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by: Conrad Pfeffer


Conrad Pfeffer
GPA 3.58


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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Conrad Pfeffer on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/202216/geog-1101-university-of-georgia in Geography at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Study Sheet for Chapter 8 Be familiar with why the study of agriculture is seen as a critical concern for geography you can think of Carl Sauer s ideas about culture amp landscape discussed in chapter 5 at the beginning of chapter 8 your text speci cally discusses why quotthe study of agriculture has a long tradition in geographyquot your text39s de nitions of agrarian and agriculture the chief characteristics of the three agricultural revolutions know the innovations associated with each with regard to the third agricultural revolution be familiar with these termsconcepts contract farming mechanization chemical farming food manufacturing for those not using the 5th edition ofthe text this is what you need to know about contract farming it is an agreement between farmers and processing andor marketing rms for the production supply and purchase of agricultural products by way ofa legal agreement contract specifications for both process and product are usually quite speci c it is increasing in importance and can be found both within firstworld countries as seen in the movie Food Inc as well as between thirdworld what your book calls quotthe periphery farmers and firstworld corporations idealy contract farming provides farmers with needed credit access to services and knowledgeaccess to new technology too often the relationship is one of burdensome indebtedness and precarious dependence your text39s discussion of the industrialization of agriculture how does the industrialization of agriculture change the geography of agricultural activities your text39s discussion of the quotGreen Revolutionquot your text39s discussion of the impact ofthe quotforces ofglobalization on recent agricultural transformations your text39s de nitiondiscussion of these termsconcepts agribusiness amp food chain amp the relationship between the two your text39s discussion of fast food be familiar with the discussion of how beef production impacts the environment for those not using the 5th edition ofthe book this is what you need to know about fast food your text uses Eric Schlosser s Fast Food Nation as a source the discussion is similar to what you saw in Food Ina Study Sheet for Chapter 9 Be familiar with your text s definition of geopolitics the chief features of Friedrich Ratzel s geopolitical theory the distinction between a nation amp a state be able to relate this distinction to Ratzel s theory namely his idea that the space of the State grows with the expansion of the population having the same culture to the changing state boundaries of Eastern Europe amp the former Soviet Union in recent decades you don t need to know any country names or specifics the point is that Ratzel s theory still seems relevant in part when we see that in the case ofthe Soviet Union the state gained control of regions and people without successfully making them one nation the result was political instability amp the ultimate dismemberment of the state your text s discussion of the significance of boundaries and the notion of boundaries as being both inclusionary and exclusionary your text s discussion of quotStates and Nationsquot again know your text s definition of state amp nation amp the distinction it makes between them also be familiar with your text s definitions of nation state sovereignty citizenship and nationalism your text s discussion of centripetal amp centrifugal forces this relates to the discussion of why Ratzel s theories to the dismemberment ofthe Soviet Union amp the redrawing of state boundaries in Eastern Europe your text s definitions of imperialism amp colonialism amp the distinction it makes between the two the relationship between the history of colonialism and the ongoing NorthSouth divide th your text s dIscussIon of 20 century decolonIzatIon the dIscussIon of neocolonIalIsm know what it means as well as examples of it Mackinder s Heartland Theory consider for example how familiarity with this theory might alter one s understandingexperience of the Cold War as it played out the point here is not the details ofthe Cold War but rather your text s point that quotthe relations between politics and geography are often driven by particular theories and practices of the world s states your text s discussion of the quotEastWest Divide and Domino Theory as other examples of how particular theories or views of the world drive geopolitical action Chapter 2 The premodern world and the modern world system 12102010 34000 PM to know where we are now need to know where we came from but of course there is incomplete history Hearth Areas where agriculture first developed o geographic settings where new practices have developed and from which they have subsequently spread o where natural food supplies were plentiful diverse terrain rich soil reliable water sources o Places where soil was rich 0 middle east 0 2nd Ganges South Asia 0 3 China flood plane of yellow river 0 4th Mesoamerica o minisystem Kinship based settlement The Agricultural Transition o Facilitated growth of early empires 0 Higher population densities 0 Change in social and economic organization Shift from minisvstems to world empires 0 Specialization in nonsubsistence based crafts and skills The Growth of Early Empires o World Empire redistributivetributary 0 Tax 0 Egypt Greece china Byzantium Rome 0 A group of minisystems that have been absorbed into a common political system while retaining their fundamental cultural differences o Urbanization sophisticated centralized planning 0 Paved streets piped water sewer o Facilitating population growth 0 Ur Athens Corinth Rome o Colonization the physical settlement in a new territory of people from a colonizing state 0 Physical equipment o Limitation on how much food can be produced in one area H III N o Different European states start colonizing African counties 0 Largest most expansive empire o Functional reasons ship building navigation o Results emergence of plantation emergence of Eastern Europe as core o Global trade flow dominate politically Core and periphery o CORE regions dominate trade control advanced technologies 0 High level of productivity 0 Achieve through colonialism o PERIPHERY dependent and disadvantageous trade relations 0 Former colonies o Technologies not as developed 0 Specialized one or 2 accommodies o Rely on core of markets 0 Less power than core o SEMIPEROPHERY transitional between core and periphery 0 Transition between core and periphery o Exploit periphery but still exploited by core 0 US use to be semi Industrializing the Core o Industrial revolution and transportation technologies 0 Early mechanization water and steam 0 River and road transport 0 Railroads and world shipping 0 Europe North America Japan c Imperialism o Deliberate exercise of military power and economic influence by powerful states in order to advance and secure their national interests 0 Colonialism into imperialism c 17901840 steam engine transportation 0 river transport systems canals and turnpike roads o end of 19th railroads steel technology 0 coal powered world shipping o 20 communication c 19501990 nuclear power aerospace electronics and petrochemcials o 1990 onward exploitation of solar energy robotics microelectronics biotechnology advanced materials And information technology digital telecommunications and geographic information system c 1790 Europe earliest o industrialization in Europe pronounced it in US 0 core now includes US Japan 0 Japan modern infrastructure textile shipbuilding Organizing the periphery o Growth of the core relied on raw materials form periphery 0 Labor and materials o International division of labor 0 Involved the specialization of different people regions and countries in certain kinds of economic activities o Imperialism o First and third world 0 Neocolonialism Refers to economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other areas or people a Prohibiting economic development present day practices of domination and exploitation n More of economic nomination 1 2nd 3rd world 0 Transnational corp Investments and activities that span international bounda es Expand boundary Don t have any commitment or legal thurity Story of stuff o Extraction 9 production cheap labor 9 distribution 9 consumption home unsustainable 9 disposal Contemporary Globalization 12m2mn 3 4n nu PM Contem porary G obahzanon the 2x nsmn and mtensw oanon ofhnkages and ows afcapnaw op e goodS mess and eunures aooss natwona borders 0 Exp mg a commg moremtense o g oba eanneeuans faster 0 Lara Cale o broader scope many dwmenswons onomm techno ogma pohtma 295 some and ccu tura new Eve s ofcnmplexity techno ogma trade euuure Exchange Cammamty Shams Networks o abor and producnon processes z Pradul 5e vconduct oesignj fie Eackig are 787 7F Comonems mal g gulgs ms Assemb y we m mnmaunnv nvas emsyenmamm an Cu tura ows Landscapes produced by dwerent streams or u a ong WWW ou tura materwa may move across nananax boundanes Appadura 1995 Ethnoscapes o Produced by flows of people 0 People produced when people flow in to new territory 0 Refugees exile fleeing from Technoscapes o Diffusion of goods technologies architectural styles etc 0 Good technologies and style transplanted to create new scope Financescapes o Flows of money in currency markets stock exchanges Mediascapes 0 Images of the world produced by mass media 0 Movies books tv culture duplicated imagined and reaffirmed in different places Ideoscape o Diffusion of ideas and ideologies 0 Transfer notion ofjustice values democracy represented What has caused globalization New international division of labor 0 Intensification of old one 0 Core countries post industrial Rely on overseas production Allow for new specialization of core like communication technology 15 united states has declined as an industrial producer relative to the development of Japan resurgence of Europe and the spectacular growth of china as industrial producers 2 manufacturing production has been decentralized from there core regions to some semi peripheral and peripheral countries a in 2004 US based companies employed about 7 million workers overseas 80 of whom were in manufacturing jobs a prospect of keeping production costs low by exploiting the huge differential in wage rates around the world a cheaper coast of labor in other countries 3 new specialization has emerged within the core regions of the worldsystem hightech manufacturing and producer services c Internalization of finance 0 Determine how economic flow 0 Global baking not in single nation 0 Brazilchina newly industrialized country faster than present core because of the technology o New Technology systems communication and transport 0 Phone electronics 0 Transportation cargo bins that can go from train to truck to boat any way o Global Consumer markets 0 Inventing new stuff and needs 0 More demand perpetual cycle Cartogram blow up portion of importance o Core countries highest consumption Gap between riches and poorest 15th has tripled GDP 40 X higher in world s 20 richest than 20 poorest o 2004 15 in high incomes 0 use 76 phone lines 39 1500 0 75 world income 15 in lowers make 1 o 83 of world export markets bottom 15th 1 o worlds top 3 people possess more assets than the combine GNP of all of the least developed countries 600 million people who are from the poor countries Fast and Slow Worlds o oFast World the people places and regions directly involved in the global economy globalization benefits people who are part or very integrated into people 0 Production consumption communication technologies 0 Product of expanding capitalism oSlow World the people places and regions having limited participation in the global economy 0 About 85 of the world s population The structures and flows of the fast world are variously embraced resisted subverted and exploited as they make contact with specific places and specific communitiesquot KampM p77 Jihad vs McWorld o Jihad The cultural values underpinned by religious fundamentalism Used to represent Holy struggle not always violent Cultural values that are underpinned by religious fundamentalism traditional tribal allegiances and opposition to Western materialism o McWorld Symbol for western capitalist modernization Pop culture shallow materialism Contesting globalization 0 Using the legal system resurrecting old laws transnational corporation culture sensitivity 0 Popular protests Mexican farmers protesting cheap American corn power 0 counter the prevailing trend mecca cola counteract to coca cola o coalition of NGOs non government organizations World trade organization summit Free trade isn t fair Conclusion 11112 Space Matters The Devil is in the Details Duany et al from Suburban Nation Key Points Space matters because it is specific places that provide the settings for people s lives Places are highly interdependent Scale Global National Regional Local Distance and Connectivity What is Sprawl Housing subdivisions Shopping centers Office parks Civic institutions Roadways Subdivisions often named after what they destroy Pheasant Crossings Perimeter Center A brief History of Sprawl Not inevitable not an accident FHA and VA loan programs Encouraged new housing at outskirts 41000 miles of highway Zoning FHA and VA mortgages for 11 million new homes in postWWII years Traditional City Patterns Why T O A Clear Center The 5minute walk The street network Narrow versatile streets Mixed Use Special Sites for special buildings Downtown squares downtown Savannah SiX fundamental rules that distinguish the traditional city from sprawl raffic is Congested Everyone is forced to drive Collector roads vs webs Charleston vs Hilton Head Collector roads allow prediction When Nearby is Still Far Away 0 Adjacency vs accessibility o Singleuse zoning vs mixeduse development Why Curving Roads and CulDeSacs do not make memorable places Why all the curves and culde sacs Create disorienting environments Street system and significant buildings should provide orientation The Victims of Sprawl Culdesac kids Soccer moms Bored teenagers Stranded elderly Weary commuters Local governments Immobile poor Discussion Questions Do you buy the critique of sprawl Why or why not Does living in a mixeduse area as opposed to an exclusively residential one sound appealing to you The authors think carbased suburbia is bad for kids do you agree Choose on of the quotvictimsquot of sprawl discussed by the authors Ifyou were a city planner what would you do to better meet their needs Do you think a carbased culture has a big impact on the way people relate to one another How so 11312 Landscape California The Beautiful and the Damned Don Mitchell Key Po 0 ints Landscape as teXt but what is it Different ways of viewing landscape 1 As visual data Sauer 2 As ideological representations 3 As production ideology Mitchell Landscapes Can Conceal as Much as they Reveal Advertisements for the Status Quo 1 The way things are is just natural Landscape As Picture and Production Still beauty o Viewer as outsider nonparticipant observer 0 Absence ofvisible labor 0 Contrast the quotpicturequot with its process of production Carl Sauer s Conception of Landscape 0 Culture Nature Landscape The Mapable sum ofits component parts Landscape as visual data How Landscapes are Made What They Represent Problem no theory SocietyNature as Still Life Landscape as Mere Ideology 0 Landscape as visual narrative 0 As many ways of seeing as eyes to see 0 Where are the loads Landscape as Advertisement for the Status Quo o The problem is in the picture 0 Social relations are in motion 0 Pressing quotpausequot makes current power relations seem permanent Landscape Production Ideology o Processes ofproducing and representing landscapes re ect power relations 0 Takes a critical eye to see the story behind landscape itself and the way it is present to us Discussion Questions 0 Ifyour local government published a photo book advertising your towncity what sorts of landscapes would we see 0 How would a book by Don Mitchell about landscapes in your town differ from the one published by the local government 0 What sorts of landscapes would you depict if you set out to use images to tell the story ofyour town 11812 Landscape Fortress LA Mike Davis Key Points 0 Ideologies are written into landscapes landscapes then carry ideological messages that affect the way we view the world Reformist vision of public space is it obsolete Difference between writing and reading signs semiotics designing and navigating landscape 0 Contemporary landscapes create borders which zone people access to resources and treatment by the state The Militarization ofUrban Space 0 Fortress cities divided between 39fortified cells of the af uent and quotcontainment ones for the poor 0 Unprecedented tendency to merge urban design architecture and the police apparatus into a single comprehensive security effort 0 Fear written into landscape The Destruction of Public Space 0 Flipside of campaign to secure the city is destruction ofpublic space 0 Reformist vision of public space as class mixing now obsolete 0 Reduced funds for libraries parks etc while upscale developments receive tax subsidies o This separation ofpeople means that space is being designed to perform a repressive function The Forbidden City 0 Old downtown suffers from excess access to public transportations constant presence ofpoor 0 New downtown constructed as quotfortressquot at massive public expense 0 Not quotkill the street but quotkill the crowd Sadistic Street Environments 0 Quality ofpublic space judged by availability of comfortable places to sit 0 Office workerstourists napping vs 39containment of the homeless o Vicious circle of contradiction 0 Cutting offaccess to bathrooms water dumpsters benches Frank Gehry as Dirty Harry 0 How to insert luxury high property values into decaying neighborhoods 0 quotIntroverted and fortresslike 0 Most menacing library ever built The Fear of Crowds o Designers of malls quotpseudopublic space attack crowd by homogenizing it 0 Juvenile curfews no cruising closing beaches 0 Demise ofquotStreet Scene consolidates consensus about crowds use ofpublic space 12012 Landscape City Building and Racial Patterns Bayor Key Points 0 Landscapes are ongoing projects and they are path dependent 0 Contemporary geographers argue that race is a social construct and that landscapes profoundly impact racial identities and our ideas about what race 1s 0 Scale crucial links between national and urban Questions for Discussion 0 Did anything in particular surprise or stand out at you in Bayor s history of how racial strategies have shaped the landscape of Atlanta 0 How did the strategies discussed by Bayor impact the access ofpeople to resources throughout the city Are these impacts ongoing or are thankfully behind us 0 Is Mike Davis describing the same types of strategies as Ronald Bayor How are they differentthe same Your thoughts on Davis 12512 My discussion questions Massey stated that as mobility becomes more readily accessible we are actually hindering small locality How do you react to this statement 2 What balance would you propose for the need for mobility crossnations and the aspect for foot travel 3 In the state of Georgia can you account for any side affects from our world speeding up and branching out What is it that determines our degrees ofmobility that in uences the sense we have of space and place 1 Globalization and the Movement of Goods A Global Sense of Place Massey Key Points Globalization as quottimespace compressionquot Diversity of experience of timespace compression the world is not at This diversity of experience re ectsexacerbates inequalities ofpower Defining quotplacequot is a quotsense of place reactionary Place is not defined by its boundaries but by its links with the world Places as process The uniqueness ofplace The world is not at 0 A world of global linkages who is linked and how 0 Links are not just powerful tools but tools ofpower Global vs Local 0 Globalization as homogenization 0 quotSense of Place as escapist refuge


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