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by: Cornelius Reinger Jr.


Cornelius Reinger Jr.
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Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cornelius Reinger Jr. on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO 3400 at University of Georgia taught by Giannasi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see /class/202223/pbio-3400-university-of-georgia in Plant Biology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
PBIO 3400FIRST EXAM STUDY SHEET Spring 2010D Giannasi Who was the Father of Botany Theophrastus Who was Karl Linnaeus What were two of his major contributions to plant taxonomy What were two of his major publications Swedish botanist father of taxonomy who came up with the dichotomous key and the binomial plant name for the classi cation system He published Species Plantarumstarting point of binomial nomenclature and Serratula Who wrote the book De Materia Medica How long was this plant text accepted in Europe What events forced its abandonment in search of more comprehensive botanical texts Discorides 1400 years closed spice trade routes promoting maritime exploration What are the three basic types of cells in plants What is vascular tissue and how is it created What is secondary stem growth and how does it work What are the basic cell types of vascular tissue and what is their function Parenchyma photosynthesis storage collenchyma support and sclerenchyma bers and sclereids Vascular tissue is made from the vascular cambium and the 2 main types are xylem water ow and phloem organic compounds Secondary stem growth is the growth of the vascular tissue starting with the cambium For yourself draw and label all the parts ofa typical ower The main purpose ofa ower is What is a fruit From what does a fruit arise The main purpose of a fruit is What are the basic types of fruits Basic parts carpels stamen petal sepal pedicel and parts of carpel are the stigma style ovary and ovule The main purpose is sexual reproduction A fruit arises from the ovary and it is also for reproduction but also protects the seed and aids in dispersal Basic types of fruit are simple eshy berry hepseridium pepo drupe pome dry dehiscent follicles legumes and capsules like cotton or poppy and dry indehiscent achenes like sun ower seeds samaras grains nuts What are three basic crops derived from the Solanaceae Where did they originate Why did it take so long for these crops to be accepted in Europe How did they evolve as major crops in Europe What was the e ect of one of these crops on Irish society in the 1800s Why were the Irish forced to depend on one of these crops so much Some Solanaceae crops are tomatoes Mexico potatos Andes peppers South America and tobacco South America amp Australia They were toxic but after people breeding plants they tasted better or less harmful they39re not toxic like before Potatoes though mostly only did well in Ireland They were used in monocultures everywhere but many died off from a fungus causing the Irish potato famine What are two toxic plants of the nightshade family What are the main toxic chemicals of the deadly nightshades What were several ways extracts of these compounds used medicinally What is the Doctrine of Signatures What are two horticultural plants from this family Atropa belladonna atropine tropane alkaloid used as hallucinogen poison antidote antispasmodic heart stimulant etc henbane used as antispasmodic hallucinogen and muscle relaxant Jimson weed used as sedative hallucinogen and potatoes steroidal type tomatine terpenoid derived glycoalkaloid Doctrine of Signatures shape of plant mimics body part to be treated 2 horticultural plants for food are tomatoes and potatoes What is a grass What is the basic structure of the grass ower and its arrangement within the grass in orescence What are the two possible names of the grass family Why are they accepted What is the basic grass fruit called both generally and specifically What are its parts and what is their function or utility as a consumable product Monocot family or Poaceae owers have spikelets with 2 orets each suspended by 2 glumes and lodicules taking place of sepals and petals 2 possible names are Poaceae or monocot family the basic grass fruit is called a grain dry indehiscent fruit or caryopsis the parts are the bran high ber content outer wall the aleurone layer high protein provides enzymes to break down carbs in endospel39m tissue the germ actual embryo and the endosperln high in carbs What are the four main geographic areas in which our current grass crops evolved Name one or more grass crops from each of these areas What are the three major grain crops grown in the world Turkey wheat rye Mexico corn ChinaIndia lice others Fertile Crescent barley Africa sorghum millet New Guinea sugar First wheat was einkornTriticum from Turkey and it led to durum and Emmer wheat with goat grasses 3 major grain crops grown in the world are durum and bread wheat corn lice How did primitive wheat evolve into the modern wheats that we use commercially What are the basic wheat our types we use commercially and for what products are they used What characters make some wheats better for bread making and what causes their baking abilities Modeln wheats are durum high gluten semolina our good for pastas and breadbest for bread and baked goods hard wheat more gluten protein grown ill dry areas and good in breads soft wheat grown in moister areas softer less gluten Where did corn arise What did primitive corn look like and what was it called What are several steps that are hypothesized took place to give the modern large eared corn of today Modern corn is closest to what contemporary species and subspecies Name six modern uses of corn products today Mexico Zea mays by Linneaus kernelsgrains naked with no bracts and ear covered with bractshusks one belief by Beadle is that teosinte grass like corn but with multiple stalks ears and kernels is ancestor of corn and that it became corn by mutations to a nonshatteling spike and a soft or reduced fruit case and the other belief by Mangelsdorf is that teosinte and corn are descended from all ancestral wild corn now extinct and another teosinte modeln corn is closest to teosinte Zea mays parviglumis corn is used for animal feed gasohol exported industrial and pharmaceutical products alcoholic beverages food products seed corn Where is rice thought to have originated Where is rice grown today What are two basic types of rice lines and how and where are they grown What is the signi cance of the aquatic fern Azolla in the growth of rice Describe a rice line that would be of great health use in Asia if it would be accepted by the indigenous peoples Eastern China and n01thel39n India today grown mostly in China indica is oldest long grained non sticky and tropical grown in China and japonica is short grained sticky and subtropical grown in US Azolla is a weed a small aquatic fern that xes nitrogen a mutual relationship golden lice would be useful in Asia since it has more Vitamin A What are two di erences between rye and oats as sources of our for breads and other products Why are they not as popular as wheat as sources of cooking ours Rye Secale cereale grains are good for leavened bread but gluten content is lower breaks apart in kneading than wheat and bread is soggy and heavy and oats Avena sativa is highly nutritious with more protein and soluble ber What was the effect culturally and historically of the cultivation of sugar cane on human history in the New World Why did sugar cane production nally decline over the centuries since its rst cultivation until recent upsurges in the 20th century What are several major products of sugar cane Where is most sugar cane grown currently Sugar was introduced to Europeans who continued to use mostly honey but it was reintroduced to the New World by Columbus and grew with the African slave trade when the Europeans began to depend on it with honey eliminated it declined due to overproduction and growth of sugar beets to compete some products are bagasse molasses rum mostly grown today in South


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