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Date Created: 07/06/14
Biology chapter 9 1 Plants reproduce sexuay alteration of generations a Male stamen i anther 9 pollen ii fiament9 usually several b Female pistil i Stigma sticky to catch pollen ii Style iii Ovary ovue eggs c Fertilization pollination Enzymesprotein directly control traits Genes indirectly control traits Progeny offspring Uquot39gtS quot Genetics a Study of how traits are passed from parents to offspring b Named by Bateson early 1900s biologist discovered Mendel c Molecular genetics today study of how gene govern inherited traits d In sexually reproducing organisms fusion of nuclei e Heredity The transmission of traits from parents to offspring 6 Gregor Mendel a Father of genetics b Experimented with pea plants Pisum Satium c Picked 7 traits each with a single gene pair governing a single trait i Mendelian traits ii Over 4000 in humans d Born in 1822 to a poor farming family e Loved math f Too poor to go to collage g Joined a monastery at age 21 h 1843 abbot sent to University of Vienna i studied math statistics and physics probability ii insecure and nervous failed exams twice 7 1848 52 experimented with pea plants a Fascinated with inheritance father developed new strains of plants b Qualities Mendel had L Luck ii Statistical analysis iii Patient precise care looked for patterns resulting in numbers iv 1 or 2 traits bred 1000s of times Experiments 9 basic pattern of trait inheritance and how they are passed on Merkma quotfactors and how they39re passed Collected seeds and noticed offspring are mostly the same but with some differences Controlled poination Transferred pollen from anthers to stigma Mendel manipulated pollination Sefpoination pollen from the anthers is transferred to the stigma of the same plant 3quot quot Cross poination pollen from the anthers is transferred to the stigma of a different plant 1 Biology chapter 9 i Phenotype appearance 7 53 I ii iii iv v vii Genotype genetic makeup Genotype dictates phenotype Phenotype expresses genotype offspring produced form cross poinating parents have different traits Purebred selfpollinating would produce offspring identical to itself clone Mende s 7 traits Height longshort Flower position axia terminal Pod color green yellow Pod appearance smooth wrinkled Seed texture smooth wrinkled Seed color green yellow Flower color purple white o Homologues i ii iii p Alleles i ii iii iv v vi vii chromosomes of the same size and shape and govern the same trait 1 from female 1 from male In same place locus genes that govern the same trait on a homologous pair of chromosomes Alternate forms of a single gene at least two per trait Letters are used to represent alleles Alleles can be dominant or recessive 1 Dominant if present masks the recessive capital letter 2 Recessive is masked unless 2 are present lowercase letter TT homozygous for the dominant trait Tt heterozygous hybrid tt homozygous for the recessive trait q Most traits have a dominant and recessive allele Mendel sef poinated for several years to get a pure strain 1 planting with pure strains P1 1st parental generation Offspring F1 1st filial generation Offspring of F1 F2 2quot 39 filial generation s Punnett square a tool used to show the genotype of possible offspring Reginald Punnett 1905 1 Mendelian generation textbook t Test cross Mendelian traits onyHow to tell the genotype if you have the phenotype only i ii iii iv Cross the unknown with a homologue for the recessive If you get the dominant trait only unknown is homologous for the dominant If you get any recessive traits the unknown is a heterozygote More in animals than plants u If the dominant trait is not quite dominant incomplete dominance mainly plants 1 1970 Joseph Kalreuter 2 In between phenotype for a heterozygote 3 Carnations snapdragons Japanese 4 o39clock 2 Biology chapter 9 4 Heterozygotes are always blended ii codominance animal fur colors mainly 1 Heterozygote has both traits 2 Neither is dominant or recessive 3 RR or RR or R R 4 Uses superscripts R or subscripts R1 to tell traits apart v Dihybrid cross a cross of 2 traits at one time traits will sort independently 8 1865 presented finding to a local science society a 1 year later published his work b His 2 laws i Law of segregation States how genes for a single trait are passed A pair of genes is separated during Gametogenesis ii Law of independent assortment States how genes for 2 traits are passed on simultaneously Genes for different characteristics are distributed to gametes independently iii Law of dominant and recessive c Significance not recognized even by Darwin d 1868 became an abbot of his monastery e 1884 died work still ignored 9 1879 Walther Flemming a Created Parkins Dye b Identified chromatin mitotic stage c Published in 1882 10 1902 Walter Smith a Saw a connection between Mende s work and cell division b Saw in metaphase chromosomes line up in pairs amp look alike homologues c Chromosomes are Mende s factors d Sperm and egg line between genes carry trait 11 1903 Walter Sutton a Also realized chromosomes were Mende s factors b Proposed chromosome theory of genetics chromosomes are the physical basis of genetics 12 1905 Nettia Stephens describe how humans gender is determined by X amp Y chromosome 13 1909 Wilhelm Johannsen a Elements of Heredity b Modern concepts of genetics like genotype amp phenotype 14 1915 Thomas Hunt Morgan a Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity b 1933 Nobel prize chromosomes transmit genetic traits 15 1944 Oswald T Avery DNA fundamentals to heredity 16 1950 s Franklin Watson CrickDNA structure Nobel prize 17 2003 Human Genome Project a took 10 years to complete b all genes decode sequence of DNA in a human cell 18 Poygenic many genes structural proteins 19 Nonmendeianlinked 2 or more genes are passed together 3 Biology chapter 9 20 Sex inkage traits on the XY chromosomes 21 Transgenic genes transferred between species 22 Mutation a change in a genotype which changes the phenotype of the offspring if in a gamete a Single gene or entire chromosome b Mostly happens during cell division c If during mitosis i somatic cell mutation ii Passed to daughter cells and not offspring d If during meiosis i germ cell mutation ii Doesn39t affect the organism but is passed to the offspring e Most are neutral amp corrected by enzymes f Chromosome mutations i Change in the strand structure ii Loss or addition of chromosomes g Deetion A piece of a chromosome breaks off and is lost code is lost h lnversion A piece breaks off and is reattached inverted upside down i Transocation A piece breaks off amp attaches to nonhomologous chromosome Least destructive j Dupication DNA replicates itself an extra time during mitosis one extra chromosome k Nondisjunction i only in meiosis ii Sister chromatids fail to separate during cell division iii Trisomy one extra chromosome v A daughter cell will have one less chromosome 23 Gene mutations large segment 1 nucleotide a point mutation A gene is substituted removed or added to the makeup of a chromosome i gene point mutation nucleotide point mutation substitution one nucleotide for another ii Frame shift 1 Addition removal of nucleotide 2 The code is read by mRNA out of sequence 3 More serious effects 24 Causes of mutations a Chemical mislap in a cell b Mutagens anything that causes mutations c Oncogenes certain genes can become cancerous 25 Jumping genes a Barb McCintock i Noble prize in 1983 ii Discovery of transposable mobile genetic elements by colored corn patterns b In prokaryotes and eukaryotes c A sequence of nucleotides that move from locus to locus on a chromosomeamp will carry adjacent nucleotides with them control transcription by increasing decreasing the production of a certain protein d Nature39s way of experimenting 3quot quot i j Biology chapter 9 Movement is random Rare event Responsible for a lot of genetic recombination responsible for significant evolutionary impacts 1951 she presents her findings quotwent against dogma of constancy old tech vs new tech 1970 s jumping genes are found in bacteria spreading drug resistance Today all organisms seem to have them Understanding them could solve the mysteries of evolution How new species arise 26 1900 s main organisms used for genetic testing Fruit fly 1900 Drasophila melanogaster Bacteria 1960 E coli Easy to maintain Short generation times 1015 days12 hours Many offspring for mating Easy to identifyamp manipulate chromosomes 27 Thomas Morgan a b c d Sex chromosomes X amp YTheory Y used to be X but lost a part Some traits only on the X chromosomes Linkage group genes linked together and passed together on Autosomes or sex chromosomes Crossing over exchange of sections of homologous chromosomes during meiosis 28 Human genetics a b C 100000 genes total 46 chromosomes Hard to study i 1 generation every 25 years ii Only a few offspring iii Ethical concerns How i Population samping small number representing large group ii Identical twin studies same genetic information differences in environments iii Pedigree studies family records of a trait or problem
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