committee for Olympic Games were able to use powers to take land and redeveloped it to attract the Olympics caused political tensions o Techwood homes were demolished to make room for games o Replaced bad areas with Olympic Park 0 Constructed Turner Field 0 Jailed and ticketed illegally African American Males o Struggled with territoriality o Bused homeless out of city but did not solve problem 0 Removed organizations that helped homeless o Antihomless benches that did not allow homeless to sleep on them Who are mad housers Madhouse started at GA Tech has an engineering project Just a bandaid did not fully solve problem Students designed a cheap small building that could be built for homeless Find places where homeless live and ask if they wanted a shelter built Chapter 7 Primary Activities economic activities that are concerned directly with natural resources of any kind Secondary Activities economic activities that process transform fabricate or assemble the raw materials derived from primary activities or that reassemble refinish or package manufactured goods Tertiary Activities economics activities involving the sale and exchange of goods and services Quaternary Activities economics activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information Geographical and international division of labor the specialization by countries in particular products for export Newly industrialized countries NICs 7 countries formally peripheral within the world system that have acquired a signi cant industrial sector usually through foreign direct investment Economic development refers the process of change involving the nature and composition of the economy of a particular region as well as to increase in the overall prosperity of a region Initial advantage the critical importance of an early start in economic development a special case of external economics Cumulative causation a spiral buildup of advantages that occurs in speci c geographic settings as a result of the development of external economies agglomeration effects and localization economies Spread Effects the positive impacts on a region of the economic growth of some other region Backwash effects deindustrialization the negative impacts on a region of the economic growth of another region Creative destruction the withdraw of investments from activities that yield low rates of profit in order to reinvest in new activities Fordism principles for mass production based on assembly line techniques scienti c management mass consumption based on higher wages and sophisticated advertising techniques Post industrial economy economies where the tertiary and quarterly sectors have grown to dominate the workforce with smaller but highly productive secondary sectors Who or what are the main actors and institutions in the global economy 0 Firms TNCs are the primary actor in global economy States Workers The environment Technology Why are Transnational Corporations TNCs the prime movers 0f the global economy 0 The have the most power to coordinate and control operations in more than one country They have the potential to take advantage of geological differences Global pursuit of raw materials cheap labor or policies like cheaper taxes Most of the changing geography of the global economy is shaped by the TNC through its decision to invest or not invest in particular geography locations How has the increasing mobility of capital altered the power of nation state to control its economy 0 State power has not been reduced by globalization but it has been altered o Emphasis on deregulation and free trade What has changed for workers in the global economy What is the international division of labor 0 Workers in global era face outsourcing job ight and more temporary and precarious work because of mobility of capital and willingness of the state to intervene 0 Workers respond to changes in global economy by moving around What are four ways that economic activities are classi ed What regions are typically associated with these types of activities 0 Primary activities mining forestry raw materials Secondary activities processing packaging manufacturing Tertiary sales and services retails Quaternary Handling data transfer information technology Geography of Primary Activities 0 Generally poor countries except countries with fossil fuels 0 Secondary o Textile industry What are major trends in terms of employment unemployment and income in developing countries 0 Employment 0 Displacement of j obs in manufacturing industries with jobs and services 0 Many women injob force 0 Unemployment 0 US has created more jobs when compared to Europe and Japan 0 Job loss is socially selective Effects different social groups differently I Young minorities have high unemployment rate 0 Income 0 Growth in income averages 0 Increase in inequality gap between rich and poor Why do certain types of activities cluster in certain regions What is cumulative causation 0 Early start in industry is an initial advantage 0 External economies have only to do with location and create local economies Helps save money 0 Cumulative Causation ithe spiraling buildup of advantages that occurs in speci c geographic settings as a result of developing economies external economies and agglomeration effects How do economies stop growing and decline 0 If the process of cumulative causation were the only process going on we would never see regions decline and other regions grow 0 Disaggregating Economies o Downside to too much clustering What is deindustrization and creative destruction 0 Deindustrization is slowing down the process of industrization 0 Creative destruction is the withdraw of investments from activities that yield low rates of pro t in order to reinvest in activities What is the Great U turn 0 Bennett Harrison 0 This devastating critique by the authors of The Deindustrialization of America documents how the economic policies of the Reagan era have damaged the American standard of living and suggests how this trend may be reversed 0 And then along came globalization the 70s and following them Reaganomics and its ethos featuring deregulation weaker unions and declining in ation Geography Test 3 King Corn documentary Use these questions to take notes on the film 1What are some ofthe things that Ian and Curt need to get before they start farming 2 Why are cows fed grain specifically corn instead of grazing on grass or hay 3 What are the effects of eating corn on the cow s health and what do we humans do to protect the cows from these health effects 4 Why did the corn syrup sweetener industry develop 5 Even though Ian and Curt lost money growing their corn how were they still able to make a pro t Chapter 8 Keywords Read pages 316340 Agribusiness Agricultural industrialization biotechnology crop rotation michael pollan not in book famine monocultures not in book Food security 10 globalized agriculture 11 genetically modified organism 12 green revolution 13 undernutrition 14 concentrated animal feeding operation CAFO not in book 15 The three agricultural revolutions pages 310311 390N959 1P 9 Nf Key Questions How does food impact energy health care climate change and global politics What is the relationship between oil and the industrial food system What are some alternatives to the industrial food system What are the challenges and opportunities created by genetically modified organisms Chapter 10 and 11 Keywords 1 informal sector 2 megacity 3 overurbanization A shock city ex Chicago one that embodies the surprising and disturbing changes in economic social and cultural life that happens in cities massive changes in the way people are living world city red lining gentrification 10 things that influenced the development ofAmerican cities not in book 1 1956 Interstate Highway Act legislation that created the interstate highway system that we have today 41000 miles the purpose was to ease traffic congestion out of cities this didn t work made it worse as more people began driving the construction of highways destroyed thousands of poorminority neighborhoods highways provided cheap access to rural land outside of cities therefore suburbs developed etc it allowed people and jobs to locate further outside of the cities it s a federal system so the government paid for 90 local communities paid 10 important point bc the government was so focused on paying for the interstates and less attentionmoney to paying for public transportation the highway act created the decentralized car dependent city we have today 10 2 Federal Housing Administration FHA secured low interest long term mortgages for people to buy houses prior you had to go to a private bank which few could afford came in and said you can lower interest rates and increase time to purchase homeownership increased more people were able to buy homes than ever they bought home in the suburbs cheap land extended mortgages made it possible for people to buy houses BUT would not ensure certain mortgages in certain places all African Americans were excluded 11 3 deindustrialization the movement ofjobs out of cities and into suburbs and the south eventually to outside of the United States 090 3 F 13 10 things likely to influence the future of cities in the next 50 years not in book 14 1 Growing disparities of wealth 15 2 Suburban political majority 16 3 Aging ofthe Baby Boomers The Villages in Florida 17 4Perpetual underclass in central cities and innerring suburbs 18 5Smart Growth Portland OR a style of urban planning means oneplanned growth as opposed to sprawl planned emphasizes limiting sprawl style increasing alternative transportation decreasing reliance on automobiles and preserving open space green space in urban areas Portland created an urban growth boundary designed to focus growth more densely within an area also it has focus growth around transportation having a coherant vision to your dowtown 4 an emphasis on infill development as opposed to greenfilled development ex build in a vacant parking lot instead of going way outside the city to build 5 emphasized new urbanism which is about creating walkable communities instead of carbased 6 emphasized regional cooperation state government works along with local gov about it 19 6 The internet we are not sure how it will impact cities but it will 20 7 Deterioration of the firstring suburbs older suburbs are deteriorating 8 Shrinking household size people are having less children a demographic change like the Baby Boomerthing if households are getting smaller then more people are likely to live in the city DINKS dual income no kids 9 Outer beltways and edge cities beltway goes around the city the beltways cause development to go farther and farther out polycentric edge city Ex Tyson s Corner VA not just one major metropolitan area 10 Racial integration and diversity at some point we could have cooperation within the polycentric metropolis this is a huge ifunlikely 21 blockbusting 22 central business district the cities nucleus of commercial land uses CBD is the most condensed area 23 zone in transition mixed use residentialcommercial development ex warehouses apartment buildings older residential neighborhoods 24 invasion and succession the process of neighborhood change where one socialethnic group succeeds or replaces another in a residential area 25 fiscal squeeze 26 edge cities polycentric metropolis 27 cycle of poverty 12 the world s population today is urbanized The Chicago School looked at howthey would do studies on what immigrants do as they enter a city cheapest housing located nearthe nucleuszone in transition they would argue that over time these groups would break up and move upwardly and out invasion and succession looking at cities expanding outward deindustrialization polycentric having many centers Notes Cities in the Periphery Population growth has outpaced economic growth Results in High longterm u 39 It and u 39 39 It Low and unreliable wages in the informal economy Slum housing Chronic poverty Why and how have slums developed Push factors rural to urban shift Neocolonial policies of the IMF and World Bank slashing farmer subsidies food imports structural adjustment programs have led to a mass exodus from


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